|State of California|
|Largest city||Los Angeles|
|Largest metro area||Greater Los Angeles|
|Area||Ranked 3rd in the US|
|- Total||163,696 sq mi|
|- Width||250 miles (400 km)|
|- Length||770 miles (1,240 km)|
|- % water||4. The Bear Flag is the official State flag of California The precursor of the flag was first flown during the 1846 Bear Flag Revolt and known as the Bear Flag. The Great Seal of the State of California was adopted at the California state Constitutional Convention of 1849 and redesigned in 1937. This is a list of US state nicknames, including officially adopted Nicknames and other traditional nicknames for individual states of the United States. Here is a list of state Mottos for the states of the United States of America. Eureka ( Greek "I have found it" is an exclamation used as an Interjection to celebrate a discovery The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, was the result of a revolt by Americans on June 14 1846, in the town of Sonoma The United States does not have an Official language; however the majority of the population speaks English as a native language (about 82% English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Washington DC has been the capital of the United States since 1800 This is a list of the largest cities of US states by population Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas|Table of United States Core Based Statistical AreasIn the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB has produced The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. This is a complete list of the states of the United States and its major territories ordered by total area, land area, and water area The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand 7|
|- Latitude||32° 32′ N to 42° N|
|- Longitude||114° 8′ W to 124° 26′ W|
|Population||Ranked 1st in the US|
|- Total||36,553,215 (2007 est. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison as of July 1, 2007, according to the )|
|- Density||233. This article is a list of the 50 US States ordered by Population density. 8/sq mi |
90. 27/km² (12th in the US)
|- Median income||US$49,894 (13th)|
|- Highest point||Mount Whitney|
14,505 ft (4,421 m)
|- Mean||2,900 ft (884 m)|
|- Lowest point||Death Valley|
-282 ft (-86 m)
|Admission to Union||September 9, 1850 (31st)|
|Governor||Arnold Schwarzenegger (R)|
|Lieutenant Governor||John Garamendi (D)|
|U.S. Senators||Dianne Feinstein (D)|
Barbara Boxer (D)
|Time zone||Pacific: UTC-8/-7|
|Abbreviations||CA Calif. US-CA|
California (IPA: /ˌkælɪˈfɔrnjə/) is a state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Household income is a measure of current private income commonly used by the United States government and private institutions Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below --> Mount Whitney is the highest summit in the Contiguous United States with an elevation of. Death Valley is the lowest driest and hottest Valley in the United States. Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of U Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor This is a complete and current List of United States Lieutenant Governors. John Raymond Garamendi (born January 24 1945) is a US Politician and a member of the Democratic Party. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (ˈfаɪnˌstаɪn (born June 22, 1933) is the senior U Barbara Levy Boxer (born 11 November 1940 is an American Democratic Politician and the current junior U The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses These are tables of congressional delegations from California in the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. This is a list of United States of America States by time zone The Pacific Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time ( UTC-8) Daylight saving time ( DST The traditional abbreviations for US states and territories were widely used in mailing addresses prior to the introduction of two-letter U ISO 3166-2US is an ISO standard which defines Geocodes it is the subset of ISO 3166-2 which applies to the United States of America. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government The " West Coast " " Western Seaboard " or " Pacific Seaboard " are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the Western United States The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions It is the most populous U. This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison as of July 1, 2007, according to the S. state. Its four largest cities are Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, and San Francisco. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city It is known for its varied climate and geography as well as its diverse population. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified
The area known as Alta California was colonized by the Spanish Empire beginning in the late 18th century. Alta California (Upper California was formed in 1804 when the Province of the Californias, then a part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas in the The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries It and the rest of Mexico became an independent republic in 1821. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. In 1846 California broke away from Mexico, and after the Mexican-American War, Mexico ceded California to the United States. It was admitted to the Union on September 9, 1850. Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link
It is the third-largest U. S. state by land area. Its geography ranges from the Pacific coast to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the east, to desert areas in the southeast and the forests of the northwest. The Sierra Nevada ( Spanish for "Snowy Range" is a Mountain range located in the U A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria The center of the state is dominated by the Central Valley, one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. The Central Valley is a large flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U
The California Gold Rush began in 1848, dramatically changing California with a large influx of people and an economic boom. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California The early 20th century was marked by Los Angeles becoming the center of the entertainment industry, in addition to the growth of a large tourism sector in the state. Along with California's prosperous agricultural industry, other industries include aerospace, petroleum, and computer and information technology. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture California ranks among the ten largest economies in the world, and were it a separate country, it would be 34th among the most populous countries, just behind Poland. This is a comparison between US states and countries' nominal Gross Domestic Product. List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland
|California state insignia|
|Motto||Eureka! (I've found it!)|
|Slogan||Find Yourself Here|
|Animal||California grizzly bear (extinct/subspecies extinct in this range) |
|Insect||California Dogface Butterfly|
|Song||"I Love You, California"|
|Butterfly||California Dogface Butterfly|
|Colors||Blue & Gold|
|Dance||West Coast Swing|
|Tartan||California State Tartan|
The word California originally referred to the entire region composed of the current U. The Toponym California is currently used by three North American entities — in the United States, by the state of California These are lists of US state insignia as designated by tradition or the respective state legislatures: List of U Here is a list of state Mottos for the states of the United States of America. Eureka ( Greek "I have found it" is an exclamation used as an Interjection to celebrate a discovery This list of US state slogans is made up the Advertising slogans currently and formerly used by U This is a list of US state birds as designated by each state's legislature The California Quail, Callipepla californica, also known as the California Valley Quail or Valley Quail is a small ground-dwelling bird in the New World quail A state mammal is the official or representative Animal of a U The Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis, also known as the Silvertip Bear, is a Subspecies of Brown bear (Ursus arctos that lives In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. This is a list of official and *unofficial US state fish:The only states lacking a state fish as of 2008 are Arkansas Indiana Kansas and Ohio The Golden trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita) is a sub-species of the rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) This is a list of United States state insects note that some states have more than one designated insect or have multiple categories (e The California dogface butterfly ( Zerene eurydice, sometimes placed in the related Genus Colias) has been the State insect This is a list of US state flowers: See also List of US state trees Lists of U The California poppy ( Eschscholzia californica) is native to grassy and open areas from sea level to 2000m (6500 feet altitude in the western United States throughout This List of US state trees includes official trees of the following states and U Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living Species of the Genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly Introduction Forty-nine states of the United States (all except New Jersey) have one or more state songs, selected by the state "I Love You California" is the official state song of California. The 50 State Quarters program ( is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. This is a list of official US state butterflies: See also List of U The California dogface butterfly ( Zerene eurydice, sometimes placed in the related Genus Colias) has been the State insect The following is a list of official US state grass. See also Lists of U This article is about a type of grass For the aircraft built by Caproni, see Stipa-Caproni. This is a list of official US state reptiles: See also Lists of United States state insignia The desert tortoise ( Gopherus agassizii) is a Species of Tortoise native to the Mojave desert and Sonoran desert of the southwestern This is a list of US state flowers: See also List of US state trees Lists of U The California poppy ( Eschscholzia californica) is native to grassy and open areas from sea level to 2000m (6500 feet altitude in the western United States throughout This is a list of official state beverages: Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice This is a list of US state colors: See also Lists of US state insignia Blue is a Colour, the Perception of which is evoked by Gold, also called golden, is a Yellowish orange Color which is a representation of the color of the element This is a list of official US state dances: See also Lists of U West Coast Swing ( WCS) is a Partner dance derived from Lindy Hop. Most American states have made a state fossil designation in many cases during the 1980s. Smilodon (ˈsmаɪləˌdɒn sometimes called saber-toothed tiger, is an extinct Genus of large machairodontine Saber-toothed Not every state has an official state mineral rock stone or gemstone Benitoite is a rare blue silicate mineral, found in Hydrothermally altered Serpentinite. Not every state has an official state mineral rock stone or gemstone Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 This is a list of Representative US State Soils. A state soil is a Soil that has special significance to a particular state. San Joaquin is an officially designated state Insignia, the State Soil of the U This is a list of official US state Tartans: See also Lists of U The California State Tartan is the official Tartan of the State of California. S. state of California, plus all or parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Wyoming, and the Mexican peninsula now known as Baja California. Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States. The Baja California peninsula ( English: Lower California peninsula) is a Peninsula in western Mexico.
