The Burke and Hare murders (occasionally referred to as the West Port murders) were perpetrated in Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom in 1827 and 1828 primarily by William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses of their 17 victims to the Edinburgh Medical College for dissection. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A cadaver or corpse is a dead Body. "Cadaver" is normally used as a more formal term for a body being used in medical training or research The University of Edinburgh Medical School is part of the College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine of the University of Edinburgh. Dissection (also called anatomization) is usually the process of disassembling and observing something to determine its internal structure and as an aid to discerning the function Their principal customer was doctor Robert Knox. Robert Knox MD FRCSEd FRSEd ( 4 September, 1791 &ndash 20 December, 1862) was a Scottish surgeon Their accomplices included Burke's mistress, Helen MacDougal, and Hare's wife, Margaret Hare. 
Before 1832, an insufficient supply of legitimate cadavers was available for the study and teaching of anatomy in British medical schools. The 19th century saw Anatomists largely finalise and systematise the descriptive Human anatomy of the previous century A cadaver or corpse is a dead Body. "Cadaver" is normally used as a more formal term for a body being used in medical training or research Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located As medical science began to flourish in the early 19th century, demand rose sharply, but at the same time, the only legal supply of cadavers - the bodies of executed criminals - was falling due to a sharp reduction in the execution rate in the early 19th century, as compared with the 18th century, brought about by the repeal of the Bloody Code. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the The Bloody Code is a term later used to refer to the system of laws and punishments in England from 1400-1850 This situation attracted criminal elements who were willing to obtain specimens by any means. The activities of body-snatchers (also called resurrectionists) gave rise to particular public fear and revulsion. Body-snatching was the secret disinterment of bodies from Churchyards to sell them for Dissection or Anatomy lectures in Medical schools
By 1827, Burke and his mistress, Helen MacDougal, were regular tenants at Hare's lodging house in Edinburgh. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. It is not known whether the two knew each other from an earlier common employment on the Union Canal. The Union Canal is a 315 mile (507 km Contour canal in Scotland, from Lochrin Basin Fountainbridge, Edinburgh to Falkirk According to Hare's later testimony, the first body they sold was that of a dead tenant, an old army pensioner who owed Hare £4 rent. In common parlance a pensioner is a person who has retired, and now collects a Pension. The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency Lease Renting is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary In November 1827, they stole the body from its coffin and sold it to the Edinburgh Medical College for £7, their first meeting with Professor Robert Knox, a leading Edinburgh anatomist. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration
Burke and Hare's next victim was a sick tenant, Joseph the Miller, whom they plied with whisky and then suffocated. Whisky (uisge-beatha or whiskey (uisce beatha or fuisce) refers to a broad category of Alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented When there were no other sickly tenants, they decided to lure a victim from the street. In February 1828, they invited pensioner Abigail Simpson to spend the night before her return to home. Using the same modus operandi, they engineered her intoxication and then smothered her. Intoxication is the state of being affected by one or more psychoactive drugs. Because the corpse was so fresh, they were paid £15.
Hare's wife, Margaret Hare, invited a woman to the inn, plied her with drink, and then sent for her husband. Next, Burke brought in two prostitutes, Mary Patterson and Janet Brown, but Brown left when an argument broke out between MacDougal and Burke. Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money. When she returned, she was told that Patterson had left with Burke. Next morning, some of the medical students recognized the dead prostitute, possibly because they had used her services.
The next victim was an acquaintance of Burke, a beggar woman called "Effie". They were paid £10 for her body. Then Burke "saved" a woman from police by claiming that he knew her. He delivered her body to the medical school just hours later.
The next two victims were an old woman and a deaf boy. Burke and Hare argued over the boy, but then Burke broke his back and sold both bodies for £8 each. The next two victims were Burke's acquaintance "Mrs Ostler" and one of MacDougal's relatives, Ann MacDougal.
Then Hare met elderly prostitute Mary Haldane. When her daughter Peggy inquired about her whereabouts, she ended up accompanying her mother on the medical school cutting table. However, this particular disappearance did not go unnoticed, since Mary Haldane had been a well-known figure in the neighbourhood.
Burke and Hare's next victim was an even better-known person, a retarded young man with a limp called "Daft Jamie", who was 18 at the time of his murder. The boy resisted, and the pair had to kill him together. His mother began to ask for her boy. When Dr Knox uncovered the body the next morning, several students recognized Jamie. His head and feet were cut off after Knox had shown his students the body. Knox denied that he was Jamie, but he apparently began to dissect his face first.
The last victim was Marjory Campbell Docherty. Burke lured her into the lodging house by claiming that his mother was also a Docherty, but he had to wait because of James and Ann Gray who were lodging with them. The Grays left for the night and neighbours heard the noise of a struggle.
