Bumiputra or Bumiputera: Malay, also known as Pribumi in Indonesian, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means "earth son" (bhumi= earth, putra=son) or son of the soil. The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Bumiputra is a political term widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays, Javanese, Bugis, Minang and occasionally other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast The Bugis are the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, the southwestern province of Sulawesi, Indonesia's third largest The Minangkabau ethnic group (also known as Minang or Padang) is indigenous to the highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. Orang Asli ( lit, "original peoples" or " Aboriginal peoples " in Malay) is a general term used for any indigenous groups that are Sabah is a Malaysian state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the Island of Borneo. Economic policies designed to favour Bumiputras (including affirmative action in public education) were implemented in the 1970s purportedly to defuse inter-ethnic tensions following the May 13 Incident in 1969. Affirmative action in the United States|Employment equity (Canada|Reservation in India|Numerus clausus The term affirmative action describes many policies aimed at a historically The May 13 Incident is a term for the Sino - Malay Race riots in Kuala Lumpur (then part of the state of Selangor These policies have succeeded in creating a significant urban Malay middle class but have been less effective in eradicating poverty among rural communities and have caused a backlash of resentment from excluded groups (such as the Chinese and Indian Malaysians).
The concept of a "Bumiputra" race in Malaysia was coined by Tunku Abdul Rahman and has its roots in the recognition of the "special position" of the Malays given by the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, in particular Article 153. Sir Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, CH ( February 8 1903 &ndash December 6 The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising 181 articles is the supreme Law of Malaysia. Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia responsibility for However, the constitution does not actually use the term "bumiputra", it only contains the definitions of "Malay" and "aborigine" (Article 160(2)), "natives" of Sarawak (161A(6)(a)), and "natives" of Sabah (Article 161A(6)(b)). Thus, there are a number of definitions of "bumiputra" in public use, varying among different institutions, organizations or other government departments and agencies.
According to the book entitled "Buku Panduan Kemasukan ke Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam, Program Pengajian Lepasan SPM/Setaraf Sesi Akademik 2007/2008" (Guidebook for entry into public higher learning institutions for SPM/equivalent graduates for academic year 2007/2008), by Student Entry Management under Management Department of Higher Education Institution, Malaysian Higher Education Ministry, Bumiputra are defined as follows depending on the region of origin of the individual applicant student:
In addition to the interpretation given above, there have been proposals for a broader definition of bumiputra to include groups such as the Thai Malaysians, Muslim Indian Malaysians, Straits Chinese or Peranakan and the Kristang people of Portuguese descent. Peninsular Malaysia ( Semenanjung Malaysia) also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on Sabah is a Malaysian state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the Island of Borneo. Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya ( Hokkien: Bā-bā Niû-liá) and Straits Chinese (zh-Hant 土生華人 named after the Straits Settlements The Kristang are an Ethnic group of people of mixed Portuguese and Asian descent which arose in Malacca ( Malaysia) between
At the time of Malaya's independence from the British in 1957, many non-Malays individuals were first or second generation immigrants who had come to fill colonial manpower needs as indentured labourers, a form of limited-term post-emancipation slavery, and the Malay leaders felt disadvantaged as a minorities. Article 153 of the Constitution states that:
|“||It shall be the responsibility of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to safeguard the special position of the Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak and the legitimate interests of other communities in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia responsibility for The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the highest ranking office created by the constitution of the federation of Malaysia||”|
Article 160 defines a Malay as being one who "professes the religion of Islam, habitually speaks the Malay language, conforms to Malay customs and is the child of at least one parent who was born within the Federation of Malaysia before independence of Malaya on the 31st of August 1957". Article 160 of the Constitution of Malaysia defines various terms used in the Constitution. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
The term of this special position has been disputed; the Reid Commission which drafted the Constitution initially proposed that Article 153 expire after 15 years unless renewed by Parliament. The Reid Commission was an independent commission responsible for drafting the Constitution of the Federation of Malaya prior to Malayan independence from Britain The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia is the national Legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. This was later struck from the final draft. After the May 13 Incident in 1969, there was an argument within the government concerning whether the special position of the Bumiputras ought to have a sunset clause. The May 13 Incident is a term for the Sino - Malay Race riots in Kuala Lumpur (then part of the state of Selangor In Public policy, a sunset provision or sunset clause is a provision in a Statute or Regulation that terminates or repeals all or portions of Ismail Abdul Rahman argued that "the question be left to the Malays themselves because . Tun Dr Ismail Abdul Rahman ( November 4, 1915 - August 2, 1973) was a Malaysian politician from the United Malays . . as more and more Malays became educated and gained self-confidence, they themselves would do away with this 'special position'. " Ismail himself viewed the special position as "a slur on the ability of the Malays".  In 1970, however, one member of the Cabinet pronounced that Malay special rights would remain for "hundreds of years to come". The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysia 's government  Despite calls from the current Prime Minister of Malaysia, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and his predecessor, Dr. The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected Head of government of Malaysia. Dato' Seri Abdullah Hj Ahmad Badawi (born 26 November 1939 is a Malaysian politician who has served as Prime Minister since 2003 Mahathir bin Mohamad for Malays to depend less on Government handouts and subsidies there is no evidence to show that the special privileges enjoyed by the Bumiputra will be taken away any time soon or at all. Tun Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad (ma'ħɑðiɽ bin mʊħɑmmæd̚ (recorded as born on 20 December 1925 was the fourth Prime Minister of On the contrary there has been calls for the privileges to be expanded and extended to cover more areas of their daily lives.