The name California is most commonly believed to have derived from a storied paradise peopled by black Amazons and ruled by Queen Califia. The term black people usually refers to a racial group of Humans with dark Skin color, but the term has also been used to categorise a number of diverse The Amazons (in Greek, grc Ἀμαζόνες are a nation of all-female warriors in Classical and Greek mythology, who were possibly historical Califia (aka Calafia) is the name of a legendary Black Amazon warrior queen associated with the mythical Island of California. The myth of Califia is recorded in a 1510 work The Exploits of Esplandian, written as a sequel to Amadís de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer García Ordóñez Rodríguez de Montalvo. Las Sergas de Esplandián (The Adventures of Esplandián is the fifth book in a series of novels on Spanish chivalry by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo, which began Amadis de Gaula (original Castilian Spanish version ( English: Amadis of Gaul, Spanish: Amadís de Gaula Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo (or Garci Ordóñez de Montalvo) (died 1504 was a Spanish author who arranged the modern version of the chivalric romance  The kingdom of Queen Califia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a remote land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts and rich in gold. The griffin is a Legendary creature with the body of a Lion and the head and often wings of an Eagle. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79
|“||Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island named California, very close to that part of the terrestrial Paradise, which was inhabited by black women, without a single man among them, and that they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body, with strong and passionate hearts and great virtues. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the bold and craggy rocks. Their weapons were all made of gold. The island everywhere abounds with gold and precious stones, and upon it no other metal was found. ||”|
California adjoins the Pacific Ocean, Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, and the Mexican state of Baja California. The geography of California is rich and diverse There are alpine mountains foggy coastlines hot deserts and a fertile central valley The California Air Resources Board, also known as ( CARB) is the "clean air agency" in the Government of California. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Baja California (pronounced ˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjə in English is the northernmost state of Mexico. With an area of 160,000 mi² (411,000 km²) it is the third largest state in the United States in size, after Alaska and Texas. This is a complete list of the states of the United States and its major territories ordered by total area, land area, and water area If it were a country, California would be the 59th largest in the world, between Iraq and Paraguay. This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only
In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Sierra Nevada to the east, the Cascade Range in the north and the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. The Central Valley is a large flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U The Pacific Coast Ranges are the series of Mountain ranges that stretch along the west coast of North America from Alaska to northern and central Mexico The Sierra Nevada ( Spanish for "Snowy Range" is a Mountain range located in the U The Tehachapi Mountains (təˈhætʃəˌpi are a short transverse range in southern California in the United States, running SW-NE connecting The Central Valley is California's agricultural heartland and grows approximately one-third of the nation's food.  Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River; both areas derive their names from the rivers that transit them. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is an expansive inland River delta and Estuary in northern California in the United States. The Sacramento Valley is the portion of the California Central Valley that lies to the north of the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta in the U The Sacramento River is the longest River entirely within the U The San Joaquin Valley (ˌsæn wɑːˈkiːn refers to the area of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta The San Joaquin River ( 330 miles (530 km long is the second-longest River in California, United States. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained sufficiently deep that several inland cities are seaports. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo The Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay Delta serves as a critical water supply hub for the state. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is an expansive inland River delta and Estuary in northern California in the United States. Water is routed through an extensive network of canals and pumps out of the delta, that traverse nearly the length of the state, including the Central Valley Project, and the State Water Project. Water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population, and provides water to farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is an expansive inland River delta and Estuary in northern California in the United States. The Channel Islands are located off the southern coast. The Channel Islands of California are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel Southern California, or So Cal, is defined as the southern portion of the U
The Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range") include the highest peak in the contiguous forty-eight states, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 ft (4,421 m). Mount Whitney is the highest summit in the Contiguous United States with an elevation of.  The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume. Yosemite Valley (joʊˈsɛməti yoh-SEM-it-ee) is a world-famous scenic location in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Sequoia National Park is a National park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Visalia California, in the United States of America. Sequoiadendron giganteum ( Giant Sequoia, Sierra Redwood, or Wellingtonia) is the sole species in the genus Sequoiadendron Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater Lake in the Sierra Nevada mountains of the United States.
The state is home to Mount Whitney, the highest point in the contiguous United States, as well as the second lowest and hottest place in the Western Hemisphere, Death Valley. Mount Whitney is the highest summit in the Contiguous United States with an elevation of. The term continental United States refers to the 48 contiguous states located on the North American continent south of the border with Canada plus the District Death Valley is the lowest driest and hottest Valley in the United States.
To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential migratory bird habitat. Owens Valley is the arid valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. Mono Lake is an Alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is a critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of Birds Bird movements include those made in response to changes in food availability In the western part of the state is Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. Clear Lake is the largest natural Lake entirely in California, and has the largest surface area of any freshwater lake entirely in California the tenth largest by Though Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada border. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States. The Palisade Glacier and the Middle Palisade Glacier are two Glaciers on the northeast side of the Palisades in the central Sierra Nevada of California
About 35% of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state. California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; one Bristlecone pine has an age of 4,700 years. The White Mountains of California are a triangular fault block Mountain range facing the Sierra Nevada across the upper Owens Valley The bristlecone pines are a small group of Pine trees (Family Pinaceae, genus Pinus, subsection Balfourianae) that are thought to
In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. The Salton Sea is an inland Saline lake, occupying the lowest elevations of the Salton Sink, part of the larger Colorado Desert in Southern Deserts in California make up about 25% of the total surface area. The south-central desert is called the Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest, hottest point in North America, Badwater Flat. For the indigenous American tribe see Mohave. The Mojave Desert (moʊˈhɑːvi or /məˈhɑːvi/ ( Hayikwiir Mat'aar in Mojave Death Valley is the lowest driest and hottest Valley in the United States. Badwater is a basin in California 's Death Valley, noted as the lowest point in North America, with an Elevation of below sea The distance from the lowest point of Death Valley to the peak of Mount Whitney is less than 200 miles (322 km). Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer.
