for Nuclear Research
pour la recherche nucléaire
|Formation||29 September 1954|
|Type||particle physics laboratory|
|Membership||20 member states and 8 observers|
|Director General||Robert Aymar|
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced /ˈsɝːn/ (IPA: [sɛʀn] in French), is the world's largest particle physics laboratory, situated in the northwest suburbs of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. The date of establishment or date of founding of an Institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Particle physics is a branch of Physics that studies the elementary constituents of Matter and Radiation, and the interactions between them A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and Headquarters (HQ denotes the location where most if not all of the important functions of an organization are concentrated Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking CERN Directors General typically serve 5 year terms beginning on January 1. Robert Aymar is the current Director General of CERN (2004-end of 2008 serving a five year term in that role A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Particle physics is a branch of Physics that studies the elementary constituents of Matter and Radiation, and the interactions between them A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The convention establishing CERN was signed on 29 September 1954. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) From the original 12 signatories of the CERN convention, membership has grown to the present 20 member states. Its main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. Particle physics is a branch of Physics that studies the elementary constituents of Matter and Radiation, and the interactions between them Numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN by international collaborations to make use of them. In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or
The main site at Meyrin also has a large computer centre containing very powerful data processing facilities primarily for experimental data analysis, and because of the need to make them available to researchers elsewhere, has historically been (and continues to be) a major wide area networking hub. Meyrin is a municipality of the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Wide Area Network ( WAN) is a Computer network that covers a broad area (i
CERN currently has approximately 2600 full-time employees. Some 7931 scientists and engineers (representing 500 universities and 80 nationalities), about half of the world's particle physics community, work on experiments conducted at CERN. A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices An engineer is a person professionally engaged in a field of Engineering.
As an international facility, the CERN sites are not officially under Swiss or French jurisdiction, and some company vehicles have diplomatic number plates. This includes the organization's fleet of fire trucks. Member states' contributions to CERN for the year 2008 totalled CHF 1,075. 863 million (c. €664 (US$ 990) million). 
The acronym CERN originally stood, in French, for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for setting up the laboratory, established by 11 European governments in 1952. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954.  According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the acronym could have become the awkward OERN, and Heisenberg said "But the acronym can still be CERN even if the name is [not]". Lew Kowarski ( 10 February, 1907 - 30 July, 1979) was a Naturalized French Physicist, of Russian-Polish descent Werner Heisenberg (5 December 1901 in Würzburg &ndash1 February 1976 in Munich) was a German theoretical physicist best known for enunciating the
Soon after its establishment, the work at the laboratory went beyond the study of the atomic nucleus, into higher-energy physics, an activity which is mainly concerned with the study of interactions between particles. The nucleus of an Atom is the very dense region consisting of Nucleons ( Protons and Neutrons, at the center of an atom A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite Particle smaller than an Atom. Therefore the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics (Laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules) which better describes the current research being performed at CERN.
Several important achievements in particle physics have been made during experiments at CERN. These include, but are not limited to:
The 1984 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that led to the discoveries of the W and Z bosons. The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik is awarded once a year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Carlo Rubbia (born on March 31, 1934 in Gorizia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy) is an Italian physicist at Simon van der Meer (born November 24, 1925, The Hague) is a Dutch accelerator Physicist who invented the concept of
The 1992 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber. Georges Charpak (born August 1, 1924) is a Polish - French Physicist and Nobel Prize in Physics winner A multi-wire chamber (or just wire chamber) is a detector for particles of Ionizing radiation which is an advancement of the concept of the Geiger counter "
CERN operates a network of six accelerators and a decelerator. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or to the next more powerful accelerator. Currently active machines are:
Most of the activities at CERN are currently directed towards building a new collider, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the experiments for it. The Compact Muon Solenoid ( CMS) experiment is one of two large general-purpose Particle physics detectors built on the proton-proton The LHC represents a large-scale, worldwide scientific cooperation project. Physics experiments are expected to start May 2008, delayed due to an inner triplet magnet assembly failing a pressure test in March 2007.
The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in the region between the Geneva airport and the nearby Jura mountains. The Jura Mountains are a small Mountain range located north of the Alps, separating the Rhine and Rhone rivers and forming part of It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by LEP which was closed down in November 2000. CERN's existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes will be used to pre-accelerate protons which will then be injected into the LHC.
