Brownfields are abandoned or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations. Urban Renewal (similar to Urban Regeneration in British English) is a controversial U Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in 
In city planning, brownfield land (or simply a brownfield) is land previously used for industrial purposes or certain commercial uses that may be contaminated by low concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution and has the potential to be reused once it is cleaned up. In the Common law, real property (or realty) refers to one of the two main classes of Property, the other class being Personal property ( For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" The term hazardous waste comprises all toxic chemicals radioactive materials, and biologic or infectious waste. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Land that is more severely contaminated and has high concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution, such as a Superfund or hazardous waste site, does not fall under the brownfield classification. Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental policy officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act
In the United Kingdom and Australia, the term applies merely to previously used land. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
The term brownfields first came into use on June 28, 1992, at a U.S. congressional field hearing hosted by the Northeast Midwest Congressional Coalition. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Also in 1992, the first detailed policy analysis of the issue was convened by the Cuyahoga County Planning Commission. Cuyahoga County (pronounced /ˌkaɪəˈhɔgə/ or /ˌkaɪəˈhoːgə/ is a County located in the state of Ohio, United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency selected Cuyahoga County as its first brownfield pilot project in September 1993. 
Generally, brownfield sites exist in a city's or town's industrial section, on mountains containing abandoned factories or commercial buildings, or other previously polluting operations. A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods Small brownfields also may be found in many older residential neighborhoods. For example, many dry cleaning establishments or gas stations produced high levels of subsurface contaminants during prior operations, and the land they occupy might sit idle for decades as a brownfield. Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for Clothing and Textiles using an organic Solvent rather than Water. A filling station, fueling station, gas station, service station, petrol station, or gasbar, Retail Outlet
Many contaminated brownfield sites sit idle and unused for decades because the cost of cleaning them to safe standards is more than the land would be worth after redevelopment. However, redevelopment of brownfield sites has become more common in the first decade of the 21st century, as developable land grows less available in highly populated areas. Also, the methods of studying contaminated land have become more precise, and techniques used to clean up environmentally distressed properties become more sophisticated and established.
Many federal and state programs have been developed to assist developers interested in cleaning up brownfield sites and restoring them to practical uses. Some states and localities have spent considerable money assessing the contamination present on local brownfield sites, to quantify the cleanup costs in an effort to move the brownfield redevelopment process forward.
In the process of cleaning contaminated brownfield sites, surprises are sometimes encountered, such as previously unknown underground storage tanks, buried drums or buried railroad tank cars containing wastes. An Underground Storage Tank (UST in United States environmental law, is a tank and any underground piping connected to the tank that has at least 10 percent of its For Jay Leno's bespoke Tank -engined car see the Blastolene Special. When unexpected circumstances arise, the cost for cleaning up the brownfield land increases, and as a result, the cleanup work is either delayed or stopped entirely. To avoid unexpected contamination and increased costs, many developers insist that a site be thoroughly investigated (via a Phase II Site Investigation or Remedial Investigation) prior to commencing remedial cleanup activities. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment is a report prepared for a real estate holding which identifies potential or existing environmental contamination liabilities.
A number of innovative financial and remediation techniques have been employed in the U. The field of finance refers to the concepts of Time, Money and Risk and how they are interrelated Generally remediation means providing a Remedy, so environmental remediation deals with the removal of Pollution or Contaminants from environmental S. in recent years to expedite the cleanup of brownfield sites. For example, some environmental firms have teamed up with insurance companies to underwrite the cleanup of distressed brownfield properties and provide a guaranteed cleanup cost for a specific brownfield property, to limit land developers' exposure to environmental remediation costs and pollution lawsuits. The environmental firm first performs an extensive investigation of the brownfield site to ensure that the guaranteed cleanup cost is reasonable and they will not wind up with any surprises.
After the dot-com bubble of 2000, many venture capital firms looking for new businesses in which to invest have done so in brownfields. The " dot-com bubble " (or sometimes the " IT bubble " was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 (with a climax on March 10 Venture capital (also known as VC or Venture) is a type of Private equity capital typically provided to immature high-potential growth companies Venture capital investments in brownfield-related businesses have included companies developing new cleanup technology, companies that do remediation, and development projects in brownfield lands.