Along the California coast are several major metropolitan areas, including Greater Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area, and San Diego. The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, or the Bay, is a geographically and ethnically diverse metropolitan region that surrounds the
California is famous for earthquakes due to a number of faults, in particular the San Andreas Fault. The San Andreas Fault is a geologic Transform fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 km through California in the United States. It is vulnerable to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, and landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. A tsunami ((tsuːˈnɑːmi is a series of waves created when A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land a deluge A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply The Santa Ana winds are strong extremely dry offshore Winds that characteristically sweep through in Southern California and northern Baja California in A landslide is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement such as rock falls deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows which can occur
California climate varies from Mediterranean to subarctic. California 's climate varies widely from Arid to Subarctic, depending on Latitude, Elevation, and proximity to the coast A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the Climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide The Subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada and Much of the state has a Mediterranean climate, with cool, rainy winters and dry summers. A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the Climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. The California Current is a Pacific Ocean current that moves south along the western coast of North America, beginning off southern British Columbia Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground Further inland, one encounters colder winters and hotter summers.
Northern parts of the state average higher annual rainfall than the south. California's mountain ranges influence the climate as well: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Northwestern California has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have a mountain climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer. The Sierra Nevada ( Spanish for "Snowy Range" is a Mountain range located in the U Mountain climate (also highland climate) is a crude geographical term used for the kind of Climate in the Mountains and generally in the High country "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation.
The east side of California's mountains has a drier rain shadow. For the Australian television series see Rain Shadow (TV series. The low deserts east of the southern California mountains experience hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters; the higher elevation deserts of eastern California see hot summers and cold winters. Eastern California is not a well-defined term It generally refers to the strip of California, United States to the east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada In Death Valley, the highest temperature in the Western Hemisphere, 134 °F (56. Death Valley is the lowest driest and hottest Valley in the United States. The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West 6 °C), was recorded July 10, 1913. Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Ecologically, California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. The ecology of California is diverse it is considered to span six Biogeographic provinces:"Coastal Chaparral Forest and Shrub""Dry Steppe""Coastal The California Air Resources Board, also known as ( CARB) is the "clean air agency" in the Government of California. California is part of the Nearctic ecozone and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions. The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial Ecozones dividing the Earth's land surface An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earth's surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns An ecoregion ( ecological region) sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area smaller than a "realm" or "
California's large number of endemic species includes relict species which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina Ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus). Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere The term relict is used to refer to surviving remnants of natural phenomena Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac (Ceanothus). An adaptive radiation is a rapid Evolutionary radiation characterized by an increase in the morphological and ecological diversity of a single rapidly diversifying lineage Ceanothus L is a Genus of about 50–60 species of Shrubs or small Trees in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat. Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to Livestock Grazing for extended periods of time or without sufficient recovery periods An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but
California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora; the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. Sequoiadendron giganteum ( Giant Sequoia, Sierra Redwood, or Wellingtonia) is the sole species in the genus Sequoiadendron Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living Species of the Genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly The Great Basin Bristlecone Pine ( Pinus longaeva) is one of the Bristlecone pines a group of three species of Pine found in the higher Mountains California's native grasses are perennial plants. A perennial plant or perennial ( Latin per, "through" annus, "year" is a Plant that lives for more than  After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden brown in summer. Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions
Arguably, the two most prominent rivers within California are the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River, which drain the Central Valley and flow to the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. List of Rivers in California ( US state) grouped by location Far North Coast Rivers and streams between the Oregon border and Humboldt The Sacramento River is the longest River entirely within the U The San Joaquin River ( 330 miles (530 km long is the second-longest River in California, United States. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions San Francisco Bay is a shallow productive Estuary through which water draining from approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento Two other important rivers are the Klamath River, in the north, and the Colorado River, on the southeast border. The Klamath River ( Ishkêesh in Karuk) approximately long is a major River in southern Oregon and northern California in the The Colorado River (' Aha Kwahwat in Mojave) is a River in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately
|History of California|
|Gold Rush (1848)|
|American Civil War (1861-1865)|
|1900 to present|
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America; the area was inhabited by more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans. The following is a list of protected territories within the State of California. This article covers in brief the history of California until the year 1899 for later events see History of California 1900 to present. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California California 's involvement in the American Civil War included sending gold east recruiting or funding a limited number of combat units maintaining numerous fortifications This article continues the history of California in the years 1900 and later for events through 1899 see History of California to 1899. Maritime history of California is a term used to describe significant past events relating to the U The establishment of America's transcontinental rail lines securely linked California to the rest of the country and the far-reaching transportation systems that grew out of Slavery in California existed among the native peoples of that region long before the arrival of the first European colonists For the main article see Los Angeles California. The history of Los Angeles California, begins in the 18th century with a tiny Spanish settlement This history of Sacramento California is in addition to the material in the Sacramento California, USA article The recorded history of the San Diego, California region goes back to the Spanish penetration of California in the 16th century The history of San Francisco, California, has been greatly influenced by its coastal location which has made it a natural center for maritime trade and military activity Site chosen by De Anza For thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers the area now known as San Jose was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone This article covers in brief the history of California until the year 1899 for later events see History of California 1900 to present. This article continues the history of California in the years 1900 and later for events through 1899 see History of California to 1899. Ethnographers commonly classify Indigenous peoples in the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Large, settled populations lived on the coast and hunted sea mammals, fished for salmon, and gathered shellfish, while groups in the interior hunted terrestrial game and gathered nuts, acorns, and berries. California groups also were diverse in their political organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash, Pomo and Salinan. The Chumash are Native American people who historically inhabit chiefly central and southern coastal regions of California, in portions of what is now San The Pomo people are a linguistic branch of Native American people of Northern California. The Salinan Native Americans lived in what is now the Central Coast of California, in the Salinas Valley. Trade, intermarriage, and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups.