Six experiments (CMS, ATLAS, LHCb, TOTEM, LHC-forward and ALICE) are currently being built, and will be running on the collider; each of them will study particle collisions under a different point of view, and with different technologies. The Compact Muon Solenoid ( CMS) experiment is one of two large general-purpose Particle physics detectors built on the proton-proton ATLAS ( A T oroidal L HC A pparatu' S') is one of the six The LHCb (standing for " Large Hadron Collider beauty " where "beauty" refers to the Bottom quark) experiment is one of six particle physics A totem is any supposed entity that watches over or assists a group of people such as a family Clan or tribe ( Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary and Webster's LHCf ("Large Hadron Collider forward" is a special-purpose LHC experiment for astroparticle ( Cosmic ray) physics one of six being constructed on the ALICE ( A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the six detector experiments being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Construction for these experiments required an extraordinary engineering effort. Just as an example, to lower the pieces for the CMS experiment into the underground cavern which will host it, a special crane will have to be rented from Belgium, which will be able to lift the almost 2000 tons for each piece. A crane is a lifting machine equipped with a Winder, Wire ropes or Chains and sheaves that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to The first of the approximately 5,000 magnets necessary for construction was lowered down a special shaft at 13:00 GMT on 7 March 2005. Greenwich Mean Time ( GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London Events 161 - Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
This accelerator will generate vast quantities of computer data, which CERN will stream to laboratories around the world for distributed processing (the GRID technology). Grid computing is a form of Distributed computing whereby a "super and virtual computer" is composed of a cluster of networked loosely-coupled In April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB per second to seven different sites across the world. If all the data generated by the LHC is to be analysed, then scientists must achieve 1,800 MB per second before 2008.
The smaller accelerators are located on the main Meyrin site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965. Meyrin is a municipality of the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. The French side is under Swiss jurisdiction and so there is no obvious border within the site, apart from a line of marker stones. There are six entrances to the Meyrin site:
The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are located underground almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface. However they have surface sites at various points around them, either as the location of buildings associated with experiments or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments themselves are located at the same underground level as the tunnels at these sites.
Three of these experimental sites are in France, with ATLAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryogenic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of the experimental sites is the Prévessin site, also known as the North Area, which is the target station for non-collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites are the ones which were used for the UA1, UA2 and the LEP experiments (the latter which will be used for LHC experiments). The UA1 High energy physics Experiment ran at CERN from 1981 until 1993 on the SPS collider The UA2 High energy physics Experiment was one of the two major experiments and collaborations at the CERN Proton - Antiproton collider
Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are officially named and numbered after the site where they were located. For example, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of charmed particles and located at the Prévessin (North Area) site while WA22 used the BEBC bubble chamber at the Meyrin (West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The charm Quark is a second-generation quark with an electric charge of +(2/3 e. The Big European Bubble Chamber ( BEBC) was a piece of equipment used to study Particle physics at CERN. The UA1 and UA2 experiments were considered to be in the Underground Area, i. e. situated underground at sites on the SPS accelerator.
The World Wide Web began as a CERN project called ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau in 1989. The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ENQUIRE was an early project (in the second half of 1980 of Tim Berners-Lee, who went on to create the World Wide Web in 1989 Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee OM KBE FRS FREng FRSA (born 8 June 1955 is an English computer scientist who is credited Robert Cailliau (born 26 January 1947) is a Belgian Computer scientist who together with Sir Tim Berners-Lee, developed Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honored by the ACM in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web. The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the world's first scientific and educational Computing society
Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was aimed at facilitating sharing information among researchers. The first website went on-line in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) A copy of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is kept here.
Prior to the Web's development, CERN had been a pioneer in the introduction of Internet technology in Europe, beginning in the early 1980s. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks A short history of this period can be found here.
More recently, CERN has become a centre for the development of Grid computing, hosting among others the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) and LHC Computing Grid projects. Grid computing is a form of Distributed computing whereby a "super and virtual computer" is composed of a cluster of networked loosely-coupled Enabling Grids for E-sciencE ( EGEE) is a project funded by the European Commission 's Sixth Framework Programme through Directorate F Emerging Technologies The LHC Computing Grid, launched on October 3 2008 is a distribution network designed by CERN to handle the massive amounts of data produced by the Large Hadron Collider It also hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point (CIXP), one of the two main Internet Exchange Points in Switzerland. The CERN Internet Exchange Point, or CIXP, is a historical European Internet landmark through which the first pan-European An Internet exchange point ( IX or IXP) is a physical infrastructure that allows different Internet service providers (ISPs to exchange Internet Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation CERN's computer network is connected to JANET (formerly UKERNA), the research and education network, JANET aids CERN to disperse large data over a network grid for closer analysis. JANET is a private British government-funded Computer network dedicated to education and research JANET(UK is the trading name for the JNT Association which since 1994 has had responsibility for the management of the United Kingdom’s Higher Education networking programme
The original CERN signatories were:
There are currently twenty member countries. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian
Eight additional international organizations or countries have "observer status":
Facilities at CERN open to the public include: