Painting of Emperor Basil II in triumphal garb, exemplifying the Imperial Crown
handed down by Angels
. Imperial Crown was also a model of car from Imperial, the luxury division of the Chrysler Corporation. An angel is a Spiritual Supernatural being found in many Religions Although the nature of angels and the tasks given to them vary from tradition to tradition
The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy, which was inherited from the Roman Empire. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial At the apex of the pyramid stood the Emperor, sole ruler and divinely ordained, but beneath him a multitude of officials and court functionaries operated the administrative machinery of the Byzantine state. This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians In addition, a large number of honorific titles existed, which the emperor awarded to his subjects or to friendly foreign rulers.
Over the more than 1000 years of the empire's existence, different titles were adopted and discarded, and many lost or gained prestige. At first the various titles of the empire were the same as those in the late Roman Empire, as the Byzantine Empire was not yet distinguished from Rome. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial By the time of Heraclius in the 7th century many of the titles had become obsolete; by the time of Alexius I, many of the positions were either new or drastically changed, but they remained basically the same from Alexius' reign to the fall of the Empire in 1453. Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός (1048 &ndash August 15, 1118) Byzantine emperor (1081&ndash1118 The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar
A senatorial class remained in place, which at times incorporated a large part of the upper officialdom. Many families remained important for several centuries, and several Emperors rose from the aristocracy. Two groups can be distinguished: a metropolitan civil nobility and a provincial military one, the latter remaining regionally based and having large land-holdings, but apparently no military forces of their own, in the way of Medieval Europe. The Monomachi were an example of the former, and the Comneni of the latter. The Comnenian dynasty was notorious for keeping a great number of the important offices within their kin-group. In the 11th and 12th century some 80 civil and 64 military noble families have been identified, a very small number for so large a state. 
The 10th century saw a rise in importance of the aristocracy, and an increased number of new families entering it. In the provinces aristocratic absorption of small farmers landholdings into large estates was becoming a problem, before the Turkish incursions largely removed that concern. The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language After the crises of the Turkish and Crusader depredations of the Empire, the aristocracy increased in power and wealth relative to the weakened imperial power, and for example became of equal importance in artistic patronage with the monarch in the last centuries. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Patronage is the support encouragement privilege and often financial aid given by a person or an organization
Below the rank of Emperor, the Byzantines distinguished two distinct categories of dignities (ἀξίαι): the "dignities by prize" (διά βραβείων ἀξίαι), which were purely honorific court titles and were conferred by the award of a symbol of rank, and the "dignities by proclamation" (διά λόγου ἀξίαι), which were offices of the state and were conferred by imperial pronouncement. Byzantine art is the term commonly used to describe the artistic products of the Byzantine Empire from about the 4th century until the Fall of Constantinople The Byzantine army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces serving alongside the Byzantine navy. Byzantine architecture is the Architecture of the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West consisted of mainly two types of Coins the Gold solidus Byzantine cuisine was marked by a merger of Greek and Roman gastronomy History Greek Dance in Antiquity was originally held to have some kind of educational value as evidenced in Plato's dialogues on this Byzantine diplomacy concerns the principles and methods the mechanisms the ideals and techniques that the Byzantine empire espoused and used in order to negotiate with the other Byzantine dress changed considerably over the thousand years of the Empire but was essentially conservative The Byzantine economy was among the most advanced in Europe and the Mediterranean for many centuries Byzantium undoubtedly occupies an important place in the history of garden design Byzantine Law was essentially a continuation of Roman Law with Christian influence however this is not to doubt its later influence on the western practice Byzantine literature may be defined as the Greek literature of the Middle Ages, whether written in the territory of the Byzantine Empire or outside Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire composed to Greek texts as ceremonial festival or church music Byzantine medicine is the medicine practiced in the Byzantine Empire from about 400 AD to 1453 AD The Byzantine navy comprised the naval forces of the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine science played an important role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy, and also in the transmission The former were further divided into three categories, depending on who was eligible for them: different sets of titles existed for the "Bearded Ones" (Βαρβάτοι, i. e. not eunuchs), the eunuchs (Ἐκτομίαι) and women. State officials usually combined titles from the two categories, so that a high official would be both Magistros (an "awarded" title) and Logothetes tou dromou (a "decreed" office).
