The buccaneers were pirates or privateers who attacked Spanish, and later French, shipping in the Caribbean Islands during the 17th century. Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering A privateer was a private Warship authorized by a country's Government by Letters of marque to attack foreign shipping Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting
The term buccaneer is now used generally as a synonym for pirate. Originally, buccaneer crews were larger, more apt to attack coastal cities, and more localized to the Caribbean than later pirate crews who sailed to the Indian Ocean on the Pirate Round in the late 17th century. The Pirate Round was a sailing route followed by certain Anglo-American pirates, mainly during the late 17th century
The term buccaneer derives from the Arawak word buccan, a wooden frame for smoking the meat of sea cows, hence the French word boucan and the name boucanier for French hunters who used such frames to smoke meat from feral cattle and pigs on Hispaniola (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic). The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for Cassava flour was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in prod concern = dictionary material and its already in Wiktionary month = October day = 12 year = 2008 time = 0006 timestamp = 20081012000612 Manatees ( family Trichechidae, Genus Trichechus) are large fully aquatic Marine mammals sometimes known as sea A feral organism is one that has escaped from Domestication and returned partly or wholly to its wild state Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous Island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with  British colonists anglicised the word boucanier to buccaneer. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands
About 1630, some Frenchmen who were driven away from the island of Hispaniola fled to nearby Tortuga. Tortuga may refer to a Spanish word meaning Tortoise the name of several islands La Tortuga Island in The Spaniards tried to drive them out of Tortuga, but the buccaneers were joined by many other French, Dutch and English and turned to piracy against Spanish shipping, generally using small craft to attack galleons in the vicinity of the Windward Passage. A galleon was a large multi-decked Sailing ship used primarily by the nations of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries The Windward Passage is a Strait in the Caribbean Sea, between the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola. Finally they became so strong that they even sailed to the mainland of Spanish America and sacked cities.
English settlers occupying Jamaica began to spread the name buccaneers with the meaning of pirates or privateers. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. The name became universally adopted later in 1684 when the first English translation of Alexandre Exquemelin's book The Buccaneers of America was published. Alexandre Olivier Exquemelin (also spelled Esquemeling, Exquemeling, or Oexmelin) (c
Viewed from London, buccaneering was a low-budget way to wage war on Britain's rival, Spain. So, the English crown licensed buccaneers as "privateers", legalizing their operations in return for a share of their profits. The buccaneers were invited by Jamaica's Governor Thomas Modyford to base ships at Port Royal. Colonel Sir Thomas Modyford 1st Baronet, (c 1620 &ndash 2 September 1679) was a planter of Barbados and Governor of Jamaica, 1664-70 Port Royal, Jamaica was the centre of Shipping Commerce in the Islands of the Greater Antilles which make up the northeastern The buccaneers robbed French, Dutch and Spanish shipping and colonies, and returned to Port Royal with their plunder, making the city the most prosperous in the West Indies. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting There even were navy officers sent to lead the buccaneers, such as Christopher Myngs. Sir Christopher Myngs (1625&ndash1666 English Admiral and Pirate, came of a Norfolk family Their activities went on irrespective of whether England happened to be at war with Spain, the United Provinces or France. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Among the leaders of the buccaneers was a Frenchman named Daniel Montbars, who destroyed so many Spanish ships and killed so many Spaniards that he was called "the Exterminator". Daniel Montbars (1645&ndash1707? better known as Montbars the Exterminator, was a 17th-century French Buccaneer. Another noted leader was a Welshman named Henry Morgan, who sacked Maracaibo, Portobello, and Panama City, stealing a huge amount from the Spanish. Admiral Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh) ( ca 1635 &ndash August 25, 1688) was a Welsh Privateer, who made a name Morgan became rich and went back to England, where he was knighted by Charles II. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
In the 1690s, the old buccaneering ways began to die out, as European governments began to discard the policy of "no peace beyond the Line. " Buccaneers were hard to control and might embroil their colonies in unwanted wars. Notably, at the 1697 joint French-buccaneer siege of Cartagena, the buccaneers and the French regulars parted on extremely bitter terms. The Raid on Cartagena was a successful attack by the French on the fortified city of Cartagena Colombia on May 6 1697, as part of the War of the Grand Less tolerated by local Caribbean officials, buccaneers increasingly turned to legal work or else joined regular pirate crews who sought plunder in the Indian Ocean, the east coast of North America, or West Africa as well as in the Caribbean.