The first European to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was the Portuguese João Rodrigues Cabrilho, in 1542, sailing for the Spanish Empire. For other uses see Russian River. The Russian River is a River in the Northern California counties of Mendocino Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (ca 1499 &ndash January 3 1543 was a Portuguese explorer known as João Rodrigues Cabrilho in Portuguese noted for his exploration The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Some 37 years later, the English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California coast in 1579. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c 1540 &ndash 27 January 1595 was an English Privateer, navigator, Slaver, and politician Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565. The Manila galleons or Manila-Acapulco galleons ( Galeones de Manila-Acapulco) were Spanish trading Ships that sailed once or twice The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Sebastián Vizcaíno explored and mapped the coast of California in 1602 for New Spain. Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548-1624 was a Spanish soldier entrepreneur explorer and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America,
Spanish missionaries began setting up twenty-one California Missions along the coast of what became known as Alta California (Upper California), together with small towns and presidios. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of Religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between Alta California (Upper California was formed in 1804 when the Province of the Californias, then a part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas in the The first mission in Alta California was established at San Diego in 1769. Mission San Diego de Alcalá, also known as the San Diego Mission Church, was founded on July 16, 1769, the first in the twenty-one Alta California  In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence gave Mexico (including California), independence from Spain; for the next twenty-five years, Alta California remained a remote northern province of the nation of Mexico. The Mexican War of Independence (1810 - 1821 was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities which started on September 16 1810 The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Alta California (Upper California was formed in 1804 when the Province of the Californias, then a part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas in the Cattle ranches, or ranchos, emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. The Ranchos or Alta California land grants established land use patterns that are still recognizable in the California of today After Mexican independence from Spain, the chain of missions became the property of the Mexican government and were secularized by 1832. The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of Religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between Secularization or secularisation generally refers to the process of transformation by which a Society migrates from close identification with religious institutions The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians) who had received land grants and traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants. Californio's (Spanish for "Californian" is a term used to identify a Californian of Hispanic and/or Latin-American descent first as a part of New Spain, later
Beginning in the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the United States and Canada began to arrive in Northern California, harbingers of the great changes that would later sweep the Mexican territory. These new arrivals used the Siskiyou Trail, California Trail, Oregon Trail, and Old Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains and harsh deserts surrounding California. The Siskiyou Trail stretched from California's Central Valley to Oregon's Willamette Valley; modern-day Interstate 5 follows this pioneer path The California Trail was a major overland Emigrant route across the Western United States from Missouri to California in the middle 19th Pioneers traveled across the Oregon Trail, one of the main overland migration routes on the North American Continent, in wagons in order to settle new parts of the The Old Spanish Trail is a historic Trade route which connected the northern New Mexican settlement of Santa Fé with that of Los Ángeles In this period, Imperial Russia explored the California coast and established a trading post at Fort Ross. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
In 1846, settlers rebelled against Mexican rule during the Bear Flag Revolt. The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, was the result of a revolt by Americans on June 14 1846, in the town of Sonoma Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag (featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe, and the words "California Republic") at Sonoma.
|“||[we] overthrow a Government which has seized upon the property of the Missions for its individual aggrandizement; which has ruined and shamefully oppressed the laboring people of California||”|
—William Ide, Declaration from the Bear Flag Revolt
The Republic's first and only president was William B. Ide, who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. Greed is the Selfish desire for or pursuit of Money, Wealth, power, Food, or other Possessions, especially when this denies William Brown Ide ( March 28 1796 - December 19 or 20 1852 was a California pioneer and president of the short-lived California Republic. The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, was the result of a revolt by Americans on June 14 1846, in the town of Sonoma His term lasted twenty-five days and concluded when California was occupied by U. S. forces during the Mexican-American War.
The California Republic was short lived. The same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). When Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States. John Drake Sloat ( July 6, 1781 November 28, 1867) was a commodore in the United States Navy and in 1846 This article is about the bay near Monterey CA For other uses see Monterey Bay Aquarium, California State University Monterey Bay The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the U. S. forces.
Following a series of defensive battles in Southern California, including The Siege of Los Angeles, the Battle of Dominguez Rancho, the Battle of San Pascual, the Battle of Rio San Gabriel, and the Battle of La Mesa, the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios on January 13, 1847, securing American control in California. Southern California, or So Cal, is defined as the southern portion of the U The "Siege of Los Angeles" was a military occupation by the United States Marines of the Pueblo de Los Angeles during the Mexican-American war The Battle of Dominguez Rancho (October 8-9 1846 was a military engagement of the Mexican-American War. The Battle of San Pasqual (also spelled San Pascual) was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican-American War in what is now the San Pasqual The Battle of Rio San Gabriel was a decisive action of the California campaign of the Mexican-American War and occurred at the sites of present-day Montebello The Battle of La Mesa occurred on January 9, 1847, in present-day Vernon California, the day after the Battle of Rio San Gabriel. The Treaty of Cahuenga. usually called the "Capitulation of Cahuenga" ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in California in 1847 Californio's (Spanish for "Californian" is a term used to identify a Californian of Hispanic and/or Latin-American descent first as a part of New Spain, later Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the war, the region was divided between Mexico and the United States; the western territory of Alta California, was to become the U. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ( Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish) is the Peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to S. state of California, and Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah became U. S. Territories, while the lower region of California, Baja California, remained in the possession of Mexico. Baja California (pronounced ˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjə in English is the northernmost state of Mexico. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
In 1848, the non-native population of California has been estimated to be no more than 15,000. But after gold was discovered, the population burgeoned with U. S. citizens, Europeans, and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, California was admitted to the United States as a free state (one in which slavery was prohibited). Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link The Compromise of 1850 was a series of bills aimed at resolving the territorial and slavery controversies arising from the Mexican-American War (1846&ndash1848 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The free states of the United States existed in opposition to the Slave states prior to the American Civil War.
The seat of government for California under Mexican rule was located at Monterey from 1777 until 1835, when Mexican authorities abandoned California, leaving their missions and military forts behind.  In 1849, the Constitutional Convention was first held there. Among the duties was the task of determining the location for the new State capital. The first legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850-1851). Subsequent locations included Vallejo (1852-1853), and nearby Benicia (1853-1854), although these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well. Vallejo (vəˈleɪoʊ or /vəˈleɪhoʊ/ in English /baˈjeho/ in the original Spanish) is the largest city in Solano County Benicia is a waterside city in Solano County, California, United States. The capital has been located in Sacramento since 1854. 
Travel between California and the central and eastern parts of the United States was time-consuming and dangerous. A more direct connection came in 1869 with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad through Donner Pass in the Sierra Nevada mountains. This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869 Donner Pass (el 7085 ft / 2160 m is a high Mountain pass in the northern Sierra Nevada, located above Donner Lake about nine miles west After this rail link was established, hundreds of thousands of U. S. citizens came west, where new Californians were discovering that land in the state, if irrigated during the dry summer months, was extremely well-suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat and other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges in Southern California), and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.
During the early 20th century, migration to California accelerated with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66. The Lincoln Highway was the first automobile road across America. State Route 66 is a State highway in the US state of California, running along a section of old U In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to become the most populous state in the Union. From 1965 to the present, the population changed radically and became one of the most diverse in the world. The state is regarded as a world center of technology and engineering businesses, of the entertainment and music industries, and as the U. S. center of agricultural production.
|Census||Pop. The Demographics of California is a complex topic which is undergoing dynamic change||%±|
|Est. 2007||36,553,215||7. 9%|
By 2007, California's population is estimated at 36,553,215, making it the most populated state and the 13th fastest-growing state. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 1,909,368 people (that is 3,375,297 births minus 1,465,929 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 774,198 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 1,724,790 people, and migration within the country produced a net decrease of 950,592. American immigration ( emigration to the United States of America) refers to the movement of non-residents to the United States. 
California is the second most populous state of the Americas, exceeded only by São Paulo State, Brazil. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America ( is a state in Brazil. It is the major industrial and economic powerhouse of the Brazilian economy |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld  More than 12 percent of U. S. citizens live in California and its population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world. 