The word "Bumiputra" was first used in Parliament in 1965 during the debate of the act which would create the Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA), a government agency formed to preserve Bumiputra interests. The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia is the national Legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The Majlis Amanah Rakyat ( Malay: Indigenous People's Trust Council commonly abbreviated as MARA) is a Malaysian government agency 
Certain pro-bumiputra policies exist as a means of affirmative action for bumiputras. Affirmative action in the United States|Employment equity (Canada|Reservation in India|Numerus clausus The term affirmative action describes many policies aimed at a historically Such policies include quotas for the following: admission to government educational institutions, qualification for public scholarships, positions in government and ownership in business. Most of them were established in the Malaysian New Economic Policy (NEP). For the Soviet New Economic Policy see New Economic Policy. The Malaysian New Economic Policy ( NEP or DEB for Dasar Many of them focus on establishing a Bumiputra share of corporate equity comprising at least 30% of the total. This target was originally proposed by Ismail Abdul Rahman, after the government was unable to agree on a suitable policy goal. Tun Dr Ismail Abdul Rahman ( November 4, 1915 - August 2, 1973) was a Malaysian politician from the United Malays 
Examples of such policies include:
Consequentially, as a result of these policies, many Bumiputera millionaires were born at the stroke of a pen due to their connections.
In addition to the above economic advantages, Bumiputras previously received other privileges in public tertiary education, such as ethnic quotas. In 2004, Dr. Shafie Salleh, the newly appointed Higher Education Minister, stated that he "will ensure the quota of Malay students' entry into universities is always higher". This was demonstrated in 2004 when Non-Bumiputra students who scored 5As in the STPM (the highest possible grade) were denied admission to their first choice of study in public universities while Bumiputra students with lesser grades were nonetheless admitted.
Since 2000, the Government has discussed phasing out certain discriminatory practises, and reinstating "meritocracy". Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability The eventual result was the system of "Malaysian model meritocracy" begun in 2003. In the implementation, admission to public universities was not based upon a common examination like the SAT or A-Levels but rather upon two parallel systems of a one-year matriculation course and a two-year STPM (literally translated as "Malaysian Higher School Certificate") programme. The SAT Reasoning Test (formerly Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test) is a standardized test for College admissions in the The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, The Higher School Certificate, or HSC, is the credential awarded to secondary school students who successfully complete Bumiputras compose an overwhelming majority of entrants to the matriculation programme, leading to some complaints from the public, as the public university entry requirements are suggested to be easier for matriculation students.
Quotas also exist for Public Services Department (JPA) scholarships, which are full scholarships offered to students to study in leading universities worldwide. These scholarships are given on the basis of SPM (translated as "Malaysian Education Certificate", the equivalent of O-Levels) results, race and certain quotas. The O-level (Ordinary Level is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education (GCE The JPA scholars then are sent to selected pre-university programmes offered by the government — from there, they apply to universities.
The laws and rules favouring bumiputras are present in every level. For example, in the secondary school level English Language Debate, at least one of the three active speakers must be a bumiputra. Any team which does not follow this rule is disqualified.
Bumiputra privileges and quotas are based on article 153 of the constitution which states that : 'It shall be the responsibility of the Yang di Pertuan Agong to safeguard the special position of the Malays and the legitimate interests of other communities in accordance with the provisions of this Article'. Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia responsibility for Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy hence the responsibilities of the YDP are regarded as the responsibilities of the state.
