|Population:||59,768 (2007)  (30th)|
|• Density:||489. Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology This list of Australian cities by population briefly explains the three different population figures given for Australian cities and provides rankings for each Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 89/km² (1268. 8/sq mi)|
|Area:||95 km² (36. Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 7 sq mi)|
|Time zone:||AEST (UTC+10)|
|Location:||385 km (239 mi) from Brisbane|
Bundaberg is a city in Queensland, Australia. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The city lies on the Burnett River, approximately 385 kilometres north of the state capital, Brisbane and 15 kilometres inland from the coast. The Burnett River is a river in central Queensland, Australia that empties into the Pacific Ocean near the city of Bundaberg. Brisbane ( is the state capital of Queensland. Brisbane is the third most populous city in Australia and the most populous city of Queensland Bundaberg is a major centre within Queensland's Wide Bay-Burnett region. The Regions of Queensland refers to the geographic areas of the Australian state of Queensland.
The city name is thought to be an artificial combination of bunda, the Kabi Aboriginal word denoting important man and the German suffix berg indicating mountain. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages.  The city is colloquially known as "Bundy". A colloquialism is an expression not used in formal speech, writing or Paralinguistics.
The local Aboriginal group is the Gurang Gurang (goo-rang goo-rang) people. The Goreng goreng people are an Australian Aboriginal language group
Bundaberg has sister city agreements with Nanning, China and Settsu City, Japan. Nanning ( Zhuang: Namzningz, meaning 'South Prosperity' is the capital of Guangxi autonomous region in southern China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National is a city located in Osaka, Japan. As of 2003 the city has an estimated Population of 85110 and the density of 5723 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
Bundaberg as a European township was founded by timbergetters John and Gavin Steuart and Lachlan Tripp in 1867. Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The first farmers in the area arrived soon after. Timber was the first established industry in Bundaberg. In 1868 a sawmill was erected on the Burnett River downstream from the Steuart and Watson holdings. The city was surveyed, laid out and named Bundaberg in 1870. Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Experimental sugar cane growing in the district followed and a successful industry grew. The early sugar industry in Bundaberg was the result of the semi-slave labour carried out by Kanaka. Kanakas were workers from various Pacific Islands employed under varying conditions in various British colonies such as British Columbia ( Canada Bundaberg was gazetted a town in 1902 and a city in 1913. The main street is called Bourbong Street - the result of a typographical error by the local daily paper, the News-Mail. The street had originally been named Bourbon Street.
Subtropical Bundaberg is dependent to a large extent on the local sugar industry. The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Extensive sugar cane fields are present throughout the district and value-adding operations, such as the milling and refinement of sugar, and its packaging and distribution, are located around the city. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae A local factory that manufactured sugar cane harvesters was closed down after it was taken over by the US multinational corporation Case New Holland. Multinational corporation ( MNC) or transnational corporation ( TNC) is a Corporation or enterprise that manages Production or delivers A bulk terminal for the export of sugar is located on the Burnett River east of Bundaberg. Another of the city's better-known exports is Bundaberg Rum, which is made from the sugar cane by-product molasses. Bundaberg Rum is a dark Rum produced in Bundaberg, Australia, often referred to as "Bundy" Molasses or Treacle is a thick Syrup by-product from the processing of the Sugarcane or Sugar beet into Sugar. Bundaberg is also home to beverage producer Bundaberg Brewed Drinks. Bundaberg Brewed Drinks Pty Ltd is an Australian based family owned Soft drinks manufacturer located in Bundaberg, Queensland.
Commercial fruit and vegetable production is also prominent throughout the district, most notably tomatoes, zucchinis, capsicums, legumes and watermelons are grown in abundant quantities. The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family Zucchini ( in North American and Australian English) or courgette (/kʊǝrˈʒɛt/ or in New Zealand and British English Capsicum is a Genus of Plants from the nightshade family ( Solanaceae) native to the Americas, where it was cultivated for thousands A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ( Thunb) Matsum & Nakai family Cucurbitaceae) refers to both Fruit and Plant of a vine-like (climber
Tourism is an important industry to Queensland and Bundaberg is known as the 'Gateway to the Great Barrier Reef'. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest Coral reef system in the world composed of over 2900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for 2600 kilometres (1600 mi The city lies near the southern end of the reef in proximity to Lady Elliot and Lady Musgrave Islands. Lady Elliot Island is the southern-most Coral Cay of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Lady Musgrave Island is a 14 ha Coral Cay in the Great Barrier Reef, with a 1192 ha surrounding reef The world famous Mon Repos turtle rookery is located on the coast just east of Bundaberg, as is the town of Bargara, an increasingly popular holiday and retirement destination. Mon Repos Conservation Park is a Turtle Rookery located on Queensland 's central coast 14 km east of Bundaberg. Turtles are Reptiles of the Order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the Crown group Chelonia) most of A rookery is a colony of breeding animals The term is most commonly applied to the nesting place of Birds such as the Crow and rook, a bird similar Bargara ( is a small town located on the central coast of Queensland, Australia.