California has eight of the top 50 US cities in terms of population. Los Angeles is the nation's second-largest city with a population of 3,849,378 people, followed by San Diego (8th), San Jose (10th), San Francisco (14th), Long Beach (34th), Fresno (36th), Sacramento (37th) and Oakland (44th). Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Long Beach is a city located in southern California, USA, on the Pacific coast Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous county for decades, and is more populous than 42 US states. Los Angeles County is a county in California and is by far the most populous county in the United States.
The center of population of California is at the town of Buttonwillow in Kern County. In Demographics, the center of population of a region is the geographical point nearest to all the inhabitants of that region on average Buttonwillow is a Census-designated place (CDP in Kern County, California, United States. Kern County is a County located in the southern Central Valley of the U 
According to the 2006 ACS Estimates, California's population is:
California has the largest population of White Americans in the U. S. , an estimated 21,810,156 residents. The fifth largest population of African Americans in the U. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa S. , an estimated 2,260,648 residents. California's Asian population is estimated at 4. 5 million, approximately one-third of the nation's 14. 9 million Asian Americans. California's Native American population of 376,093 is the most of any state.
According to estimates from 2006, California has the largest minority population in the United States, making up 57% of the state population. For the use of the term minority-majority in the United Kingdom, see here Minority-majority state is a term used to describe a Non-Hispanic whites slipped from 80% of the state's population in 1970 to 43% in 2006.  While the population of minorities accounts for 100. 7 million of 300 million U. S. residents, 21% of the national total live in California. 
As of 2000, 60. 52% of California residents age five and older spoke English as a first language at home, while 25. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth 80% spoke Spanish. In addition to English and Spanish, 2. 44% spoke Chinese (which included Cantonese [0. 48%] and Mandarin [0. 29%]), 1. 99% spoke Filipino (most are native speakers of Ilokano, Cebuano, Tagalog, Pangasinan and Kapampangan), 1. Filipino is the national and an Official language of the Philippines as designated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. 29% spoke Vietnamese, and 0. Vietnamese ( tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ) formerly known under French colonization as Annamese ( see Annam) 94% spoke Korean as their mother tongue. This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language See Hangul for details on the native Korean writing system A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth In total, 39. 47% of the population spoke languages other than English.  Over 200 languages are known to be spoken and read in California. Including indigenous languages, California is viewed as one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world (the indigenous languages were derived from 64 root languages in 6 language families).  About half of the indigenous languages are no longer spoken, and all of California's living indigenous languages are endangered, although there are now some efforts toward language revitalization. An endangered language is a Language that it is at risk of falling out of use generally because it has few surviving speakers Language revitalization is the attempt by interested parties including individuals cultural or community groups governments or political authorities to recover the spoken use of a
The official language of California has been English since the passage of Proposition 63 in 1986. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States However, many state, city, and local government agencies still continue to print official public documents in numerous languages. 
The state has the most Roman Catholics of any state and a large Protestant population, a large American Jewish community, and an American Muslim population. American Jews, or Jewish Americans The history of Islam in the United States starts in the early 16th century, with Estevánico of Azamor being the first Muslim to enter the historical record
With a Jewish population estimated at more than 550,000, Los Angeles is the second-largest Jewish community in North America. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************
California also has the largest Muslim community population in the United States, an estimated 3. 4% of the population, mostly residing in Southern California. According to figures, approximately 100,000 Muslims reside in San Diego. 
As the twentieth century came to a close, forty percent of all Buddhists in America resided in Southern California. The Los Angeles Metropolitan Area has become unique in the Buddhist world as the only place where representative organizations of every major school of Buddhism can be found in a single urban center. " The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Northern California and Hsi Lai Temple in Southern California are two of the largest Buddhist temples in the Western Hemisphere. The City Of Ten Thousand Buddhas (萬佛聖城 Wànfó Shèngchéng) is an international Buddhist community and monastery founded by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hsi Lai Temple ( TC: 西來寺 PY: Xīlái Sì) (approximate pronunciation She Lye) is a traditional Chinese Buddhist mountain monastery It also has a growing Hindu population.
California also has more Temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints than any state except Utah. EDITORS Please help preserve references When removing references in this article (i The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States.
As of 2006, the gross state product (GSP) is about $1. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U The East Bay is a subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, United States and comprises Alameda and Contra Costa Counties The Hollywood Sign is a famous Landmark in the Hollywood Hills area of Los Angeles California, spelling out the name of the area in high white letters The economy of California is a dominant force in the Economy of the United States, with California paying more to the federal system than it receives in direct monetary Gross state product (or gross regional product) is a measurement of the economic output of a state or Province. 727 trillion, the largest in the United States. California is responsible for 13% of the United States gross domestic product (GDP). As of 2006, California's GDP is larger than all but eight countries in the world (and all but eleven countries by Purchasing Power Parity). The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. California is facing a $16 billion budget deficit for the 2008-09 budget year. A budget deficit occurs when an Entity (often a Government) spends more Money than it takes in 
California is also the home of several significant economic regions, such as Hollywood (entertainment), the California Central Valley (agriculture), the Silicon Valley and Tech Coast (computers and high tech), and wine producing regions, such as the Napa Valley, Sonoma Valley and Southern California's Santa Barbara and Paso Robles areas. The Central Valley is a large flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture For the valley nicknamed "Silicone Valley" see San Fernando Valley. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. High tech is Technology that is at the cutting edge —the most advanced technology currently available Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Napa Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Napa County, California, USA. The Sonoma Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Sonoma County, California, USA which centers on the Sonoma Valley (also Santa Barbara is a city in Santa Barbara County California, United States. The Paso Robles AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the San Luis Obispo County, California.
The predominant industry, more than twice as large as the next, is agriculture, (including fruit, vegetables, dairy, and wine). Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal Milk &mdashmostly from goats or cows, but also from buffalo, Sheep Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice This is followed by aerospace; entertainment, primarily television by dollar volume, although many movies are still made in California; music production and recording studios; light manufacturing, including computer hardware and software; and the mining of borax. This article is about the field of research and industry for the corporation see The Aerospace Corporation Aerospace comprises the See also Entertainment (disambiguation and The Entertainer (disambiguation Entertainment is an activity designed to give people Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. Ideally the space is specially designed by an acoustician to achieve the desired acoustic properties (sound Typical PC hardware A typical Personal computer consists of a case or chassis in a tower shape (desktop and the following parts Motherboard Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Borax (from Persian burah) also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important Boron Oil drilling has played a significant role in the development of the state. West Texas PumpjackJPG|thumb|right|300px|This Pumpjack located south of Midland TX is a common sight in West Texas.
Per capita personal income was $38,956 as of 2006, ranking 11th in the nation. Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by'  Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. The term migrant worker has different official meanings and connotations in different parts of the world the United Nations' definition is very broad essentially including anyone A minimum wage is the lowest hourly daily or monthly Wage that employers may legally pay to employees or workers Recently, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the U. The San Joaquin Valley (ˌsæn wɑːˈkiːn refers to the area of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta S. , on par with the region of Appalachia. Appalachia is a term used to describe a region in the eastern United States that stretches from southern New York state to northern Alabama, 
Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the U. S. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, are currently emerging from economic downturn caused by the dot.com bust, which caused the loss of over 250,000 jobs in Northern California alone. For the valley nicknamed "Silicone Valley" see San Fernando Valley. Santa Clara County is a County located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U San Mateo County ( "san muh-TAY-o") ( Spanish for: St The " dot-com bubble " (or sometimes the " IT bubble " was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 (with a climax on March 10 As of spring 2005, economic growth has resumed in California at 4. 3%. 
California levies a 9. 3% maximum variable rate income tax, with 6 tax brackets. Tax brackets are the divisions at which Tax rates change in a Progressive tax system (or an explicitly Regressive tax system although this is much rarer It collects about $40 billion per year in income taxes. California's combined state, county and local sales tax rate is from 7. 25 to 8. 75%.  The rate varies throughout the state at the local level. In all, it collects about $28 billion in sales taxes per year. All real property is taxable annually, the tax based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase. In the Common law, real property (or realty) refers to one of the two main classes of Property, the other class being Personal property ( This tax does not increase based on a rise in real property values (see Proposition 13). Proposition 13, officially titled the "People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation" was a ballot Initiative to amend the constitution of the state of California California collects $33 billion in property taxes per year.
California’s crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in six geological basins in the Central Valley and along the coast. This table shows California unemployment statistics from 1976 through 2006 All figures as of the Census of 2000 by the United States Census Bureau. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, The Central Valley is a large flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U California has more than one dozen of the United State’s largest oil fields, including the Midway-Sunset Oil Field, the second largest oil field in the contiguous United States. An oil field is a region with an abundance of Oil wells extracting Petroleum (crude oil from below ground Midway-Sunset Oil Field is a large Oil field in Kern County, San Joaquin Valley, California in the United States. California’s hydroelectric power potential ranks second in the United States (behind Washington State), and substantial geothermal and wind power resources are found along the coastal mountain ranges and the eastern border with Nevada. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Geothermal power (from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth and therme, meaning heat is energy generated by heat stored in the earth or the collection Wind Power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form such as electricity using Wind turbines At the end of 2007 worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. High solar power potential is found in southeastern California’s deserts. Solar energy is the Light and radiant heat from the Sun that powers Earth 's Climate and Weather and sustains Life A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation.
California is the most populous state in the nation, but its total energy demand is second to the state of Texas. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State.  Although California is a leader in some energy-intensive industries, the state has one of the lowest per capita energy consumption rates in the country. This is in spite of the fact that more motor vehicles are registered in California than any other state, and worker commute times are among the longest in the country. A motor Vehicle is a Machine which incorporates a motor (sometimes known as an Engine) and which is used for Transportation Commuting is the process of Travelling between one's place of residence and regular place of work
California’s crude oil output accounts for more than one-tenth of total U. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit S. production. Drilling operations are concentrated primarily in Kern County and the Los Angeles basin. Kern County is a County located in the southern Central Valley of the U The Los Angeles Basin is the coastal Sediment -filled plain located between the peninsular and transverse ranges in southern California in Although there is also substantial offshore oil and gas production, there is a permanent moratorium on new offshore oil and gas leasing in California waters and a deferral of leasing in Federal waters.
California ranks third in the United States in petroleum refining capacity and accounts for more than one-tenth of total U. Refining (also called affining) is the process of Purification of a substance. S. capacity. In addition to oil from California, California’s refineries process crude oil from Alaska and foreign suppliers. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent The refineries are configured to produce cleaner fuels, including reformulated motor gasoline and low-sulfur diesel, to meet strict Federal and State environmental regulations. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum In the United States, there are numerous environmental laws. Although they have diverse purposes they all relate to the protection of the Natural environment and
Most California motorists are required to use a special motor gasoline blend called California Clean Burning Gasoline (CA CBG). By 2004, California completed a transition from methyl tertiary butyl-ether (MTBE) to ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate additive, making California the largest ethanol fuel market in the United States. There are four ethanol production plants in central and southern California, but most of California’s ethanol supply is transported from other states or abroad.
California natural gas production typically is less than 2 percent of total annual U. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, S. production and satisfies less than one-fifth of state demand. California receives most of its natural gas by pipeline from production regions in the Rocky Mountains, the Southwest, and western Canada. Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe.
Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of State electricity generation. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, A power station (also referred to as generating station, power plant or powerhouse) is an industrial facility for the generation of California is one of the largest hydroelectric power producers in the United States, and with adequate rainfall, hydroelectric power typically accounts for close to one-fifth of State electricity generation. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water Due to strict emission laws, only a few small coal-fired power plants operate in California.
The Mojave Desert is one of the best sites in the United States for solar power plants. For the indigenous American tribe see Mohave. The Mojave Desert (moʊˈhɑːvi or /məˈhɑːvi/ ( Hayikwiir Mat'aar in Mojave Solar insolation is very high and significant population centers are located in the area. Insolation is a measure of Solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time Two prototype systems known as "Solar One" and "Solar Two" produced 10 MW each when they were in operation. There are several solar power plants in the Mojave Desert which supply power to the Electricity grid.
California leads the United States in electricity generation from nonhydroelectric renewable energy sources, such as wind, geothermal, solar energy, fuel wood, and municipal solid waste/landfill gas resources. Renewable energy is Energy generated from Natural resources mdashsuch as Sunlight, Wind, Rain, tides and geothermal Geothermal power (from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth and therme, meaning heat is energy generated by heat stored in the earth or the collection Solar energy is the Light and radiant heat from the Sun that powers Earth 's Climate and Weather and sustains Life A facility known as “The Geysers,” located in the Mayacamas Mountains north of San Francisco, is the largest group of geothermal power plants in the world, with more than 750 megawatts of installed capacity. The Mayacmas Mountains (often called the Mayacamas Mountains) are located in northwestern California in the United States. The watt (symbol W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one Joule of energy per Second. Due to high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46. Path 15 is the name of a major north-south power transmission corridor in California. Path 66 (also called the California Oregon Intertie or abbreviated COI) is the name of several 500 kV power lines that were built by Western Path 46, also called West of Colorado River, Arizona-California West-of-the-River Path ( WOR) is a set of many High voltage electrical power
California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of freeways, expressways, and highways. California 's transportation system is dynamic and usually functional however in a state with over 30 million people rapid population expansion and often difficult terrain The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension Bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The California Department of Transportation ( Caltrans) is a Government department in the U In the field of Road transport, an interchange is a road junction that typically An expressway is a Divided highway for high-speed traffic with at least partial Control of access. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Before adding any more images to this * * page please do carefully consider * * whether they would be mere decoration * * or actually improve California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Over the course of the 20th century the Automobile rapidly developed from an expensive toy for the rich into the De facto standard for passenger Transport Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). The California Department of Transportation ( Caltrans) is a Government department in the U
One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge was completed in 1937. The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension Bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. It is simultaneously designated as U.S. Route 101 which is part of the El Camino Real (Spanish for Royal Road or King's Highway), and State Route 1 which is also known as the Pacific Coast Highway. In the US state of California, US Route 101 (also known as Highway 101, The 101, or simply 101) is one of the last remaining and El Camino Real ( Spanish for The Royal Road, also known as The King's Highway) usually refers to the 600- Mile (966- Kilometer) State Route 1, often called Highway 1, is a State highway that runs along much of the Pacific coast of the U State Route 1, often called Highway 1, is a State highway that runs along much of the Pacific coast of the U Another of the seven bridges in the San Francisco Bay Area is the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, completed in 1936. The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, or the Bay, is a geographically and ethnically diverse metropolitan region that surrounds the This bridge transports approximately 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks, with its two sections meeting at Yerba Buena Island. "Sea Bird Island" and "Seabird Island" redirect here
Los Angeles International Airport and San Francisco International Airport are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. Los Angeles International Airport is the primary Airport serving Los Angeles, California, the second-most populated metropolitan area of San Francisco International Airport is a major international Airport located south of downtown San Francisco, California, United States adjacent to the There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state. An airport is a location where Aircraft such as airplanes, Helicopters and blimps take off and land General aviation (abbr GA) is one of two categories of Civil aviation.
California also has several important seaports. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. History The south-facing San Pedro Bay was originally a shallow Mudflat, too soft to support a Wharf. Long Beach is a city located in southern California, USA, on the Pacific coast The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, handles trade from the Pacific Rim and delivers most of the ocean containers passing through Northern California to the entire USA. The Port of Oakland was the first major port on the Pacific Coast of the United States to build terminals for Container ships It is now the fourth busiest container
Intercity rail travel is provided by Amtrak. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 Los Angeles and San Francisco both have subway networks, in addition to light rail. A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. Metrolink commuter rail and Metro Rail part of METRO serves much of Southern California, and BART and Caltrain commuter rail connect Bay Area suburbs to San Francisco. Metrolink is a Regional rail system that serves Southern California. Commuter rail, regional rail or suburban rail is a Passenger rail transport service between a city center and outer suburbs and Commuter towns The Los Angeles County Metro Rail is the mass transit rail system of Los Angeles County The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (also known as Metro MTA or LACMTA) is the state chartered regional transportation planning and Public transportation Caltrain ( AAR reporting marks JPBX) is a California Commuter rail line on the San Francisco Peninsula and the Santa Clara San Jose and Sacramento have light rail, and San Diego has Trolley light rail and Coaster commuter rail services. The San Diego Trolley is a trolley -style Light rail system operating in the metropolitan area of San Diego California. The San Diego Coast Express Rail, or COASTER, is a Regional rail service that operates in the Central and Northern coastal regions of San Diego County California Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound and Amtrak bus services. Greyhound Lines is an intercity Common carrier of passengers by Bus serving over 3700 destinations in the United States.
The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks. A regularly recurring issue in California politics is whether the state should continue to aggressively expand its freeway network or concentrate on improving mass transit networks in urban areas.
The California High Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 700 mile (1127 km) rail system. The California High-Speed Rail project is a proposed High-speed rail system in the state of California. Construction is pending approval of the voters during the November 2008 general election, in which a $9 billion state bond would have to be approved.
California is governed as a republic, with three branches of government: the executive branch consisting of the Governor of California and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. This article formerly titled "California government and politics" is about the government of the state A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Separation of powers, a term ascribed to French Enlightenment Political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu, is a model for the Governance In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The California State Assembly is the Lower house of the California State Legislature. The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Supreme Court of California is the State supreme court in California. The state also allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification. In Political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizen's initiative) provides a means by which a Petition signed by a certain A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office Ratification is the act of giving official sanction or approval to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution California follows a closed primary system. A closed primary is a type of Direct primary limited to registered party members who have declared their party affiliation in order to Vote in the The state's capital is Sacramento.
|2006||55. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The US 2006 gubernatorial elections were held on November 7, 2006 in 36 states with 22 of the seats held by Republicans and 14 by Democrats 88% 4,850,157||38. 91% 3,376,732|
|2002||42. Although Republicans made some gains from Democrats Democrats increased their overall number of governorships 41% 3,169,801||47. 28% 3,533,490|
|1998||38. The 1998 US gubernatorial elections were held on November 3 1998 in 36 states 38% 3,216,749||57. 97% 4,858,817|
|1994||55. The 1994 US gubernatorial elections were held on November 8, 1994 in 36 states 18% 4,781,766||40. 62% 3,519,799|
|1990||49. The 1990 United States gubernatorial elections were held on November 6, 1990 in 36 states 25% 3,791,904||45. 78% 3,525,197|
|1986||61. The United States gubernatorial elections of 1986 were held on November 4, 1986 in thirty-six states 25% 4,505,601||37. 58% 2,781,714|
The Governor of California and the other state constitutional officers serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses The California State Legislature consists of a 40 member Senate and 80 member Assembly. The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. The California State Assembly is the Lower house of the California State Legislature. Senators serve four year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms. See also Rotation in office A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office
For the 2007 — 2008 session, there are 48 Democrats and 32 Republicans in the Assembly. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. In the Senate, there are 25 Democrats and 15 Republicans. The current governor is Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger, who was elected to a term that lasts through January 2011. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor
California's judiciary is the largest in the United States (with a total of 1,600 judges, while the federal system has only about 840). In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State It is supervised by the seven Justices of the Supreme Court of California. The Supreme Court of California is the State supreme court in California. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the Governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years.
|2004||44. The recent and current politics of the US state of California are complex and involve a number of entrenched interests Statehood (1850 Following the declaration of the independent California Republic in 1846 and the armed conquest of California by United States military forces The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. 36% 5,509,826||54. 40% 6,745,485|
|2000||41. The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Democratic candidate Al Gore, then Vice President, and Republican 65% 4,567,429||53. 45% 5,861,203|
|1996||38. The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice 21% 3,828,380||51. 10% 5,119,835|
|1992||32. The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H 61% 3,630,574||46. 01% 5,121,325|
|1988||51. -->The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties 13% 5,054,917||47. 56% 4,702,233|
|1984||57. The United States presidential election of 1984 was a contest between the incumbent President Ronald Reagan, the Republican candidate and former Vice President 51% 5,467,009||41. 27% 3,922,519|
|1980||52. The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan 69% 4,524,858||35. 91% 3,083,661|
California has an idiosyncratic political culture. It was the second state to legalize abortion and the second state to legalize marriage for gay couples. Same-sex marriage in the United States - editing that article for size and clarity It was also the first state where voters decided that only marriage between a man and a woman would be recognized (legalized domestic partnerships were not approved by voters, but were made law by the state legislature). For eight years California’s 2000 ballot initiative Proposition 22 (or Prop 22) prevented California from recognizing Same-sex marriages Voters A California domestic partnership is a legal relationship available to same-sex couples and to certain opposite-sex couples in which at least one party is at least 62 years
Since 1990, California has generally elected Democratic candidates; however, the state has had little hesitance in electing Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as the current Governor Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered "Moderate Republicans" and tend to be more liberal than the party itself.