Clause 5 of article 153 specifically reaffirms article 136 of the constitution which states: 'All persons of whatever race in the same grade in the service of the Federation shall, subject to the terms and conditions of their employment, be treated impartially. '
Clause 9 of article 153 states 'Nothing in this Article shall empower Parliament to restrict business or trade solely for the purpose of reservations for Malays. '
Article 8 of the constitution (clause 2) states: 'Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment. '
The Bumiputra laws stand out as an unusual public policy where preferential actions benefit the majority race of a country, and some argue that the advantages afforded to bumiputras border on outright racism. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Others argue that the Malaysian situation at the time the policy was introduced — where a minority ethnic group widely regarded as non-native controlled most of the locally-owned sector of the economy, due in no small part to colonial legacies which had assisted Chinese migrants to become dominant in the business sector to the point that Malays were largely excluded from economic life, other than as subsistence farmers, small-scale fishermen, and laborers — was an unusual and deeply unstable situation. The government also argues that the legal and economic advantages are necessary for Malaysia to reduce ethnic conflict. The NEP, in particular, was spurred by large racial riots on May 13, 1969. The May 13 Incident is a term for the Sino - Malay Race riots in Kuala Lumpur (then part of the state of Selangor Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The Malay controlled government ensures that all Bumiputeras of Malay origin are given preferential treatment when it comes to the number of student places in Government universities, they are also given 7% discounts for new houses purchased by them, special Malay reserve land in most housing settlements, burial plots in most urban areas for the deceased Bumiputeras while the rest have to be cremated at such locations or pay premium prices, that all key government positions to be held by Malays including most sporting associations, a minimum of a 30% Malay Bumiputera equity to be held in Listed Companies, full funding for mosques and Islamic places of worship, special high earning interest trust funds for Bumiputera Malays, special share allocation for new share applications for Bumiputera Malays, making the Malay language paper a compulsory paper to pass with such high emphasis given to it, giving Malay students easier passing marks in the Government exams, better treatment of Malay prisoners in jail compared to non Malays, Overseas scholarships mostly for Malays, having certain higher learning institutions to be only filled up by Malays, biased court rulings against people who wish to leave the Islamic religion, just to name a few. This is a case of majority rights which is totally against all orthodox beliefs of constitutional law.
Another controversial aspect is that the Orang Asli of peninsular Malaysia are not considered Bumiputra under the Federal constitution. Orang Asli ( lit, "original peoples" or " Aboriginal peoples " in Malay) is a general term used for any indigenous groups that are As their settlement predates that of the Malays, this is considered unfair by many, especially as they are also much worse off than the Malays. As such, various groups including SUHAKAM, the Malaysian Commission of Human Rights have called for the government to recognise Orang Asli as Bumiputra Others argue that the Orang Asli are in fact considered bumiputera. Orang Asli ( lit, "original peoples" or " Aboriginal peoples " in Malay) is a general term used for any indigenous groups that are 
In the 1965 session of Parliament, Singapore's Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew (who was also a Member of that Parliament) questioned the implementation of Malay rights as proposed. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia is the national Legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. Singapore The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore is the Head of government of the Republic of Singapore (and prior to 9 August 1965 Lee Kuan Yew, GCMG, CH ( born September 16 1923 also spelled Lee Kwan-Yew) is a Singaporean of Chinese immigrant background Lee asked, "How does the Malay in the kampong find his way out into this modernised civil society? By becoming servants of the 0. A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a Town or City. 3 per cent who would have the money to hire them to clean their shoe, open their motorcar doors?" and "How does telling a Malay bus driver that he should support the party of his Malay director (UMNO) and the Chinese bus conductor to join another party of his Chinese director (MCA) — how does that improve the standards of the Malay bus driver and the Chinese bus conductor who are both workers in the same company?"
Lee closed with "Meanwhile, whenever there is a failure of economic, social and educational policies, you come back and say, oh, these wicked Chinese, Indian and others opposing Malay rights. They don't oppose Malay rights. They, the Malay, have the right as Malaysian citizens to go up to the level of training and education that the more competitive societies, the non-Malay society, has produced. That is what must be done, isn't it? Not to feed them with this obscurantist doctrine that all they have got to do is to get Malay rights for the few special Malays and their problem has been resolved. "
It soon became clear that the PAP's campaign for a Malaysian Malaysia under the Malaysian Solidarity Convention as an indirect challenge against the racial policies was not well received by the ruling Alliance, led by the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO). The phrase " Malaysian Malaysia " was originally used in the early 1960s as the rallying Motto of the Malaysian Solidarity Council, a Confederation The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu is a Right-wing party and Malaysia 's largest Political Amidst the escalating communal issues in the state of Singapore, and the problems regarding the persistent neglect of the Federal Government concerning the economy of Singapore, Lee announced Singapore's separation from Malaysia on 9 August 1965, hours after the Malaysian Prime Minister made a similar announcement in the Malaysian Parliament. Singapore Singapore For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected Head of government of Malaysia.