These were the highest titles, usually limited to members of the imperial family or to a few very select foreign rulers, whose friendship the Emperor desired.
Titles used by the emperors
- Basileus (Βασιλεύς): the Greek word for "sovereign" which originally referred to any king in the Greek-speaking areas of the Roman Empire. "Basilissa" redirects here For the saint of this name see Julian and Basilissa. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly It also referred to the emperors of Persia. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Heraclius adopted it to replace the old Latin title of Augustus (Augoustos) in 629, and it became the Greek word for "emperor. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Augustus (plural augusti) Latin for "majestic" "the increaser" or "venerable" was an Ancient Roman Events By Place Persian and Byzantine Empires September - Jerusalem is reconquered by the Byzantine Empire from " Heraclius also used the titles autokrator (αυτοκράτωρ — "autocrat," "self-ruler") and kyrios (κύριος — "lord"). The Byzantines reserved the term "basileus" among Christian rulers exclusively for the emperor in Constantinople, and referred to Western European kings as "rēgas", a Hellenized form of the Latin word "rex" (=king). The feminine form basilissa referred to an empress. An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Empresses were addressed as "Eusebestatē Avgousta" (=Most Pious Augusta), and were also called Kyria (=Lady) or Despoina (the female form of "despotes", see below). One has to bear in mind that primogeniture, or indeed heredity itself, was never legally established in Byzantine imperial succession, because in principle the Roman emperor was selected by common acclamation of the Senate, the People and the Army. Primogeniture is the Common law right of the Firstborn son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings This was rooted firmly in the Roman "republican" tradition, whereby hereditary kingship was rejected and the emperor was nominally the convergence of several offices of the Republic onto one person. Many emperors, anxious to safeguard their firstborn son's right to the throne, had them crowned as co-emperors when they were still children, thus assuring that upon their own death the throne would not be even momentarily vacant. In such a case the need for an imperial selection never arose. In several cases the new emperor ascended the throne after marrying the previous emperor's widow, or indeed after forcing the previous emperor to abdicate and become a monk. WIDOW is a full-length Album recorded by British rock band Ritual released in 1983 MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective Several emperors were also deposed because of perceived inadequacy, e. g. , after a military defeat, and some were murdered. This explains why a basileopator (i. e. , the emperor's father or father-in-law) might not have been an emperor himself.
- Porphyrogennētos (πορφυρογέννητος) — "born-in-the-purple": Emperors wanting to emphasize the legitimacy of their ascent to the throne appended this title to their names, meaning they were born in the delivery room of the imperial palace (called the Porphyra because it was paneled with slabs of purple marble), to a reigning emperor, and were therefore legitimate beyond any claim to the contrary whatsoever. Porphyrogennētos or Porphyrogenitus (Greek Πορφυρογέννητος literally "born in the Purple" was a title given to a son or daughter ( Porphyrogenneta Example (with more context): Constantine VII
- Autokratōr (Αυτοκράτωρ) — "self-ruler": this title was originally equivalent to Imperator, and was used by the emperors. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, "the Purple-born" ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος The Latin word Imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic.
Titles used by the imperial family
- Basileopatōr (Βασιλεοπάτωρ): an exceptional title, created to describe the "father" of an emperor, although a basileopatōr was not necessarily the emperor's actual father. The first basileopatōr was Stylianos Zautzes, a nobleman under Leo VI the Wise; Romanus I Lecapenus also used the term when he was regent for Constantine VII. This article is about the Byzantine Emperor There is also an article on Pope Leo VI Leo VI "the Wise" or "the Philosopher" Romanos I Lekapenos or Romanus I Lecapenus ( Greek: Ρωμανός Α΄ Λακαπήνος Rōmanos I Lakapēnos; Րոմանոս Ա Ղակապենոս Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, "the Purple-born" ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος It ranked first among the "decreed" offices, and often entailed wide-ranging administrative duties.
