Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins. Numismatics (numisma nomisma "coin" from the νομίζειν nomízein, "to use according to law" is the study or collection of Currency This article is a collection of concise Numismatic and Coin collecting terms for the beginner or professional A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is main - title Coin keywords numismatics coin review A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money or simply a note) is a kind of Negotiable instrument, a Promissory note made by a Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of circulating currencies contains the 182 current In Economics, a local currency, in its common usage is a Currency not backed by a national government (and not necessarily Legal tender) and intended Company scrip is Currency issued in certain industries to pay Workers Such Scrip can only be exchanged by Wage -earners in company stores Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS also known as LETSystems are local non-profit exchange networks in which goods and services can be traded without the need for printed In Economics, a time-based currency is an Alternative currency where the unit of exchange is the Person-hour. Fictional currency is Currency in works of Fiction. It is often invented bearing little or no resemblance to any modern or historic currency A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures Coins for Currency. Coining is a form of precision stamping in which a workpiece is subjected to a sufficiently high stress to induce plastic flow on the surface of the material In Numismatics, the term milled coinage (also known as machine-struck coinage) is used to describe coins which are produced by some form of machine rather than by Hammered coinage describes the most common form of coins produced since the invention of Coins in the first millennium BC until the early modern period of ca Cast coinage refers to Coins made by pouring melted metal into a mold i Exonumia is the study of Coin -like objects such as Token coins and Medals and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration A credit card is part of a system of Payments named after the small Plastic card issued to users of the system A medal is usually a Coin -like sculpted object of metal or other material that has been engraved with an Insignia, Portrait or other artistic rendering In the study of Numismatics, token coins or tokens are coin-like objects used instead of Coins The field of tokens is part of Exonumia. Notaphily is the study of paper Money or Banknotes A notaphilist is a collector of banknotes paper money paper currency or plastic notes A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money or simply a note) is a kind of Negotiable instrument, a Promissory note made by a Scripophily is the study and collection of Stocks and bonds A specialized field of Numismatics, scripophily is an interesting area of collecting due to both Software for Fixed assets management and Stock control developed in 2004. In Finance, a bond is a Debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to repay the principal and Interest main - title Coin keywords numismatics coin review Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 The solidus (the Latin word for solid) was originally a Gold coin issued by the Romans. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus By the end of the empire the currency was issued only in silver stavraton and minor copper coins with no gold issue .
Early Byzantine coins continue the late Roman conventions: on the obverse the head of the Emperor, now full face rather than in profile, and on the reverse, usually a Christian symbol such as the cross, or a Victory or an angel (the two tending to merge into one another). Justinian II (Ιουστινιανός Β΄ Ioustinianos II; 669&ndashDecember 711 known as Rinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (Ρινότμητος The gold coins of Justinian II departed from these stable coventions by putting a bust of Christ on the obverse, and a half or full-length portrait of the Emperor on the reverse. Justinian II (Ιουστινιανός Β΄ Ioustinianos II; 669&ndashDecember 711 known as Rinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (Ρινότμητος These innovations incidentally had the effect of leading the Islamic Caliph Abd al-Malik, who had previously copied Byzantine styles but replacing Christian symbols with Islamic equivalents, finally to develop a distinctive Islamic style, with only lettering on both sides. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705 (عبد الملك بن مروان was the 5th Umayyad Caliph. This was then used on nearly all Islamic coinage until the modern period.
The type of Justinian II was revived after the end of Iconoclasm, and with variations remained the norm until the end of the Empire. Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments
In the 10th century so-called "anonymous folles" were struck instead of the earlier coins depicting the emperor. The anonymous folles featured the bust of Jesus on the obverse and the inscription "XRISTUS/bASILEU/bASILE", which translates to "Christ, King of Kings"
Byzantine coins followed, and took to the furthest extreme, the tendency of precious metal coinage to get thinner and wider as time goes on. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Late Byzantine gold coins become thin wafers that could be bent by hand.
The Byzantine coinage had a prestige that lasted until near the end of the Empire. European rulers, once they once again started issuing their own coins, tended to follow a simplified version of Byzantine patterns, with full face ruler portraits on the obverse.
The start of what is viewed as Byzantine currency by numismatics began with the monetary reform of Anastasius in 498, who reformed the late Roman Empire coinage system which consisted of the gold solidus and the bronze nummi. Flavius Anastasius (Φλάβιος Ἀναστάσιος or Anastasius I (Ἀναστάσιος Β΄ (c Events By Place Byzantine Empire Emperor Anastasius I reforms the monetary system using Greek numerals instead of Roman The nummus was an extremely small bronze coin, at about 8-10 mm, weight of 0. 56 making it at 276 to the Roman pound which was inconvenient because a large number of them were required even for small transactions. The ancient Roman units of measurement were built on the Hellenic system with Egyptian, Hebrew, and Mesopotamian influences
The new bronze coins called a follis weighed at 8. Roman coin The follis (plural folles) was a large Bronze Coin introduced in about 294 (actual name of this coin is unknown 5 grs and were made from the multiple versions of this coin such as the 40 nummi (follis), 20 nummi, 10 nummi, and 5 nummi coins (other denominations were occasionally produced). The obverse (front) of these coins featured a highly stylized portrait of the emperor while the reverse (back) featured the value of the denomination represented according to the Greek numbering system (M=40,K=20,I=10,E=5). ʹ the numeral sign redirects here For the accent ´ see Acute accent. Silver coins were rarely produced.