In 2004, Mohd. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Johari Baharum, parliamentary secretary of the Prime Minister's Department, stated that the PSD scholarships would remain quota based. He added that there were no plans to convert this to a merit based system, and that the total value of the PSD scholarship since 1996 was 2. 4 billion Ringgit. Ringgit ( Malay for "jagged" mostly refers to the Malaysian ringgit, which is the local currency in Malaysia, but it can also refer  There have been reported cases of students who failed to get PSD scholarships, but were later admitted to leading universities.
In an autobiographical book, "A Malaysian Journey", by former Malaysian journalist Rehman Rashid, the author claims that the teachers are pressured in the universities to give favorable grades to the bumiputra students, even if they have inferior answers compared to the non-bumiputra students. Rehman Rashid (born 1955) is a prominent Malaysian Journalist and Writer. He also suggests that the grants given by private corporations to students may in fact be unofficially earmarked to bumiputra.
At the 55th annual general assembly of the largest political party in Malaysia, the United Malays National Organisation, the deputy chairperson Badruddin Amiruldin cautioned against questioning the Bumiputra's special rights, and was met with approval from the delegates: "Let no one from the other races ever question the rights of Malays on this land. The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu is a Right-wing party and Malaysia 's largest Political Don’t question the religion because this is my right on this land. " Such has been the sheer arrogance of UMNO that in the recently concluded elections, the people have voted against them. Statements like this have proven to be their downfall. Instead of trying to get rid of the "clutch" mentality, the current crop of UMNO leaders are reverting and using this outdated tool to gain political mileage from the grassroot support of the bumiputras.
Former Prime Minister Tun Dr. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Mahathir Mohammad has bemoaned the extreme reliance of Bumiputras on their privileges: "We have tried to tell them if you depend on subsidies, you are going to be very weak. Tun Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad (ma'ħɑðiɽ bin mʊħɑmmæd̚ (recorded as born on 20 December 1925 was the fourth Prime Minister of But they don’t seem to understand. We tell them if you use crutches, you will not be able to stand up. Throw away the crutches, stand up straight because you still have the capacity. I have talked about this thing and as a doctor I know very well the meaning of crutches but somehow or rather they want the easy way out. If I get an AP [car import permit] and I sell it and make some money, it’s all right, they say. "
Mahathir (who was also education minister previously) also said in 2004 that Malay graduates tend to have low employment rates because "the Chinese graduates choose the right subjects so they are employable. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. We find that the Malay graduates, especially those from the Malay stream, can’t speak English at all. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States No matter how much value you put on a certificate, the fact remains that an employer wants somebody with whom he can communicate. The employer is not Malay, he is a foreigner. And if he’s not going to be able to communicate with you, he will not take you. "
Furthermore, the Malay students, with Government-issued scholarships and study loans, tend to take up subjects like Syariah Law, Islamic History and other Islam-related subjects. Instead of choosing to learn English and taking up subjects that are of more secular tangible benefits (e. g. Engineering, Medicine, etc. ) some have gone to great lengths to further their studies in Middle Eastern countries, learning Arabic in the process. Even so, this has not always been to the benefit of the students. In June 2006, it was revealed that a batch of 169 students sent to the Al-Azhar University in Cairo had difficulties with the Arabic language, resulting in only 5 students making it through their course. Al-Azhar University (pronounced "az-HAR" الأزهر الشريف, "the Noble Azhar" in Egypt, founded in 975 is the chief centre of  The Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, had strongly criticized this trend among Malay students to choose "simple subjects" which are worthless in the job market.
The current (2006) Minister of Higher Education, Mustapa Mohamad, has stated that that he wants public universities to recruit more non-bumiputra academic staff in order to "strive for world-class institutions", which may signal a move toward less racial profiling in academia.
However, as of 2007, Chinese Malaysians dominate the professions of accountants, architects and engineers while Indian Malaysians dominate the professions of veterinarians, doctors, lawyers and dentists well exceeding their respective population ratios compared to Bumiputra. 
It should be noted that the manufacturing sector is exempted from the Foreign Investment Committee (FIC) Guidelines. The 30% Bumiputera equity and restrictions in market entry have been removed for all sub-sectors. (pdf)
The state of Penang has announced that it will not be following Bumiputera policies in state sector employment, following the 2008 elections in which the ruling Barisan Nasional party was defeated.