- Despotēs (Δεσπότης) – "Lord": This title was used by the emperors themselves since the time of Justinian, and was an honorific address for the sons of reigning emperors. Despot (from δεσπότης despotēs; plural δέσποτες despotes; feminine δέσποινα despoina; in Bulgarian and Serbian Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or It was extensively featured in coins, in lieu of Basileus. In the 12th century, Manuel I Comnenus made it a separate title, the highest "awarded" title after the emperor. For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145. The first despotes was actually a foreigner, Bela III of Hungary, signifying that Hungary was considered a Byzantine tributary state. Béla III ( Hungarian: III Béla, Croatian: Bela II, Slovak: Belo III) (c In later times, a despot could be the holder of a despotate; for example, the Despotate of Morea, centred at Mistra, was held by the heir to the Byzantine throne after 1261. Morea ( Greek: Μορέας or Μοριάς) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages Mystras (also Mistra, Mystra and Mistras Greek: Μυστράς Μυζηθράς Mizithras or Myzithras in the The feminine form, despoina, referred to a female despot or the wife of a despot, but it was also used to address the Empress.
- Sebastokratōr (Σεβαστοκράτωρ) – "Venerable Ruler": a title created by Alexius I as a combination of autokrator and sebastos (see below). The first sebastokrator was Alexius' brother Isaacius. It was essentially a meaningless title, which signified only a close relationship with the emperor, but ranked immediately after the Despotēs. The feminine form was sebastokratorissa. The first foreigner to be called sebastokrator was Stefan Nemanja of Serbia, who was given the title in 1191. Stefan Nemanja ( Old Church Slavonic: Стѣфань Serbian: Стефан Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country A Bulgarian aristocrat by the name Kaloyan also used the title.
- Kaisar (Καίσαρ) – "Caesar": originally, as in the late Roman Empire, it was used for a subordinate co-emperor or the heir apparent, and was first among the "awarded" dignities. Caesar (plural Caesars Latin: Caesar (plural Caesares is a Title of imperial character The office enjoyed extensive privileges, great prestige and power. When Alexius I created sebastokratōr, kaisar became third in importance, and fourth after Manuel I created despotēs. The feminine form was kaisarissa. It remained however an office of great importance, and was awarded to a few high-ranking and distinguished officials, and was only rarely awarded to foreigners. Justinian II named Tervel, khan of the Bulgars, kaisar in 705; the title then developed into the Slavic term tsar or czar (from Latin through Bulgarian and then into Russian, Serbian etc. Justinian II (Ιουστινιανός Β΄ Ioustinianos II; 669&ndashDecember 711 known as Rinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (Ρινότμητος Tervel (Тервел also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources was the ruler of the Bulgars at the beginning The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, Alternate meanings Area code 705; Project 705; Life 705 Events By Place Asia February 20 The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Bulgarian (български език IPA: ɛzˈik is an Indo-European language, a member of the Slavic linguistic group ). Andronicus II Palaeologus also named Roger de Flor, leader of the Catalan Grand Company, kaisar in 1304. Andronikos II Palaiologos or Andronicus II Palaeologus ( Greek:) ( 25 March 1259, Constantinople &ndash February 13 Roger de Flor (1267 &ndash April 30, 1305) also known as Rutger von Blum, was a military adventurer active in Sicily Italy and the Byzantine Empire The Catalan Company of the East ( Catalan Companyia Catalana d'Orient) officially the Company of the Army of the Franks in Romania
- Nobelissimos (Νοβελίσσιμος) - "most noble", from the Latin Nobilissimus: originally a title given to close relatives of the Emperor, subordinate only to the kaisar. During the Comnenian period, the title was awarded to officials and foreign dignitaries, diluting its status. The title Prōtonobelissimos was created in its stead, until it too started to decline, only to be replaced by a further augmented form: Prōtonobelissimohypertatos. By the late Palaeologan era, the former had vanished, while the latter was a provincial official.
