Broadway theatre, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theatres with 500 seats or more located in the Theatre District of the New York City borough of Manhattan. The Lion King is a Tony and Olivier Award -winning Broadway and West End musical based on the 1994 Disney animated The New Amsterdam Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 214 West 42nd Street in the heart of Times Square in New York City. The Theatre District is an area in Midtown Manhattan in which are located the many Broadway theatres as well as many other theatres movie theatres restaurants hotels The City of New York Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York  Broadway theatre is the best known form of professional theatre to the general public in the United States and the most lucrative for the performers, technicians and others involved in putting on the shows. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. West End theatre is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London 's "Theatreland" Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
The shows that reach Broadway and thrive there have historically been perceived as generally mainstream and less likely to be cutting edge than some produced Off- and Off-Off-Broadway or in regional non-profit theatres. Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City. Off-Off-Broadway refers to theatrical productions including plays, musicals or Performance art pieces performed in New York City in smaller theatres Regional theaters (also called resident theaters) in the United States are professional Theater companies that produce their own seasons
The Broadway theatre district is a key tourist attraction in New York City. According to the The Broadway League, Broadway shows sell over one and a half billion dollars worth of tickets annually. The Broadway League, formerly the League of American Theatres and Producers Inc
New York (and so, America) did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. For the other New York City theatre of this name see Park Theatre (Brooklyn. Thomas Howard Kean (born April 21, 1935 in New York City) is an American Republican Party Politician, who served as the They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggar’s Opera. The term ballad opera is used to refer to a genre of English stage entertainment originating in the 18th century and continuing to develop in the following century The Beggar's Opera is a Ballad opera in three acts written in 1728 by John Gay.  In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg, Virginia and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. Williamsburg is a city located on the Virginia Peninsula in the Hampton Roads region in southeastern Virginia The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598 The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The term ballad opera is used to refer to a genre of English stage entertainment originating in the 18th century and continuing to develop in the following century The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed, and in 1798, the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street (now called Park Row). In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" For the other New York City theatre of this name see Park Theatre (Brooklyn. for the former elevated train station see Park Row (BMT station Park Row is a street located in the Financial District of the  The Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. The Bowery Theatre was a Playhouse in the Bowery neighborhood of New York City. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, and especially so with the arrival of the Virginia Minstrels in the 1840s. The Virginia Minstrels or Virginia Serenaders was a group of 19th century American Entertainers known for helping to invent the entertainment form known
By the 1840s, P.T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan. Phineas Taylor Barnum (July 5 1810 &ndash April 7 1891 was an American Showman remembered for Hoaxes and for founding the Circus that became the In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere night spots. Niblo's Garden was a former New York theatre on Broadway, near Prince Street The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. The Astor Place Theatre opened in 1847. The Astor Place Theatre is an Off-Broadway house located at 434 Lafayette Street in the East Village section of Manhattan. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place:
Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate prices. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Madison Square is formed by the intersection of Fifth Avenue and Broadway at 23rd Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, and the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s. Times Square is a major intersection in Manhattan, New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue and stretching from West Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50 performance hit called The Elves in 1857. New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" Seven Sisters (1860) shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. Laura Keene (1826 &ndash November 4, 1873) was an Anglo-American actress and manager whose real name was Mary Frances Moss. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. Our American Cousin is a play in three acts by Tom Taylor. The play is a farcical comedy whose plot is based on the introduction of an awkward boorish C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal
The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is generally considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866. The Black Crook is considered to be the first piece of Musical theatre that conforms to the modern notion of a " Book musical " The Black Crook is considered to be the first piece of Musical theatre that conforms to the modern notion of a " Book musical " Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy. "
Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Vaudeville was a Genre of variety entertainment prevalent on the stage in the United States and Canada, from the early 1880s Lillian Russell ( December 4[[ 860]] &ndash June 6 1922) was an American actress and Singer. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 (The Mulligan Guard Picnic) and 1885, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. Edward Harrigan (October 26 1844 – June 6 1911 was an American actor playwright theatre manager and Composer. These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers (Lillian Russell, Vivienne Segal, and Fay Templeton) instead of the ladies of questionable repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Lillian Russell ( December 4[[ 860]] &ndash June 6 1922) was an American actress and Singer. Vivienne Sonia Segal ( April 19, 1897 - December 29, 1992) was an American actress and singer Fay Templeton ( December 25 1865, Little Rock Arkansas &ndash October 3 1939, San Francisco California) was an American
As transportation improved, poverty in New York diminished, and street lighting made for safer travel at night, the number of potential patrons for the growing number of theatres increased enormously. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits and improved production values. As in England, during the latter half of the century the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women. Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money. Gilbert and Sullivan's family-friendly comic opera hits, beginning with H.M.S. Pinafore in 1878, were imported to New York (by the authors and also in numerous pirated productions). Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of Librettist W Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature usually with a happy ending HMS Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by They were imitated in New York by American productions such as Reginald DeKoven's Robin Hood (1891) and John Philip Sousa's El Capitan (1896), along with operas, ballets and other British and European hits. John Philip Sousa ( November 6, 1854 &ndash March 6, 1932) was an American Composer and conductor of the late El Capitan is a vertical rock formation in Yosemite National Park, located on the north side of Yosemite Valley, near its western end
Charles Hoyt's A Trip to Chinatown (1891) became Broadway's long-run champion, holding the stage for 657 performances. Charles Hale Hoyt ( July 26 1859 - November 20 1900) was an American dramatist born in Concord, N A Trip to Chinatown is a musical comedy in three acts by Charles H This would not be surpassed until Irene in 1919. Irene is a musical with a book by James Montgomery lyrics by Joseph McCarthy, and music by Harry Tierney. In 1896, theatre owners Marc Klaw and A. L. Erlanger formed the Theatrical Syndicate, which controlled almost every legitimate theater in the U. Marcus Alonzo Klaw ( May 29, 1858 – June 14, 1936) was an American Lawyer, Theatrical producer, theatre owner Abraham Lincoln Erlanger ( May 4, 1859 – March 7, 1930) was an American Theatrical producer, director designer theatre owner The Theatrical Syndicate was established in New York City, New York in 1896 by producers and investors Charles Frohman, Al Hayman, Abe Erlanger S. for the next sixteen years.  However, smaller vaudeville and variety houses proliferated, and Off-Broadway was well established by the end of the 19th century. Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City.
A Trip to Coontown (1898) was the first musical comedy entirely produced and performed by African Americans in a Broadway theatre (largely inspired by the routines of the minstrel shows), followed by the ragtime-tinged Clorindy the Origin of the Cakewalk (1898), and the highly successful In Dahomey (1902). African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits variety acts dancing, and Music, Ragtime (alternately spelled Rag-time) is an American musical genre which enjoyed its peak popularity between 1897 and 1918 Hundreds of musical comedies were staged on Broadway in the 1890s and early 1900s comprised of songs written in New York's Tin Pan Alley involving composers such as Gus Edwards, John Walter Bratton, and George M. Cohan (Little Johnny Jones (1904), 45 Minutes From Broadway (1906), and George Washington Jr. Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City -centered music publishers and Songwriters who dominated the popular John Walter Bratton ( January 21 1867 - February 7 1947) was an American composer and theatrical producer George Michael Cohan ( July 3, 1878 &ndash November 5, 1942) was a United States Entertainer, Playwright, For the blues pianist see Little Johnny Jones (pianist Little Johnny Jones is a musical by George M (1906)). Still, New York runs continued to be relatively short, with a few exceptions, compared with London runs, until World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All  A few very successful British musicals continued to achieve great success in New York, including Florodora in 1900-01. Florodora was one of the first successful Broadway musicals of the 20th century