The only (semi)regularly issued silver coin was the Miliaresion issued be Leo III sometime between 717 and 741, and its double Hexagram first issued by Heraclius in 615 which lasted till the end of the 6th century , minted in varying fineness with a weight generally between 7. For symbols used in the I Ching, see Hexagram (I Ching For a Jewish symbol see Star of David. Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East Events By Place Europe The Edict of Paris grants extensive rights to the Frankish nobility 5 and 8. 5 grams. The Miliaresion was minted as early as the 6th century, but seems most common in the seventh through ninth centuries. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Small transactions were conducted with bronze coinage throughout this period.
The golden solidus remained a standard of international commerce until the eleventh century, when it began to be debased under successive emperors beginning in the 1030s under the emperor Romanos Argyros (1028–1034). The solidus (the Latin word for solid) was originally a Gold coin issued by the Romans. Until that time, the fineness of the gold remained consistent at about . 955-. 980.
The Byzantine monetary system changed during the 7th century when the 40 nummi (also known as the follis), now significantly smaller, became the only bronze coin to be regularly issued. Roman coin The follis (plural folles) was a large Bronze Coin introduced in about 294 (actual name of this coin is unknown Although Justinian II (685–695 and 705–711) attempted a restoration of the follis size of Justinian I, the follis continued to slowly decrease in size. Justinian II (Ιουστινιανός Β΄ Ioustinianos II; 669&ndashDecember 711 known as Rinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (Ρινότμητος Events By Place Byzantine Empire Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Events By Place Byzantine Empire The people of Byzantium revolt against Justinian II. Alternate meanings Area code 705; Project 705; Life 705 Events By Place Asia February 20 Events By Place Europe April 30 — Ummayad troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar, and begin Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or
In the early ninth century, a three-fourths-weight solidus was issued in parallel with a full-weight solidus, both preserving the standard of fineness, under a failed plan to force the market to accept the underweight coins at the value of the full weight coins. The three-fourths weight coin was called a Tetarteron (a Greek comparative adjective, literally "fourth-er"), and the full weight solidus was called the Histamenon. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Histamenon was the name given to the solidus when the Tetarteron was created The tetarteron was unpopular and was only sporadically reissued during the tenth century. The full weight solidus was struct at 72 to the Roman pound, roughly 4. 48 grams in weight. There were also solidi of weight reduced by one siliqua issued for trade with the Near East. These reduced solidi, with a star both on obverse and reverse, weighed about 4. 25 g. Abd al-Malik reformed the Islamic Dinar in 693, and issued gold coins of 4. Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705 (عبد الملك بن مروان was the 5th Umayyad Caliph. The Dinar is the name of the official currency in several countries Events By Place Europe The Portuguese city of Viseu is taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Moors. 25 g weight.
By the time of the Emperor Romanos Diogenis (1067–1071) the solidus had been debased to only roughly 15% gold content. Under Alexius I Comnenus (1081–1118) the debased solidus was discontinued and a gold coinage of higher fineness (generally . Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός (1048 &ndash August 15, 1118) Byzantine emperor (1081&ndash1118 900-. 950) was established, commonly called the hyperpyron at 4. The hyperpyron ( was a Byzantine Coin in use in the latter Middle Ages. 45 grs.
The hyperpyron was slightly smaller than the solidus. It was introduced along with the electrum aspron trachy worth a third of a hyperpyron and about 25% gold and 75% silver, the billon aspron trachy or stamenon  valued at 48 to the hyperpyron and with 7% silver wash and the copper tetarteron and Noummion worth 18 and 36 to the billon aspron trachy 
During Andronicus II reign he institued a some new coinage based on the hyperpyron. Andronikos II Palaiologos or Andronicus II Palaeologus ( Greek:) ( 25 March 1259, Constantinople &ndash February 13 They were the silver miliaresion or basilika at 12 to the hyperpyron and the billon politika at 96 per hyperpyron  along with the copper assaria, tournesia and follara The basilicon was a copy of the Venetian Ducat and circulated since 1304 for fifty years. 
The hyperpyron remained in regular issue and circulation until the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, though after the second half of the fourteenth century it was also frequently debased. After 1400, Byzantine coinage became insignificant, as Italian money became the predominant circulating coinage.
These scyphate (cup-shaped) coins known as trachy were issued in both electrum (debased gold) and billon (debased silver). Electrum is a naturally occurring Alloy of Gold and Silver, with trace amounts of Copper and other metals Billon is an Alloy of a Precious metal (most commonly Silver, but also Gold) with a majority base metal content (such as Copper) The exact reason for such coins is not known, although it is usually theorized that they were shaped for easier stacking.
During this last phase of Byzantine coinage gold issues were discontinued and a regular silver issue was commensed. The denomination was the Stavraton issued in 1, a half, an eighth  and a 16th of its value .
Also issued were the copper follaro and tornesse .