- Kouropalatēs (Κουροπαλάτης) - from the Latin cura palatii, "in charge of the palace": First attested in the time of Justinian, it was the official in charge of the running of the imperial palace. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or However, the great authority and wealth deriving from this position, as well as the close proximity to the Emperor, meant that it accumulated great prestige. It was awarded to important members of the imperial family, but from the 11th century onwards, it declined, and was usually awarded to the vassal rulers of Armenia and Caucasian Iberia. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani This article is about the people of ancient Georgia For the Iberians of ancient Iberian Peninsula see Iberians.
- Sebastos (Σεβαστός) – "August One" this title is the literal Greek translation of the Latin term Augustus or Augoustos, was sometimes used by the emperors. As a separate title it appeared in the latter half of the 11th century, and was extensively awarded by Alexios I Komnenos to his brothers and relations. Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός (1048 &ndash August 15, 1118) Byzantine emperor (1081&ndash1118 The female version of the title was sebastē. The special title Prōtosebastos ("First Venerable One") was created for Hadrianos, Alexios' second brother, and awarded also to the Doge of Venice and the Sultan of Iconium. The Doge ( Venetian language, also Doxe, derived from Latin Dux military leader duke cf During the 12th century. it remained in use for the Emperor's and the Sebastokratōr's children, and senior foreign dignitaries. However, the parallel processes of proliferation and devaluation of titles during the 12th century resulted in the creation of a bewildering array of often ridiculously large variations, by using the prefixes pan ("all"), hyper ("above"), prōto ("first"): examples include Pansebastos, Panhypersebastos, or Hyperprōtopansebastohypertatos. Few of them actually survived past the 12th century, and all of them rapidly declined in importance.
The back of this coin by Manuel I Comnenus
bears his title, porphyrogenitos
. For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145.
Titles for the "Bearded Ones"
By descending order of precedence, the "by prize" titles for the "Bearded Ones" were:
- Magistros (Μάγιστρος) - in the early Byzantine state, the magister officiorum was one of the most senior officials, but as his duties were gradually relegated to other officials, by the 8th century, only the title was left. In Late antiquity, the Roman position of magister officiorum ( Latin literally for "Master of offices" can first be traced to the rule of It remained a high honour, awarded to very few high-ranking officials until the 12th century. Afterwards, the title was more liberally given and diminished, disappearing altogether in the Palaeologan period.
- Anthypatos (Άνθύπατος) - "proconsul": Originally the highest rank for provincial governors, with the creation of the Theme system it too became a purely honorific title. Ancient Rome In the Roman Republic, a proconsul was a Promagistrate (like a Propraetor) who after serving as Consul, spent a year The variant Prōtanthypatos was created in the Comnenian period to counter its decline in importance, but both disappeared by the end of the 12th century.
- Patrikios (Πατρίκιος) - "patrician": Established as the highest title of nobility by Constantine the Great, it remained one of the highest dignities until its disappearance in the Comnenian period, awarded to high-ranking officials and foreign rulers. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine The patrikioi had the right to partake in the sessions of the Senate. The Byzantine Senate or Eastern Roman Senate was the continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. The spouses of patricians bore the title patrikia (not to be confused with zostē patrikia, see below)
- Prōtospatharios (Πρωτοσπαθάριος) - "first spatharios": one of the most common high court titles, awarded to senior officials such as the logothetai, the commanders of the imperial tagmata or the strategoi in charge of a theme. The tagma ( τάγμα, pl tagmata) is a term for a military unit of Battalion size The office survived until the Palaeologan period, but had declined to the 35th place of the hierarchy.
- Disypatos (Δισύπατος) - "twice consul".