Democratic strength is centered in coastal regions of Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Coastal California refers to the coastal regions of the US state of California. Los Angeles County is a county in California and is by far the most populous county in the United States. The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, or the Bay, is a geographically and ethnically diverse metropolitan region that surrounds the The Democrats also hold a majority in Sacramento. The Republican strength is greatest in the San Joaquin Valley, which includes the growing cities of Stockton and Modesto. Stockton is a City in California and the seat of San Joaquin County (the fifth largest agricultural county in the United States Orange County remains mostly Republican. Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States.
Overall, the trend in California politics has been towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party. The trend is most obvious in presidential elections. Additionally, the Democrats have easily won every U. S. Senate race since 1992 and have maintained consistent majorities in both houses of the state legislature. In the U. S. House, the Democrats hold a 34-19 edge for the 110th United States Congress. The U. S senators are Dianne Feinstein (D), a native of San Francisco, and Barbara Boxer (D). Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (ˈfаɪnˌstаɪn (born June 22, 1933) is the senior U Barbara Levy Boxer (born 11 November 1940 is an American Democratic Politician and the current junior U The districts in California are assigned to voters in such a way that they were dominated by one or the other party with few districts that could be considered competitive. According to political analysts, California should soon gain three more seats, for a total of 58 electoral votes - the most electoral votes in the nation. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office 
California's legal system is explicitly based on English common law (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. The following is a list of the Governors of the State of California. These are tables of congressional delegations from California in the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. The following is a list of California ballot propositions broken down by decade Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Law in the State of Louisiana is based in part on civil law. Louisiana is the only U Civil law or Romano-Germanic law or Continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. Community property is a Marital-property regime that originated in civil law jurisdictions and is now also found in some Common-law jurisdictions Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Texas is far more active in carrying out executions). Capital punishment is a legal form of Punishment in the US state of California. Death row is a term that refers to the section of a Prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. California's "Death Row" is currently located in San Quentin State Prison situated north of San Francisco in Marin County. San Quentin State Prison is located on 432 acres (17 km² on Point San Quentin in Marin County, California, United States, north of San Francisco March 11, 1889 | Currently capital punishment is on hold in the courts in California. Capital punishment is a legal form of Punishment in the US state of California.
The state is divided into 58 counties. The US state of California is divided into fifty-eight counties.
California has 478 incorporated cities and towns, of which 456 are cities and 22 are towns. A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to cities, counties, Towns Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name). "
The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central Sixty-eight percent of California's population lives in its three largest metropolitan areas, Greater Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area and the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, known as the Inland Empire. The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, or the Bay, is a geographically and ethnically diverse metropolitan region that surrounds the The Inland Empire is a region mainly located in the Riverside and San Bernardino counties of Southern California and generally encompasses the Although smaller, the other two large population centers are the San Diego and the Sacramento metro areas. California is home to the largest county in the contiguous United States by area, San Bernardino County. San Bernardino County is a county in the US state of California.
The state recognizes two kinds of cities--charter and general law. A charter city is a City in which the governing system is defined by the city's own charter document rather than by state provincial regional or national laws  General law cities owe their existence to state law and consequentially governed by it; charter cities are governed by their own city charters. Cities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter cities. All of the state's ten most populous cities are charter cities.
California offers a unique three-tier system of public postsecondary education:
California is also home to such notable private universities and colleges as Stanford University, the University of Southern California (USC), the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Occidental College, and the Claremont Colleges. Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in The University of Southern California (commonly referred to as USC, SC, Southern California, and incorrectly The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private, Coeducational research university located in Pasadena Occidental College is a small private coeducational liberal arts college located in Los Angeles California. The Claremont Colleges are a consortium of five undergraduate and two graduate schools of higher education located in Claremont, California. California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.
Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires 40% of state revenues to be spent on education. California Proposition 98 requires a minimum percentage of the state budget to be spent on K-14 education.
California hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics at Squaw Valley Ski Resort, the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, as well as the 1994 FIFA World Cup. International sports events California has hosted the Olympic Games three times The following is a list of professional Sports teams in California as of 2007. The 1960 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VIII Olympic Winter Games, were a winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated between February The Squaw Valley Ski Resort in Olympic Valley California, is one of the largest and most high-concept ski areas in the United States, and was The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1932 The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Los Angeles, Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The 1994 FIFA World Cup, the 15th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in the United States from June 17 to July 17 1994
California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. The San Francisco Bay Area has seven major league teams spread in three cities, San Francisco, Oakland and San Jose. The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, or the Bay, is a geographically and ethnically diverse metropolitan region that surrounds the The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U While the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises, it is also the largest metropolitan area not to have a team from the National Football League. The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. San Diego has two major league teams, and Sacramento also has two.
Home to some of most prominent universities in the United States, California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. In particular, the athletic programs of UC Berkeley, USC, UCLA, Stanford and Fresno State are often nationally ranked in the various collegiate sports. The California Golden Bears is the nickname used for 27 varsity athletic programs of the University of California Berkeley. The phrase "USC Trojans" also refers to the University of Southern California student body in general The UCLA Bruins are the sports teams for University of California Los Angeles (UCLA Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in California State University Fresno, commonly referred to as Fresno State and even plainly State, is one of the campuses of California State University California is also home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, and the Holiday Bowl, among others. The Rose Bowl Game is an annual American College football Bowl game, usually played on January 1 ( New Year's Day) at the Rose The Holiday Bowl is a post-season NCAA -sanctioned Division I-A College football Bowl game that has been played annually at Qualcomm Stadium
Below is a list of major sports teams in California:
|San Francisco 49ers||Football||National Football League|
|Oakland Raiders||Football||National Football League|
|San Diego Chargers||Football||National Football League|
|Los Angeles Dodgers||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|San Francisco Giants||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|San Diego Padres||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|Oakland Athletics||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|Los Angeles Lakers||Basketball||National Basketball Association|
|Los Angeles Clippers||Basketball||National Basketball Association|
|Sacramento Kings||Basketball||National Basketball Association|
|Golden State Warriors||Basketball||National Basketball Association|
|Anaheim Ducks||Ice Hockey||National Hockey League|
|Los Angeles Kings||Ice Hockey||National Hockey League|
|San Jose Sharks||Ice Hockey||National Hockey League|
|Los Angeles Avengers||Football||Arena Football League|
|San Jose SaberCats||Football||Arena Football League|
|Chivas USA||Soccer||Major League Soccer|
|Los Angeles Galaxy||Soccer||Major League Soccer|
|San Jose Earthquakes||Soccer||Major League Soccer|
|Los Angeles Sparks||Basketball||Women's National Basketball Association|
|Sacramento Monarchs||Basketball||Women's National Basketball Association|
|Los Angeles Riptide||Lacrosse||Major League Lacrosse|
|San Francisco Dragons||Lacrosse||Major League Lacrosse|
|San Jose Stealth||Lacrosse||National Lacrosse League|
|California Cougars||Soccer||Major Indoor Soccer League|
Wikitravel is a Web -based project "to create a free, complete up-to-date and reliable worldwide travel guide. Services to the public The California State Library makes a wide range of services available to Californians