In the early years of the 20th century, translations of popular late-19th century continental operettas were joined by the "Princess Theatre" shows of the 1910s by writers such as P. G. Wodehouse, Guy Bolton and Harry B. Smith. Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, KBE (15 October 1881 – 14 February 1975 (ˈwʊdhaʊs was an English Comic novelist who enjoyed enormous popular success Guy Reginald Bolton ( November 23, 1884 - September 6, 1979) was a British - American Playwright and writer of Harry B Smith ( December 28, 1860 &ndash January 2, 1936) was a renowned and prolific Writer, Lyricist, and Victor Herbert, whose work included some intimate musical plays with modern settings as well as his string of famous operettas (The Fortune Teller (1898), Babes in Toyland (1903), Mlle. Modiste (1905), The Red Mill (1906), and Naughty Marietta (1910)). Victor August Herbert ( February 1 1859 &ndash May 26 1924) was a Cellist, conductor and Composer best known The Fortune Teller is an Operetta in three acts written by Victor Herbert, with a Libretto by Harry B Babes in Toyland is an Operetta composed by Victor Herbert with a libretto by Glen MacDonough (1870 - 1924 which wove together various characters Mlle Modiste is an Operetta in two acts written by Victor Herbert, Libretto by Henry Blossom. The Red Mill is an Operetta written by Victor Herbert, with a Libretto by Henry Blossom. Naughty Marietta is an Operetta in two acts with Libretto by Rida Johnson Young and music by Victor Herbert.  Beginning with The Red Mill, Broadway shows installed electric signs outside the theatres. Since colored bulbs burned out too quickly, white lights were used, and Broadway was nicknamed "The Great White Way. " In August 1919, the Actors Equity Association demanded a standard contract for all professional productions. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The Actors' Equity Association (AEA commonly referred to as Actors' Equity After a strike shut down all the theatres, the producers were forced to agree. By the 1920s, the Shubert Brothers had risen to take over the majority of the theatres from the Erlanger syndicate. The Shubert family of New York City, New York was responsible for the establishment of the Broadway district in New York City, as the hub of 
The motion picture mounted a challenge to the stage. Sally is a musical comedy with music by Jerome Kern, lyrics by Clifford Grey and book by Guy Bolton (inspired by the 19th century At first, films were silent and presented only limited competition. But by the end of the 1920s, films like The Jazz Singer could be presented with synchronized sound, and critics wondered if the cinema would replace live theatre altogether. The Jazz Singer is a 1927 American Musical film. The first feature-length motion picture with synchronized Dialogue The musicals of the Roaring Twenties, borrowing from vaudeville, music hall and other light entertainments, tended to ignore plot in favor of emphasizing star actors and actresses, big dance routines, and popular songs. Roaring Twenties is a phrase used to describe the 1920s principally in North America, that emphasizes the period's social artistic and cultural dynamism Music hall is a form of British theatrical Entertainment which was popular between 1850 and 1960 Florenz Ziegfeld produced annual spectacular song-and-dance revues on Broadway featuring extravagant sets and elaborate costumes, but there was little to tie the various numbers together. Florenz Ziegfeld Jr ( March 21, 1869 &ndash July 22, 1932) called Flo Ziegfeld, was an American Broadway Typical of the 1920s were lighthearted productions like Sally; Lady Be Good; Sunny; No, No, Nanette; Oh, Kay!; and Funny Face. Sally is a musical comedy with music by Jerome Kern, lyrics by Clifford Grey and book by Guy Bolton (inspired by the 19th century Lady Be Good (title sometimes presented with an Exclamation point) is the title of a Broadway musical play that was written by Guy Bolton, No No Nanette is a Musical comedy with lyrics by Irving Caesar and Otto Harbach, music by Vincent Youmans, and a book by Otto Harbach Oh Kay! is a musical with music by George Gershwin, lyrics by Ira Gershwin, and a book by Guy Bolton and P Funny Face is a 1927 musical composed by George Gershwin, with lyrics by Ira Gershwin, and book by Fred Thompson and Paul Their books may have been forgettable, but they produced enduring standards from George Gershwin, Cole Porter, Jerome Kern, Vincent Youmans, and Rodgers and Hart, among others, and Noel Coward, Sigmund Romberg and Rudolf Friml continued in the vein of Victor Herbert. George Gershwin (September 26 1898 &ndash July 11 1937 was an American Composer. Cole Albert Porter (June 9 1891 &ndash October 15 1964 was an American Composer and songwriter from Peru, Indiana. Jerome David Kern ( January 27, 1885 &ndash November 11, 1945) was an American Composer of popular music Vincent Youmans ( September 27, 1898 - April 5, 1946) was an American popular composer and Broadway producer Rodgers and Hart were an American songwriting partnership consisting of the composer Richard Rodgers (1902 &ndash 1979 and the lyricist Sir Noël Peirce Coward ( 16 December 1899 26 March 1973) was an English Actor, Playwright Sigmund Romberg, born Zsigmond Romberg ( July 29, 1887, Nagykanizsa − November 9, 1951 Rudolf Friml ( December 7, 1879 - November 12, 1972) was a Composer of Operettas musicals and songs as well Clearly, the live theatre survived the invention of cinema.