- Spatharokandidatos (Σπαθαροκανδιδάτος)
- Spatharios (Σπαθάριος) - "spatha-bearer": As their name signifies, the spatharioi were initially a special corps of imperial guards. The spatha was a type of straight Sword with a long point measuring between 0 They performed specific duties inside the imperial palace. The title survived until the early 12th century.
- Hypatos (Ὕπατος) - "consul": As in the Roman Republic and Empire, the title was initially given each year to two distinguished citizens, until Justinian I halted the practice due to the extraordinary expenditure it involved. Hypatus or ypatus (pl hypati or ypati) was the Latin form of the Greek hypatos (pl Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected Political office of the Roman Republic and the Empire. The title continued to be assumed by emperors on accession until the end of the 7th century, but thereafter became an honorific title. The title was often conferred to the rulers of south Italian city-states.
- Stratōr (Στράτωρ) - "groom"
- Kandidatos (Κανδιδάτος) - from the Latin candidatus, so named because of their white tunics. For other uses see Groom A groom is an employee who is responsible for some or all aspects of the welfare of a stable owner's Horses and/or They were originally a select group of guards, drawn from the Scholae Palatinae. The Scholae Palatinae (literally "Palatine Schools" in) were an elite military guard unit usually ascribed to the Roman Emperor Constantine The title disappeared in the Comnenian period.
- Basilikos Mandatōr (Βασιλικός Μανδάτωρ) - "imperial messenger"
- Vestētōr (Βεστήτωρ)
- Silentiarios (Σιλεντιάριος)
- Stratēlatēs (Στρατηλάτης)
- Apoeparchōn (Ἀποεπάρχων)
Titles for the eunuchs
By descending order of precedence, the "by prize" titles for the eunuchs were:
- Patrikios - The same as for the "Bearded Ones". The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and
- Praipositos (Πραιπόσιτος) - from the Latin praepositus, "placed before".
- Prōtospatharios - The same as for the "Bearded Ones"
- Primikērios (Πριμικήριος) - from the Latin primicerius, "first in the list". The term primicerius was applied in the Later Roman Empire to the head of any administration -- thus primicerius notariorum, primicerius protectorum etc
- Ostiarios (Ὀστιάριος)
- Spatharokoubikoularios (Σπαθαροκουβικουλάριος)
- Koubikoularios (Κουβικουλάριος) - from the Latin cubicularius, "chamberlain".
Titles for women
- Zostē Patrikia (Ζωστή Πατρικία) - "Girded patrikia"
- Protovestiarios - usually a minor relative of the emperor, who took care of the emperor’s personal wardrobe, especially on military campaigns. He was also sometimes responsible for other members of the imperial household, and the emperor’s personal finances. The older term, from before the time of Justinian I, was curopalata (or kouropalates in Greek). Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or This was derived from kourator (curator), an earlier official responsible for financial matters. The vestiarios was a subordinate official. The protovestiaria and vestiaria performed the same functions for the empress.
- Parakoimomenos - literally, "one who sleeps nearby", was the High Chamberlain who sleeps in the Emperor's bedchamber.
- Pankernes - a cupbearer.
- Exarchos - The exarchs were governors of remote parts of the empire such as Italy or Africa. This article is about Byzantine governors and ecclesiastical ranks They enjoyed a greater degree of independence than other provincial governors, combining both civil and military authority, practically acting as viceroys.
- Domestikos – the domestikoi were originally imperial guards, who later functioned as senior staff officers in the Late Roman army. The Late Roman army is the term used to denote the military forces of the Roman Empire from the accession of Emperor Diocletian in 284 until the Empire's In the Byzantine period, they were among the highest military offices, and included:
- Megas Domestikos (Grand Domestic) - the overall commander of the army.
- Domestikos tōn Scholōn (Domestic of the Schools) – the commander of the Scholai, originally a number of guards units, later a Tagma. The Scholae Palatinae (literally "Palatine Schools" in) were an elite military guard unit usually ascribed to the Roman Emperor Constantine The tagma ( τάγμα, pl tagmata) is a term for a military unit of Battalion size This was a very prestigious title, and by the late 9th century, its holder functioned as commander in chief of the army. In ca. 959, the post was divided, with one domestic for the East and one for the West.
- Domestikos tou thematos (Domestic of the Themes) – the commander and organizer of the military themes; there was one for the European themes and one for Asian themes.
- Stratēgos – a military and later also civil commander of a theme, who often also had the title of doux. For the board game see Stratego. "Strategus" redirects here The term is basically equivalent to "general" or "admiral", as it was used in both branches of service.
- Katepanō – The governor of a greater area combining two or more themes, such as the Catepan of Italy, a title developed in the 9th century. The Catepanate (or Catapanate) of Italy ( Greek:) was a province of the Byzantine Empire, comprising mainland Italy south of a line drawn from The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
- Tourmarchēs – the commander of a tourma, a military unit.
- Prōtostratōr – initially the Emperor's stable master, later the term was used for the commander of the army.
- Stratopedarchēs (Master of the Camp) – This official was in charge of making sure the army was stocked with food and arms.
- Hoplitarchēs or archēgētēs - commander of all infantry in a large army.
- Protokentarchos and kentarchos - commanders of a smaller division of the army in the field. The name was derived from the Latin centurion. Centurion redirects here This article is about the Roman soldier
- Merarchēs - commander of a division (meros) of the army. Usually, each army was divided into two to three such commands.
- Taxiarchēs or chiliarchēs - commander of an infantry regiment (taxiarchia or chiliarchia) in the army.
- Further information: Organization of the Byzantine navy
- Megas Doux – The Megaduke or Grand Duke, was the basic equivalent of the modern Lord High Admiral. The Byzantine navy comprised the naval forces of the Byzantine Empire. The megas doux (μέγας δούξ " Grand Duke " was one of the highest positions in the hierarchy of the later Byzantine Empire. The office was created by Alexios I Komnenos, when he amalgamated the remnants of the imperial and thematic fleets into a single imperial fleet. Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός (1048 &ndash August 15, 1118) Byzantine emperor (1081&ndash1118 By the end of the Palaiologos dynasty the megaduke was head of the government and bureaucracy, not just the navy. The Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Παλαιολόγος pl
- Amiralios - The Greek version of "Admiral". An office founded in the late Palaeologan era, the Amiralios was the deputy of the Megas Doux.
- Megas Droungarios - Initially the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine navy, after the creation of the Megas Doux his lieutenant, in charge of the naval officers.
- Droungarios - The title existed both in the army and the navy. A droungarios, also spelled drungarios (δρουγγάριος drungarius or in its English form drungary, was a Military rank of the late Roman In the navy of the 8th-11th centuries, a droungarios headed a fleet, either the central imperial fleet or one of the thematic fleets.
- Komēs or Droungarokomēs - The commander of a squadron of dromons. The dromons (from Greek δρόμων dromon, ie "runner" were the most important Warships of the Byzantine navy from the
- Kentarchos or Nauarchos - the captain of a ship. Navarch ( ναύαρχος, pronounced návarkhos) is a Greek word meaning "leader of the ships" which in some states became the title of an office
Other military titles
- Ethnarches - the ethnarch, commander of foreign troops. Ethnarch (Εθνάρχης refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or heterogeneous kingdom
- Kontostaulos - Greek form of Latin Comes stabuli 'count of the stable' and various European feudal titles such as English "constable" - the chief of the Frankish mercenaries. A constable is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by
- Hetaireiarches – the chief of the barbarian mercenaries, the Hetaireia, successor to the Foederati. "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived Foederatus (pl foederati) is a Latin term whose definition and usage drifted in the time between the early Roman Republic and the Initially subdivided into Greater (Megalē), Middle (Mesē) and Little (Mikra) Hetaireia.
- Akolouthos - "Acolyte," the chief of the Varangian Guard during the Palaeologan era. The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian
- Manglavitai – A category of palace guards, armed with sword and whip (manglavion, from the Arabic mijlab). Under the command of a Prōtomanglavitēs.