The northern bank of the Burnett River between the Matt Tallon and Burnett bridges is home to a colony of flying foxes. Bats of the genus Pteropus, belonging to the Megachiroptera sub-order are the largest Bats in the world The bats leave the river at dusk and fan out all over the city to look for food.
Tours of the famous Bundaberg Rum distillery are also popular with tourists. Bundaberg Rum is a dark Rum produced in Bundaberg, Australia, often referred to as "Bundy" The Mystery Craters - mysterious water filled holes in the ground at South Kolan are also a tourist attraction.
Nearby beaches are popular with both locals and tourists. Moore Park, to the city's north, boasts 20 km of golden sandy beach. Beaches on the southern side of the Burnett River are (from north to south) The Oaks Beach, Mon Repos, Nielsen Park, Bargara Beach, Kellys Beach, Innes Park and Elliott Heads. Mon Repos attracts tourists. Kellys Beach is popular with families, particularly in summer months.
In the city, there are three public high schools, Bundaberg State High School (the oldest high school in Queensland), North Bundaberg State High School and Kepnock State High School. There are also three main private secondary schools: St. Luke's Anglican School, Shalom Catholic College, and Bundaberg Christian College. St Luke's Anglican School is a Kindergarten - Year 12 school in Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia. There are many public and private primary schools.
Bundaberg has a subtropical - Temperate climate with warm summers and cool winters. The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of The mean daily maximum temperature is highest in January at 30. 3 Celsius, and the mean daily minimum is lowest in July at 10. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 0 degrees Celsius. With the coldest temperature recorded in Bundaberg a mere 0. 8 degrees Celsius and some inland areas of Bundaberg sometimes receive frosts. The mean annual rainfall is 1141. 0 millimetres
|Mean daily maximum temperature (°C)||30. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 3||30. 0||29. 3||27. 5||24. 8||22. 4||22. 0||23. 2||25. 2||27. 1||28. 7||30. 1||26. 7|
|Mean daily minimum temperature (°C)||21. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 3||21. 2||20. 0||17. 4||13. 9||11. 3||9. 9||10. 7||13. 4||16. 5||18. 8||20. 6||16. 3|
|Mean total rainfall (mm)||205. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to 8||173. 5||139. 7||84. 1||70. 6||65. 7||53. 5||33. 4||35. 7||62. 8||85. 0||131. 0||1142. 6|
|Mean number of rain days||10. 0||9. 6||9. 5||6. 6||5. 7||4. 3||4. 0||3. 5||3. 5||5. 2||6. 3||7. 9||76. 1|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Bundaberg is situated at the end of the Isis Highway (State Route 3), approximately 50 km east of its junction with the Bruce Highway. The Isis Highway is a state Highway in southern Queensland, Australia. The Bruce Highway is the major coastal highway of Queensland, Australia. Bundaberg is serviced by several Queensland Rail passenger trains, including the Tilt Train and is approximately four and a half hours north of Brisbane by rail. QR Limited is the company government-owned corporation responsible for the operation and maintenance of the railway system in the State of Queensland The Tilt Train is a Queensland Rail train running the coast of Queensland, from Brisbane to Rockhampton and Cairns. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Many long-distance bus services also pass through the city. Bundaberg is also served by Bundaberg Airport, with flights to Brisbane and Lady Elliot Island. Bundaberg Airport is an airport in Bundaberg Queensland, Australia. Adjacent to the airport is a campus of Central Queensland University. CQUniversity is an Australian public University based in Queensland. The city is home to the Jabiru Aircraft Company, which designs and manufactures a range of small civil utility aircraft. This article is about the aircraft For the Stork see Jabiru. The Jabiru Aircraft Company Pty Ltd produces a range of small civil utility Bundaberg Port is located 20 kilometres northeast of the city, at the mouth of the Burnett River. The Burnett River is a river in central Queensland, Australia that empties into the Pacific Ocean near the city of Bundaberg. The port is a destination for ships from Australia and overseas. It is predominantly used for shipping raw sugar and other goods related to that industry such as Bundaberg Rum. Bundaberg Rum is a dark Rum produced in Bundaberg, Australia, often referred to as "Bundy"
Well-known current and former inhabitants of Bundaberg include:
Most major Australian sporting codes are played in Bundaberg, including; Australian rules football, Basketball, Cricket, Golf, Lawn bowls, Netball, Rugby league, Soccer and Softball. Australian (rules football, or simply known as football, footy or Aussie rules, is a Team sport played between two teams of 18 players Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Bowls (also known as Lawn Bowls or Lawn Bowling) is a precision Sport in which the goal is to roll slightly radially asymmetrical Balls Netball is a non-contact team Sport similar to and derived from Basketball. History See also History of rugby league The grass roots of rugby league can be traced to early football history, through the playing of ball games Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Softball is a team Sport popular especially in the United States.