Leaving these comparatively frivolous entertainments behind, and taking the drama a giant step forward, Show Boat, premiered on December 27, 1927 at the Ziegfeld Theatre, representing a complete integration of book and score, with dramatic themes, as told through the music, dialogue, setting and movement, woven together more seamlessly than in previous musicals. Show Boat is a musical in two acts with music by Jerome Kern and book (based on a novel by Edna Ferber) and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein Events 537 - The Hagia Sophia is completed 1512 - The Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos, governing the Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Ziegfeld Theatre was a Broadway Theatre formerly located at the intersection of Sixth Avenue and 54th Street in Manhattan, It ran for a total of 572 performances. After the lean years of the Great Depression, Broadway theatre entered a golden age with the blockbuster hit Oklahoma!, in 1943, which ran for 2,212 performances. Oklahoma! is the first musical written by composer Richard Rodgers and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II. Hit after hit followed on Broadway, and the Broadway theatre attained the highest level of international prestige in theatre.
The Tony Awards were established in 1947 to recognize achievement in live American theatre, especially Broadway theatre. The Antoinette Perry Awards for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Awards, recognize achievement in live American Theatre and are presented
Although there are now more exceptions than there once were, generally shows with open-ended runs operate on the same schedule, with evening performances Tuesday through Saturday with an 8 p. m. "curtain" and afternoon "matinée" performances on Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday; typically at 2 p. m. on Wednesdays and Saturdays and 3 p. m. on Sundays, making a standard eight performance week. On this schedule, shows do not play on Monday, and the shows and theatres are said to be "dark" on that day. Actors and crew in these shows tend to regard Sunday evening through Tuesday evening as their "weekend". The Tony Award presentation ceremony is usually held on a Sunday evening in June to fit into this schedule. The Antoinette Perry Awards for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Awards, recognize achievement in live American Theatre and are presented
In recent years, many shows have moved their Tuesday show time an hour earlier to 7 p. m. The rationale for the move was that fewer tourists took in shows midweek, so the Tuesday crowd in particular depends on local audience members. The earlier curtain therefore allows suburban patrons time after a show to get home by a reasonable hour. Some shows, especially those produced by Disney, change their performance schedules fairly frequently, depending on the season, in order to maximize access to their targeted audience.
Both musicals and stage plays on Broadway often rely on casting well-known performers in leading roles to draw larger audiences or bring in new audience members to the theatre. Actors from movies and television are frequently cast for the revivals of Broadway shows or are used to replace actors leaving a cast. There are still, however, performers who are primarily stage actors, spending most of their time "on the boards", and appearing in television and in screen roles only secondarily.
In the past, stage actors had a somewhat superior attitude towards other kinds of live performances, such as vaudeville and burlesque, which were felt to be tawdry, commercial and low-brow—they considered their own craft to be a higher and more artistic calling. Vaudeville was a Genre of variety entertainment prevalent on the stage in the United States and Canada, from the early 1880s Burlesque is theatrical entertainment of broad and parodic humor which usually consists of comic skits (and sometimes a strip tease) This attitude is reflected in the term used to describe their form of stage performance: "legitimate theatre". (The abbreviated form "legit" is still used for live theatre by the entertainment industry newspaper Variety as part of its unique "slanguage. Variety is a weekly entertainment trade newspaper founded in New York in 1905 by Sime Silverman ") This rather condescending attitude also carried over to performers who worked in radio, film and television instead of in "the theatre", but this attitude is much less prevalent now, especially since film and television work pay so much better than almost all theatrical acting, even Broadway. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic The split between "legit" theatre and "variety" performances still exists, however, in the structure of the actors' unions: Actors' Equity represents actors in the legitimate theatre, and the American Guild of Variety Artists (AGVA) represents them in performances without a "book" or through-storyline—although it's very rare for Broadway actors not to work under an Equity contract, since most plays and musicals come under that union's jurisdiction. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The Actors' Equity Association (AEA commonly referred to as Actors' Equity American Guild of Variety Artists (AGVA is an American entertainment union representing performers in variety entertainment including circuses Las Vegas showrooms