- Topoteretes – meaning "place-holder", "lieutenant". A Topoteretes (Τοποτηρητῆς was a Byzantine title, meaning deputy commander (literally "place-warden" Found at various levels of the hierarchy, as deputies to commanders of the imperial tagmata, deputy to a drungarios.
The vast Byzantine bureaucracy had many titles, and varied more than aristocratic and military titles. In Constantinople there were normally hundreds, if not thousands, of bureaucrats at any time. Like the Church and the military, they wore elaborately differentiated dress, often including huge hats. Byzantine dress changed considerably over the thousand years of the Empire but was essentially conservative These are some of the more common ones, including non-nobles who also directly served the emperor.
- Praetorian prefect – The Praetorian prefect was originally an old Roman office used for the commander of the army in the Eastern and Western portions of the Empire. Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature It was abolished in the 7th century owing to wide reaching civil and military reforms. The title evolved into the domestikos. After Diocletian's reforms, the functions of the Prefect embraced a wide sphere; they were administrative, financial, judicial, and even legislative. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate The provincial governors were appointed at his recommendation, and with him rested their dismissal, subject to the Emperor's approval. He received regular reports of the administration from the governors of the provinces. He had treasuries of his own, and the payment and the food supplies of the army devolved upon him. He was also a supreme judge of appeal; in cases which were brought before his court from a lower tribunal there was no further appeal to the Emperor. He could issue, on his own authority, praetorian edicts, but they concerned only matters of detail.
- Protoasecretes - an earlier title for the head of the chancery, responsible for keeping official government records. The asecretes was a subordinate. Other subordinates included the chartoularios (in charge of imperial documents), the kastrinsios (a chamberlain in the palace), the mystikos (a private secretary), and the eidikos (a treasury official).
- Logothetes - a secretary in the extensive bureaucracy, who did various jobs depending on the exact position. Logothete ( Greek λογοθέτης, Med Latin logotheta, Italian: logoteta, Romanian: logofăt) Logothetes were some of the most important bureaucrats. They included:
- Megas logothetes (Grand Logothete) – the head of the logothetes, personally responsible for the legal system and treasury, somewhat like a chancellor in western Europe. The Megas Logothetes ( Greek Μέγας Λογοθέτης, "Grand Accountant" was the head of the Byzantine bureaucracy during the middle Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen
- Logothetes tou dromou (Drome Logothete) – the head of diplomacy and the postal service. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states Mail, or post, is a method for transmitting information and tangible objects wherein written Documents typically enclosed in Envelopes and also
- Logothetes ton oikeiakon (Course Logothete) – head of domestic affairs, such as the security of Constantinople and the local economy.
- Logothetes tou genikou (General Logothete) – responsible for taxation. Also acts as a secretary in later cases.
- Logothetes tou stratiotikou (Military Logothete) – a civilian, in charge of distributing pay to the army.
Logothetes originally had some influence on the emperor, but they eventually became honorary posts. In the later empire the Grand Logothete became the mesazon ("manager" or, more literally, "middle-man").
Other administrators included:
- Prefect – a lower official in Constantinople, involved in local government. Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i
- Quaestor – originally a legal and financial official, which lost power after the development of the logothetes. Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action
- Tribounos – equivalent to the Roman tribune; responsible for maintenance of roads, monuments, and buildings in Constantinople. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the
- Magister (magister officiorum, magister militum, "maistor" in Greek) – an old Roman term, master of offices and master of the army; by the time of Heraclius, these had become honorary and were eventually discarded. In Late antiquity, the Roman position of magister officiorum ( Latin literally for "Master of offices" can first be traced to the rule of Magister militum ( Latin for "Master of the Soldiers" was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of
- Sacellarios – under Heraclius, an honorary supervisor of the other palace administrators, logothetes, etc.
- Praetor – originally an administrator of Constantinople, in charge of taxation; after Alexius, a civil governor of a theme. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before
- Kephale - "head", the civil governor of a Byzantine town.