The next day, Ann Gray became suspicious when Burke would not let her approach a bed where she had left her stockings. When the Grays were left alone in the house in the early evening, they checked the bed and found Docherty's body under it. On their way to alert the police, they ran into MacDougal who tried to bribe them with an offer of £10 a week. They refused.
MacDougal and Margaret Hare alerted their spouses, and Burke and Hare took the body out of the house before the police arrived. However, under questioning, Burke claimed that Docherty had left at 7:00 am, but then MacDougal claimed that she had left in the evening. The police arrested them. An anonymous tip-off led them to Knox's classroom where they found Docherty's body. James Gray identified it. MacDougal and Margaret Hare were arrested soon thereafter. The murder spree had lasted eighteen months.
When an Edinburgh paper wrote about the disappearances on 6 November 1828, Janet Brown heard about it and went to the police. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with The year 1828 ( MDCCCXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap She identified Mary Paterson's clothing.
The evidence against the pair was not overwhelming, so Lord Advocate Sir William Rae offered Hare immunity from prosecution if he confessed and agreed to testify against Burke. Her Majesty's Advocate (or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Advocate) known as the Lord Advocate (Morair Tagraidh is the chief legal officer of the Scottish Sir William Rae 3rd Baronet ( 14 April 1769 &ndash 19 October 1842) was a Scottish politician and lawyer Hare's testimony led to Burke's death sentence in December 1828. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Ironically, following his hanging, he was to share the fate of his victims - dissected for the benefit of medical students. Helen MacDougal was released, since her complicity to the murders was not provable. Not proven is a Verdict available to a court in Scotland. Under Scots law, a criminal trial may end in one of three verdicts Robert Knox was not prosecuted, despite a public uproar, since no evidence existed that he had known of the origin of the corpses.
Helen MacDougal returned to her house but was almost lynched by an angry mob. Lynching is an Extrajudicial punishment meted out by a mob Lynching an enumerated Felony in some states in the United States, is defined by some Ochlocracy ( Greek: οχλοκρατία or okhlokratía; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people She fled to England, but her reputation preceded her. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland She was rumoured to have left for Australia where she died around 1868. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Margaret Hare also escaped lynching and reputedly returned to Ireland. Nothing more is known about her.
Hare was released in February 1829, and many popular tales tell of him as a blind beggar on the streets of London having been mobbed and thrown in a lime pit. However, none of these reports were ever confirmed. The last known sighting of him was in the English town of Carlisle.
Robert Knox kept silent about his dealings with Burke and Hare, but his popularity among students decreased. His applications for other positions in the Edinburgh Medical School were rejected. He moved to the Cancer Hospital in London and died in 1862.
Skin from Burke's body was used to make the leather binding of a small book. This book can now be seen in the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, traces its origins to 1505 when the Barber Surgeons of Edinburgh was formally His skeleton hangs in the anatomy library of Edinburgh University's Medical School.
The murders highlighted the crisis in medical education and led to the subsequent passing of the Anatomy Act 1832, which expanded the legal supply of medical cadavers to eliminate the incentive for such behaviour. The Anatomy Act 1832 (2 & 3 Will IV c75 was a United Kingdom Act of Parliament that expanded the legal supply of Cadavers for Medical research About the law, the Lancet editorial stated:
"Burke and Hare . . . it is said, are the real authors of the measure, and that which would never have been sanctioned by the deliberate wisdom of parliament, is about to be extorted from its fears . . . It would have been well if this fear had been manifested and acted upon before sixteen human beings had fallen victims to the supineness of the Government and the Legislature. It required no extraordinary sagacity to foresee, that the worst consequences must inevitably result from the system of traffic between resurrectionists and anatomists, which the executive government has so long suffered to exist. Government is already in a great degree, responsible for the crime which it has fostered by its negligence, and even encouraged by a system of forbearance. " 
The murders have entered the timeless culture of children’s folklore. Threats of visits from Burke and Hare are used by some parents to discipline unruly children (sf. Boogyman), and the pair are even prominently featured in sing-song rhymes that accompany children’s jump rope and hopscotch games, such as:
Burke the butcher,
Hare the thief,
Knox the boy who buys the beef. The bogeyman, boogyman, bogyman, boogieman, boogey monster, or boogeyman, is a Folkloric or legendary Ghostlike 
In Kim by Rudyard Kipling, the Babu recommends "the eminent authors, Burke and Hare. Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936 was an English Author and poet " Presumably he means Edmund Burke, historian and statesman, and Augustus Hare, author of travel books. Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and Augustus John Cuthbert Hare ( March 13, 1834 &ndash January 22, 1903) was an English writer and Raconteur. But of course seeing these two names together makes the reader think of the two ghouls. 