Almost all of the people involved with a Broadway show at every level are represented by unions or other protective, professional or trade organization. The actors, dancers, singers, chorus members and stage managers are members of Actors' Equity Association (AEA), musicians are represented by the American Federation of Musicians (AFM), and stagehands, dressers, hairdressers, designers, box office personnel and ushers all belong to various locals of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes, also known as "the IA" or "IATSE" (pronounced "eye-ot-zee"). Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The Actors' Equity Association (AEA commonly referred to as Actors' Equity The American Federation of Musicians ( AFM / AFofM) is a labor union of Professional Musicians in the United States and Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes, Directors and choreographers belong to the Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers (SSD&C), playwrights to the Dramatists Guild, and house managers, company managers and press agents belong to the Association of Theatrical Press Agents and Managers (ATPAM). The Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers (SSDC is an independent national labor union established in 1959 representing theatrical directors and The Dramatists Guild of America is a professional organization for Playwrights Composers and Lyricists working in the U Casting directors (who tried in 2002-2004 to become part of ATPAM) is the last major components of Broadway's human infrastructure who are not unionized. (General managers, who run the business affairs of a show, and are frequently producers as well, are management and not labor. )
Most Broadway producers and theatre owners are members of the The Broadway League (formerly "The League of American Theatres and Producers"), a trade organization that promotes Broadway theatre as a whole, negotiates contracts with the various theatrical unions and agreements with the guilds, and co-administers the Tony Awards with the American Theatre Wing, a service organization. The Broadway League, formerly the League of American Theatres and Producers Inc The Antoinette Perry Awards for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Awards, recognize achievement in live American Theatre and are presented The American Theatre Wing (the Wing for short originally part of the WWII Allied Relief Fund is a New York City -based organization "dedicated to supporting While the League and the theatrical unions are sometimes at loggerheads during those periods when new contracts are being negotiated, they also cooperate on many projects and events designed to promote professional theatre in New York.
The three non-profit theatre companies with Broadway theatres ("houses") belong to the League of Resident Theatres and have contracts with the theatrical unions which are negotiated separately from the other Broadway theatre and producers. Regional theaters (also called resident theaters) in the United States are professional Theater companies that produce their own seasons (Disney also negotiates apart from the League, as did Livent before it closed down its operations. The Live Entertainment Corporation of Canada Inc, also known as Livent, was a theatre production company in Toronto Ontario, begun as a division of the motion picture exhibitor ) However, generally, shows that play in any of the Broadway houses are eligibile for Tony Awards (see below).
The majority of Broadway theatres are owned or managed by three organizations: the Shubert Organization, a for-profit arm of the non-profit Shubert Foundation, which owns 17 theatres (it recently retained full ownership of the Music Box from the Irving Berlin Estate); The Nederlander Organization, which controls 9 theatres; and Jujamcyn, which owns five Broadway houses. The Shubert Organization was founded by the Shubert brothers, Sam S The Nederlander Organization ( Detroit Michigan) founded in 1912 by David T Jujamcyn Theaters is a group of five theatres that was owned by James H
Most Broadway shows are commercial productions intended to make a profit for the producers and investors ("backers" or "angels"), and therefore have open-ended runs, meaning that the length of their presentation is not set beforehand, but depends on critical response, word of mouth, and the effectiveness of the show's advertising, all of which determine ticket sales. This list contains the 100 longest-running shows on Broadway. Shows do not necessarily have to make a profit immediately. If they are making their "nut" (weekly operating expenses), or are losing money at a rate which the producers consider acceptable, they may continue to run in the expectation that, eventually, they will pay back their initial costs and become profitable. In some borderline situations, producers may ask that royalties be temporarily reduced or waived, or even that performers - with the permission of their unions - take reduced salaries, in order to prevent a show from closing. Theatre owners, who are not generally profit participants in most productions, may waive or reduce rents, or even lend a show money in order to keep it running. (In one case, a theatre owner lent a floundering show money to stay open, even though the production had to move to another owner's theatre because of a previous booking at the original house. )