The status of buccaneers as pirates or privateers was ambiguous. As a rule, the buccaneers called themselves privateers, and many sailed under the protection of a letter of marque granted by British or French authorities. A letter of marque is an official warrant or commission from a Government authorizing the designated agent to search seize or destroy specified assets Henry Morgan in particular had some form of legal cover for all of his attacks. Admiral Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh) ( ca 1635 &ndash August 25, 1688) was a Welsh Privateer, who made a name
Nevertheless, these rough men had little concern for legal niceties, and exploited every opportunity to pillage Spanish targets, whether or not a letter of marque were available. Many of the letters of marque used by buccaneers were legally invalid, and any form of legal paper in that illiterate age might be passed off as a letter of marque. Furthermore, even those buccaneers that had valid letters of marque often failed to observe their terms; Morgan's 1671 attack on Panama, for instance, was not at all authorized by his commission from the governor of Jamaica.
The legal status of buccaneers was still further obscured by the practice of the Spanish authorities, who regarded them as heretics and interlopers, and thus hanged or garrotted captured buccaneers entirely without regard to whether their attacks were licensed by French or English monarchs.
Simultaneously, French and English governors tended to turn a blind eye to the buccaneers' depredations against the Spanish, even when unlicensed. But as Spanish power waned toward the end of the 17th century, the buccaneers' attacks began to disrupt France and England's merchant traffic with Spanish America. Merchants who had previously regarded the buccaneers as a defense against Spain now saw them as a threat to commerce, and colonial authorities grew hostile. This change in political atmosphere, more than anything else, put an end to buccaneering.
A hundred years before the French Revolution, the buccaneer companies were run on lines in which liberty, equality and brotherhood were the rule, although only for white members of the crew. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force In a buccaneer ship, the captain was elected and could be deposed by the votes of the crew. The crew, and not the captain, decided the destination of each voyage and whether to attack a particular ship.  The buccaneers' democratic model was adopted by many later pirate crews.
Spoils were evenly divided into shares; the captain received an agreed amount for the ship, plus a portion of the share of the prize money, usually five or six shares. Generally prize money or purse is a monetary Prize awarded for winning or coming a place in a competition  Crews generally had no regular wages, being paid only from their shares of the plunder, a system called "no purchase, no pay" by Modyford or "no prey, no pay" by Exquemelin. There was a strong esprit de corps among buccaneers. This, combined with overwhelming numbers, allowed them to win sea battles and shore raids. There was also, for some time, a social insurance system guaranteeing compensation for battle wounds at a worked-out scale.
A common myth about buccaneers is that they were racially egalitarian and liberated slaves when capturing slave ships. Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another In fact, buccaneers fully participated in the slave society of their time, selling slaves as captured booty and even giving slaves to wounded buccaneers as compensation. Booty may refer to A nautical term for Treasure American slang for Buttocks Other uses Nevertheless, it is quite true that the relationship between officers and men among the buccaneers was much more egalitarian than that aboard merchant or naval vessels of the time.
Buccaneers initially used small boats to attack Spanish galleons surreptitiously, often at night, and climb aboard before the alarm could be raised. Buccaneers were expert marksmen and would quickly kill the helmsman and any officers aboard. A marksman is a person that is skilled in Precision shooting, using projectile weapons such as with a Rifle but most commonly with a Sniper rifle, A helmsman is a person who steers a Ship, sailboat submarine or other type of maritime vessel Buccaneers' reputation as cruel pirates grew until most victims would surrender, hoping they would not be killed. 
When buccaneers raided towns, they did not sail into port and bombard the defenses, as naval forces typically did. Instead, they secretly beached their ships out of sight of their target, marched overland, and attacked the towns from the landward side, which was usually less fortified. Their raids relied on mainly two things: surprise and speed.  One such example is of Sir Henry Morgan's raid on Portobello. Admiral Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh) ( ca 1635 &ndash August 25, 1688) was a Welsh Privateer, who made a name