The story of the murders was filmed in 1948 as a motion picture with working title Crimes of Burke and Hare. However, the British Board of Film Censors deemed its historical topic too disturbing and insisted that references to Burke and Hare be excised. The British Board of Film Classification ( BBFC) originally British Board of Film Censors, is the organisation responsible for Film, DVD The film was redubbed with alternative dialogue and characters, and was released as The Greed of William Hart. In filmmaking, dubbing or looping is the process of recording or replacing voices for a Motion picture.  The original script is apparent to anyone skilled in lipreading. Lip reading, also known as lipreading, speech reading, or speechreading, is a technique of understanding speech by visually interpreting A less coy treatment of the topic was made in the 1971 film Burke and Hare, starring Derren Nesbitt. Derren Nesbitt (born Derren Horwitz June 19, 1935) is an English Actor who was in demand in the 1960s and 1970s for roles that The 1960 film The Flesh and The Fiends also used the real names, with Peter Cushing as Knox and Donald Pleasence as Hare. Peter Wilton Cushing, OBE (26 May 1913—11 August 1994 was an English actor known for his many appearances in Hammer Films, in which he played Baron Frankenstein Donald Henry Pleasence, OBE, (5 October 1919 – 2 February 1995 was an English stage and film actor.  The following year, The Anatomist featured Alastair Sim as Dr Knox. Acting career Preferring the stage, Sim made his London debut in Othello in 1930  Burke and Hare also made an appearance in the Hammer Horror film Dr. Jekyll and Sister Hyde. Hammer Film Productions is a film production company based in the United Kingdom. Dr Jekyll and Sister Hyde is a 1971 UK film based on the Short story Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis In 1985, Freddie Francis directed a film version of the events entitled The Doctor and the Devils. Frederick William (Freddie Francis ( 22 December 1917 &ndash 17 March 2007) was an English Cinematographer and 
Another film based on the murders was to have been in pre-production, based on a script by Edinburgh novelist Irvine Welsh. Irvine Welsh (born 27 September 1958 Leith, Edinburgh) is a contemporary Scottish novelist, best known for his novel Trainspotting Provisionally titled The Meat Trade, the film was scheduled to feature Robert Carlyle and Colin Firth under the direction of Antonia Bird and was to have been shot on location, in Edinburgh, beginning in April 2007. Robert Carlyle OBE (born April 14, 1961) is an acclaimed BAFTA and Screen Actors Guild Award -winning Scottish Film Colin Andrew Firth (born 10 September, 1960) is an English film television and stage Actor. Antonia Bird (born 1959 in London) is an English TV and Film director. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. 
The Edinburgh-based Australian Rules Football club the Body Snatchers is named for the antics of Burke and Hare. Australian (rules football, or simply known as football, footy or Aussie rules, is a Team sport played between two teams of 18 players The Edinburgh Body Snatchers is an Australian rules football club in Edinburgh, Scotland, based around Edinburgh University students
A Thief 2 computer game enthusiast has created a fan mission titled "The Seven Sisters" which amongst other things features Dr. In Criminal law, theft (also known as stealing or filching) is the illegal taking of another person's Property without that person's freely-given Knox and the two murderers. Playing this mission requires the latest version of the "Darkloader" game loading and fan mission archiving program, as well as the Thief 2 game CD.
The murders, in particular those of Mary Patterson and Daft Jamie, are the main plot point in the Doctor Who audio drama Medicinal Purposes, starring Colin Baker, Leslie Phillips and David Tennant. Ian Rankin OBE, DL, (born 28 April 1960 in Cardenden, Fife) is a Scottish Crime writer. Detective Inspector John Rebus is the protagonist in the Inspector Rebus series of Detective novels by the Scottish writer Ian Rankin, 10 of Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. Medicinal Purposes is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British Science fiction Television series Colin Baker (born London, 8 June 1943 is an English Actor who is best known for playing the sixth incarnation of the Doctor Leslie Samuel Phillips, CBE (born 20 April 1924) is a BAFTA -nominated English Actor, best known for his comedy roles David Tennant (born David John McDonald; 18 April 1971 is a Scottish Actor.
In the Warner Bros. Daffy Duck short My Little Duckaroo, Nasty Canasta is seen reading a book called 'Gravedigger's Joke Book' by Burke and Hare. Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and Daffy Duck is an Animated cartoon character in the Warner Brothers Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of My Little Duckaroo is a 1954 Warner Bros theatrical Cartoon short produced by Edward Selzer.
In the series that inspired the hit television show "Bones," Burke and Hare were referenced in the penultimate to the most recent book Break no Bones by Kathy Reichs.
Another famous reference to the murders was in the CSI: Crime Scene Investigation episode "Burked". In said episode Tony Braun, Sam Braun's oldest son, was killed in the same way Burke and Hare killed their victims.
In Harry Potter, a Dark Arts shop in Knockturn Ally is called Borgin and Burkes. Knox is also Latin for darkness and is used to extinguish lights in the stories.