Some Broadway shows are produced by non-commercial organizations as part of a regular subscription season—Lincoln Center Theater, Roundabout Theatre Company, and Manhattan Theatre Club are the three non-profit theatre companies that currently have permanent Broadway venues. The Roundabout Theatre Company is the largest Non-profit theatre company based in New York City. The Manhattan Theatre Club (MTC is a theater club in Manhattan, New York. Some other productions are produced on Broadway with "limited engagement runs" for a number of reasons, including financial issues, prior engagements of the performers or temporary availability of a theatre between the end of one production and the beginning of another. However, some shows with planned limited engagement runs may, after critical acclaim or box office success, extend their engagements or convert to open-ended runs. This was the case with 2007's August: Osage County,
Historically, musicals on Broadway tend to have longer runs than do "straight" (i. August Osage County is an original darkly comedic play by Tracy Letts. e. non-musical) plays. On January 9, 2006, The Phantom of the Opera at the Majestic Theatre became the longest running Broadway musical, with 7,486 performances, overtaking Cats. Events 475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Phantom of the Opera is a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on the book written by the French novelist Gaston Leroux The Majestic Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 245 West 44th Street in midtown Manhattan. Cats is an award-winning musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber based on Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T 
In addition to long runs in Broadway theatres, producers often remount their productions with a new cast and crew for the Broadway national tour, which travels to theatres in major cities across the country—the bigger and more successful shows may have several of these touring companies out at a time, some of them "sitting down" in other cities for their own long runs. Smaller cities are eventually serviced by "bus & truck" tours, so-called because the cast generally travels by bus (instead of by air) and the sets and equipment by truck. Tours of this type, which frequently feature a reduced physical production to accommodate smaller venues and tighter schedules, often play "split weeks" (half a week in one town and the second half in another) or "one-nighters", whereas the larger tours will generally play for one or two weeks per city at a minimum. The Touring Broadway Awards, presented by The Broadway League, honor excellence in touring Broadway. The Touring Broadway Awards (TBAs recognize outstanding achievement in Broadway plays and musicals that tour North America The Broadway League, formerly the League of American Theatres and Producers Inc
Seeing a Broadway show is a common tourist activity in New York, and Broadway theatre generates billions of dollars annually. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel The TKTS booths—one in Duffy Square (47th Street between Broadway and 7th Avenue) and one in Lower Manhattan (199 Water Street—Corner of Front & John Streets)—sell same-day tickets for many Broadway and Off-Broadway shows at a discount of either 25%, 35% or 50%. The TKTS ticket booths in New York and London sell Broadway and West End theatre tickets respectively at discounts of 25–50% off the face Duffy Square, also known as Father Francis D Duffy Monument and Duffy Square or as Father Francis P Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City. This service helps sell seats that would otherwise go empty, and makes seeing a show in New York more affordable. Many Broadway theatres also offer special student rates, same-day "rush" or "lottery" tickets, or standing-room tickets to help ensure that their theatres are as full, and their "grosses" as high as possible. 
Some theatregoers prefer the more experimental, challenging, and intimate performances possible in smaller theatres, which are referred to as Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway (though some may be physically located on or near Broadway). Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City. Off-Off-Broadway refers to theatrical productions including plays, musicals or Performance art pieces performed in New York City in smaller theatres An example of this would be the hit musical Spring Awakening, which began its run Off-Broadway in a small, intimate environment, and continued onto Broadway, where it still gives the similar, intimate experience. Spring Awakening is a Tony Award -winning rock musical with music by Duncan Sheik and book and lyrics by Steven Sater. Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City. The classification of theatres is governed by language in Actors' Equity Association contracts. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The Actors' Equity Association (AEA commonly referred to as Actors' Equity To be eligible for a Tony, a production must be in a house with 500 seats or more and in the Theatre District, which criteria defines Broadway theatre.
Total Broadway attendance in the 2006-2007 season was just over 12 million.  This was approximately the same as London's West End theatre (which reported total attendance of 12. West End theatre is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London 's "Theatreland" 357 for major commercial and grant-aided theatres in Central London for 2006).  Attendance rose slightly from the previous season (2005-2006), when attendance first reached the 12 million mark.