The Bundaberg & District Tennis Senior Association operates eleven floodlit clay courts in Drinan Park, Bundaberg West at the corner of George & Powers Streets. Competition tennis is played all year round. The Bundaberg & District Junior Tennis Association operate five artificial grass courts, and two granite courts at 69B George Street in Bundaberg South.
Bundaberg attracted national media attention in 2005 due to the alleged incompetence of Bundaberg Base Hospital surgical director Jayant Patel (also known as "Doctor Death"), who was implicated in the deaths of up to 87 patients. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Jayant Mukundray Patel (born April 10, 1950) is a surgeon who is at the centre of a 2005 Scandal when he was accused of gross incompetence
Bundaberg was also the location of another health-related disaster in January 1928, when 12 children died shortly after receiving injections of diphtheria vaccine. Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Diphtheria ( Greek διφθερα ( diphthera)—“pair of leather scrolls" is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore A vaccine is a biological preparation which is used to establish or improve immunity to a particular disease At the time, the vaccine was created by the toxin-antitoxin, or TAT process, where diphtheria toxin was combined with antibodies from horses, which served to eliminate the toxicity of the toxin while leaving it intact enough to stimulate a long-lasting immunological response in the recipient. Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are Gamma globulin Proteins that are found in Blood or other Bodily An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor The vaccine, produced by the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories in Melbourne – world renowned for the quality of its work and products – was dispensed to many of the city's children from late 1927 without incident. CSL Limited is an Australian-based manufacturer of medical products Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 However, because of fears that the preservative usually included in the TAT preparation might render the vaccine ineffective, it had been left out of the batch supplied to Bundaberg. A preservative is a natural or synthetic chemical that is added to products such as foods pharmaceuticals paints biological samples wood etc Unfortunately, the associated warning did not reach the local Medical Officer of Health, Dr Ewing Thomson, and he continued to re-use the batch of vaccine over a period of weeks, including immunising his own son. On 27 January 1928 Thomson inoculated 21 children aged from one to nine years old; over the following 36 hours 18 became very ill and 12 died. One family lost all three of their children in the disaster, and two more families watched two of their children die. Not surprisingly, the ‘Bundaberg tragedy’ or ‘serum tragedy’ – as it became known – created a media sensation both in Australia and around the world, causing a halt in diphtheria immunisation programs as far afield as New Zealand and Cape Town. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Cape Town (Kaapstad Xhosa: Ikapa) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the metropolitan municipality of the Given the precarious nature of mass immunisation programs at the time, the Bundaberg tragedy also potentially compromised the careers of the Minister of Health, Dr Sir Neville Howse, and the Director General of Health, Dr John Cumpston. Major General Sir Neville Reginald Howse VC, KCB, KCMG (26 October 1863 - 19 September 1930 was an Australian soldier and politician
Initial fears that the TAT process had failed to neutralize the diphtheria toxin in this instance were allayed by an Australian Royal Commission. The term Royal Commission may also be used in the United Kingdom to describe the group of Lords Commissioners who may act in the stead of the This Commission, headed by the director of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Charles Kellaway, found that the vaccine had become contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, probably from Thomson’s imperfect sterilisation technique. The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research is one of Australia's foremost Medical Research Institutes Located in Parkville, Charles Halliley Kellaway MC (16 January 1889 - 13 December 1952 was an Australian medical scientist and science administrator Staphylococcus aureus (ˌstæfɨləˈkɒkəs ˈɔriəs literally "Golden Cluster Seed" and also known as golden staph) is the most common cause of In the Bundaberg heat, these bacteria had multiplied in the vaccine, contaminating the serum with a massive quantity of a different toxin (see toxic shock syndrome). Toxic shock syndrome ( TSS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. As a result of this finding, the Royal Commission issued a strong recommendation, adopted by all major manufacturers, that all vaccines packaged for administration of multiple doses should incorporate an antibacterial preservative. After testing of various compounds for toxicity and compatibility with the vaccine, the optimal preservative was determined to be thimerosal, which, ironically, has now become controversial due to questions of its own toxicity. Thiomersal ( INN) (C9H9HgNaO2S commonly known in the United States as thimerosal, is an Organomercury compound (approximately By 1931, CSL had replaced the TAT formulation with diphtheria anatoxin (or toxoid), which was claimed to be a safer product.
The Bundaberg tragedy set back the cause of mass immunisation in Australia by several years, and its consequences were remembered for decades in the town. Ewing Thomson stayed in Bundaberg for several years but then left, claiming that the fault lay with CSL’s inadequate labelling rather than his procedures. However, in addition to improving manufacturing of vaccines, the Royal Commission helped raise the profile of medical research in Australia and provided an important intellectual impetus for the future Nobel Prize winning immunologist Macfarlane Burnet, who had conducted key bacteriological work during the investigation. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical Science that covers the study of all aspects of the Immune system in all Organisms It deals with Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, OM, AK, KBE (3 September 1899 – 31 August 1985 usually known as Macfarlane or Mac Burnet, was