- Dragoman – a Turkish title, which was applied to interpreters and ambassadors. Dragoman designates the official title of a person who would function as an interpreter, translator and official guide between Turkish, Arabic, and The Ottoman Turks were the subdivision of the Ottoman Muslim Millet that dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country
- Horeiarios – in charge of distributing food from the state granaries.
The protoasecretes, logothetes, prefect, praetor, quaestor, magister, and sacellarios, among others, were members of the senate, until this became an increasingly unused aspect of the Empire after Heraclius. The Byzantine Senate or Eastern Roman Senate was the continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I.
At the peaceful height of Middle Byzantium, court life "passed in a sort of ballet", with precise ceremonies prescribed for every occasion, to show that "Imperial power could be exercised in harmony and order", and "the Empire could thus reflect the motion of the Universe as it was made by the Creator", according to the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, who wrote a Book of Ceremonies describing in enormous detail the annual round of the Court. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, "the Purple-born" ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος Special forms of dress for many classes of people on particular occasions are set down; at the name-day dinner for the Emperor or Empress various groups of high officials performed ceremonial "dances", one group wearing " a blue and white garment, with short sleeves, and gold bands, and rings on their ankles. In their hands they hold what are called phengia". The second group do just the same, but wearing "a garment of green and red, split, with gold bands". These colours were the marks of the old chariot-racing factions, the four now merged to just the Blues and the Greens, and incorporated into the official hierarchy. As in the Versailles of Louis XIV, elaborate dress and court ritual probably were at least partly an attempt to smother and distract from political tensions. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent
However, even by the time of Anna Comnena, with the Emperor away on military campaigns for much of the time, this way of life had changed considerably, and after the Crusader occupation it virtually vanished. Anna Komnene or Comnena (Greek Άννα Κομνηνή Anna Komnēnē December 1, 1083 &ndash1153 was a Byzantine princess and scholar daughter of A French visitor was shocked to see the Empress going to church far less well attended than the Queen of France would have been. The Imperial family largely abandoned the Great Palace for the relatively compact Palace of Blachernae. The Palace of Blachernae (Βλαχερναί was an imperial Byzantine residence in the suburb of Blachernae, located in the northwestern section of Constantinople
- ^ Robin Cormack, "Writing in Gold, Byzantine Society and its Icons", 1985, George Philip, London, p180, using Kazhdan A. The Byzantine navy comprised the naval forces of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine army evolved from that of the late Roman Empire. The Byzantine army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces serving alongside the Byzantine navy. P. , 1974 (in Russian) ISBN 054001085-5
- ^ Steven Runciman, Byzantine Style and Civilization, 1975, Penguin
Anna Komnene or Comnena (Greek Άννα Κομνηνή Anna Komnēnē December 1, 1083 &ndash1153 was a Byzantine princess and scholar daughter of Edward Gibbon ( April 27, 1737 January 16, 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament. Dumbarton Oaks is a 19th century Federal-style Mansion with famous gardens in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington D
- Michael Angold. Michael Angold (born 1940 is Professor Emeritus of Byzantine History and Honorary Fellow in the University of Edinburgh. The Byzantine Aristocracy: IX to XIII Centuries. Oxford: BAR International Series, 1984. ISBN 0-86054-283-1.
- H. R. Ellis Davidson. The Viking Road to Byzantium. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. , 1976. ISBN 0-04-940049-5
- Deno John Geanakopoulos. Emperor Michael Palaeologus and the West, 1258-1282: A Study in Byzantine-Latin Relations. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books, 1973. ISBN-13: 978-0208013101 .
- John Haldon. Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine World, 565–1204. London: UCL Press, 1999. ISBN 1-85728-495-X
- Warren T. Treadgold. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2
- The Alexiad of Anna Comnena
- The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon
- Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents from Dumbarton Oaks
- Steven Runciman, Byzantine Style and Civilization, 1975, Penguin (Court life section)
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