Innovative remedial techniques employed at distressed brownfield properties in recent years include bioremediation, a remedial strategy that uses naturally occurring microbes in soils and groundwater to expedite a cleanup, and in situ oxidation, which is a remedial strategy that uses oxygen or oxidant chemicals to enhance a cleanup. Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses Microorganisms Fungi, green plants or their Enzymes to return the natural environment altered In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO is a technique used to clean up (remediate certain types of environmental contamination below the ground surface Often, these strategies are used in conjunction with each other or with other remedial strategies such as soil vapor extraction. Generally remediation means providing a Remedy, so environmental remediation deals with the removal of Pollution or Contaminants from environmental In this process, vapor from the soil phase is extracted from soils and treated, which has the effect of removing contaminants from the soils and groundwater beneath a site. Some brownfields with heavy metal contamination have even been cleaned up through an innovative approach called phytoremediation that utilizes deep-rooted plants to soak up metals in soils into the plant structure as the plant grows. Phytoremediation describes the treatment of environmental problems ( Bioremediation) through the use of Plants The word's etymology comes from After they reach maturity, the plants – which now contain the heavy metal contaminants in their tissues – are removed and disposed of as hazardous waste.
Research is under way to see if some brownfields can be used to grow crops, specifically for the production of biofuels.  Michigan State University, in collaboration with DaimlerChrysler and NextEnergy, has small plots of soybean, corn, canola and switchgrass growing in a former industrial dump site in Oakland County, Michigan. Michigan State University ( MSU) is a co-educational public Research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Daimler AG ( (formerly DaimlerChrysler AG) is a German car corporation (not to be confused with the British car-maker Daimler Motor Company) and Oakland County is a county in the US state of Michigan. As of 2007, the population was estimated at 1206089 The intent is to see if the plants can serve two purposes simultaneously: assist with phytoremediation, and contribute to the economical production of biodiesel and/or ethanol fuel. Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages.
Acquisition, adaptive re-use, and disposal of a brownfield sites requires advanced and specialized appraisal analysis techniques. For example, the highest and best use of the brownfield site may be affected by the contamination, both pre- and post-remediation. Highest and best use is a concept in Real estate appraisal. It states that the valueof a property is directly related to the use of that property the highest and best use is Additionally, the value should take into account residual stigma and potential for third-party liability. Normal appraisal techniques frequently fail, and appraisers must rely on more advanced techniques, such as contingent valuation, case studies, or statistical analyses. Contingent valuation is a survey -based Economic technique for the valuation of non-market resources such as environmental preservation or the impact of contamination 
Some state governments restrict development of brownfield sites to particular uses in order to minimize exposure to leftover contaminants on-site after the cleanup is completed; such properties are deed-restricted in their future usage. Some legally require that such areas are reused for housing or for new commercial use in order not to destroy further arable land. In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for The redevelopment of brownfield sites is a significant part of new urbanism. New Urbanism is an American Urban design movement that arose in the early 1980s Some brownfields are left as green spaces for recreational uses.
For historical reasons, many brownfield sites are close to important thoroughfares such as highways and rivers; their reclamation can therefore be a major asset to a city. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Before adding any more images to this * * page please do carefully consider * * whether they would be mere decoration * * or actually improve "Riverine" redirects here For the use of that term in Maritime geography, see there In Business and Accounting, assets are everything owned by a person or company (all tangible and intangible property that can be converted into cash. Portland, Oregon, has pioneered the use of road and rail infrastructure to support the cleanup and reuse of brownfield sites. Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers Another example is the Atlantic Station project in Atlanta, that largest brownfield redevlopment in the United States. This article describes a recently developed mixed-use neighborhood in Atlanta Georgia In Seattle, rusted remains of a gas factory were left in place to add character to Gas Works Park. In Computer programming, gas factory is an Anti-pattern characterized by excessive complexity Gas Works Park in Seattle Washington is a 191 acre (77000 m² Public park on the site of the former Seattle Gas Light Company Gasification plant, located
But one of the most well-known areas in the United States for brownfield redevelopment is Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which has successfully converted numerous former steel mill sites into high-end residential, shopping and offices. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Several examples of brownfield redevelopment in Pittsburgh include the following:
In the United States, investigation and cleanup of brownfield sites is largely regulated by state environmental agencies in cooperation with the EPA. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Many of the most important provisions on liability relief are contained in state codes that can differ significantly from state to state.  The EPA, together with local and national government, can provide technical assistance and some funding for assessment and cleanup of designated sites, as well as tax incentives for cleanup that is not paid for outright (specifically, cleanup costs are fully deductible in the year they are incurred). 
(Much of this section is taken from the International Economic Development Council's paper, "International Brownfields Redevelopment". )
Approaches to brownfield redeveloment varies across international boundaries depending on issues such as land availability and demand, population density, historic preservation priorities, and local/national government policies.
Unlike U. S. cities, Canadian urban areas have not suffered greatly from suburban flight or general decline, and residential living at the city-center remains high throughout Canada. This translates into a high demand – and thus high market value – for urban land at the city center. Brownfield redevelopment has benefitted from this, stimulating private sector] solutions which frequently preempt the need for government solutions. In Economics, the private sector is that part of the economy which is both run for private Profit and is not controlled by the State. As such, the Canadian federal government does not provide funding or financial incentives for brownfield projects. However, Ontario does provide tax incentives and Quebec provides some funding assistance. At the municipal level, some cities provide encouragement. For example, the Toronto Economic Development Corporation assists the private sector by investing in adaptively re-used brownfield sites. Currently, the biggest destimulus to brownfield redevelopment in Canada is the lack of any liability protection for subsequent purchasers who take on redevelopment. However, this is at least partially addressed by some local initiatives, such as Bill 56 in Ontario, which may provide some liability relief.
In the United Kingdom, brownfield land and contaminated land are seen as discrete concepts in terms of government policy and the law, though of course a given piece of land may be both at once. The more formal term for brownfields is "previously developed land" (PDL), the definition of which talks of it being vacant, derelict or underused. It may not have been industrial in the past, and it may or may not be contaminated.
The government has a target that 60% of new housing development must be on PDL, and the overall aim in this crowded country is to recycle PDL in preference to taking greenfield sites.
In England, government agencies like the Regional Development Agencies and English Partnerships help secure and support the regeneration of run-down areas including those hit by industrial decline and dereliction, and market conditions. Contaminated land is dealt with as a separate issue, both through the development control system (concerned to ensure contaminated land is made suitable for its new use) and by Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act of 1990 (which looks at land in the context of its current use).
Both regimes are concerned with the risk that the presence of contaminants may pose to human health or the environment, and ensuring that risk is identified properly and managed down to acceptable levels. Under Part IIA, each local authority must inspect its area for "contaminated land" as defined by the Act, and where it is found must secure its remediation, with the original polluters first in line to pay where these can be found, in line with the "polluter pays principle". 
Brownfield land that has been left to naturally re-vegetate is often of high nature conservation interest — much more so than equivalent agricultural land — due to the presence of early successional habitats. A number of invertebrate species are associated with such sites, for example the Dingy Skipper butterfly, and these have suffered dramatic declines in recent years due to losses in brownfield sites due to development and regeneration. The Dingy Skipper Erynnis tages is a Butterfly of the Hesperiidae family
Given the intensity of land use, it should come as no surprise that the Netherlands has a more aggressive approach to the adaptive re-use of brownfields. The national government directs funds and support to priority sites, and acting together with local agencies, are able to establish a holistic set of priorities to housing, transportation, and the quality of life. Properties which fall outside the Dutch government's initiatives are also influenced through funding and other incentives. National funds are prioritized for contaminated sites which suffer from serious contamination or have an urgent need for remediation. A risk-based corrective action program is applied which takes into account future land use. The government classifies potential land use into one of four categories:
The concept of using only four broad categories encourages what the Dutch call "largeness of scale", to avoid a "patchwork quilt of soil qualities".
The unique post-cold-war experience of this country is the key force shaping its approach to brownfields. In the past two decades, since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Germans have been faced with two critical brownfield-related problems:
As a result, the focus of German brownfield activity has been toward these sites and certain model projects, such as Emscher Park.