Broadway shows and artists are honored every June when the Antoinette Perry Awards (Tony Awards) are given by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League. The Antoinette Perry Awards for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Awards, recognize achievement in live American Theatre and are presented The American Theatre Wing (the Wing for short originally part of the WWII Allied Relief Fund is a New York City -based organization "dedicated to supporting The "Tony" is Broadway's most prestigious award, the importance of which has increased since the annual broadcast on television began. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic In a strategy to improve the television ratings, celebrities are often chosen to host the show, like Hugh Jackman and Rosie O'Donnell, in addition to celebrity presenters, many with little or no connection to the theater. Hugh Michael Jackman (born 12 October, 1968) is an Tony Award -winning and Emmy Award -winning Australian Actor Roseann "Rosie" O'Donnell 
While some critics have felt that the show should focus on celebrating the stage, others recognize the positive impact that famous faces lend to selling more tickets and bringing more people to the theatre. The performances from Broadway musicals on the telecast have also been cited as vital to the survival of many Broadway shows. Many theatre people, notably critic Frank Rich, dismiss the Tony awards as little more than a commercial for the limited world of Broadway, which after all can only support a maximum of two dozen shows a season, and constantly call for the awards to embrace off-Broadway theatre as well. Frank Rich (born June 2, 1949 in Washington DC) is a Columnist for The New York Times who focuses on American politics Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City. (Other awards given to New York theatrical productions, such as the Drama Desk Award and the Outer Circle Critics Award, are not limited to Broadway productions, and honor shows that are presented throughout the city. The Drama Desk Award, created in 1955, is an award which recognizes shows produced on Broadway, Off-Broadway, Off-off-Broadway, and The Outer Critics Circle Awards are presented annually for theatrical achievements both on and Off-Broadway and were begun during the 1949-1950 theater season )
|Ambassador Theatre||Chicago||219 West 49th Street||1120||November 14, 1996||Open-ended|
|American Airlines Theatre||Les Liaisons Dangereuses||229 West 42nd Street||740||May 1, 2008||July 6, 2008|
|Brooks Atkinson Theatre||Grease||256 West 47th Street||1109||August 19, 2007||Open-ended|
|Ethel Barrymore Theatre||November||243 West 47th Street||1096||January 17, 2008||July 13, 2008|
|Belasco Theatre||Passing Strange||111 West 44th Street||1040||February 28, 2008||Open-ended|
|Vivian Beaumont Theatre (at Lincoln Center)||South Pacific||150 West 65th Street||1105||April 3, 2008||Open-ended|
|Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre||The Country Girl||242 West 45th Street||1101||April 27, 2008||July 20, 2008|
|Biltmore Theatre||Top Girls||261 West 47th Street||650||May 7, 2008||June 22, 2008|
|Booth Theatre||Thurgood||222 West 45th Street||806||April 30, 2008||August 3, 2008|
|Broadhurst Theatre||Cat on a Hot Tin Roof||235 West 44th Street||1218||March 6, 2008||June 15, 2008|
|The Broadway Theatre||Cirque Dreams Jungle Fantasy||1681 Broadway||1761||June 16, 2008 *||August 24, 2008|
|Circle in the Square Theatre||235 West 50th Street||776|
|Cort Theatre||The 39 Steps||138 West 48th Street||1102||January 15, 2008||Open-ended|
|George Gershwin Theatre||Wicked||222 West 51st Street||1935||October 30, 2003||Open-ended|
|John Golden Theatre||Avenue Q||252 West 45th Street||805||July 31, 2003||Open-ended|
|Helen Hayes Theatre||Xanadu||240 West 44th Street||597||July 10, 2007||Open-ended|
|Hilton Theatre||Young Frankenstein||213 West 42nd Street||1829||November 8, 2007||Open-ended|
|Al Hirschfeld Theatre||Curtains||302 West 45th Street||1437||March 22, 2007||June 29, 2008|
|Imperial Theatre||Billy Elliot the Musical||249 West 45th Street||1435||November 13, 2008 *||Open-ended|
|Walter Kerr Theatre||A Catered Affair||219 West 48th Street||947||April 17, 2008||Open-ended|
|Longacre Theatre||Boeing Boeing||220 West 48th Street||1095||May 4, 2008||Open-ended|
|Lunt-Fontanne Theatre||The Little Mermaid||205 West 46th Street||1509||January 10, 2008||Open-ended|
|Lyceum Theatre||title of show||149 West 45th Street||943||July 5, 2008 *||Open-ended|
|Majestic Theatre||The Phantom of the Opera||247 West 44th Street||1609||January 26, 1988||Open-ended|
|Marquis Theatre||Cry-Baby||1535 Broadway||1615||April 24, 2008||Open-ended|
|Minskoff Theatre||The Lion King||200 West 45th Street||1710||November 13, 1997||Open-ended|
|Music Box Theatre||August: Osage County||239 West 45th Street||1025||December 4, 2007||Open-ended|
|Nederlander Theatre||Rent||208 West 41st Street||1232||April 29, 1996||September 7, 2008|
|New Amsterdam Theatre||Mary Poppins||214 West 42nd Street||1801||November 16, 2006||Open-ended|
|Eugene O'Neill Theatre||Spring Awakening||230 West 49th Street||1108||December 10, 2006||Open-ended|
|Palace Theatre||Legally Blonde||1564 Broadway||1743||April 29, 2007||Open-ended|
|Richard Rodgers Theatre||In the Heights||226 West 46th Street||1380||March 9, 2008||Open-ended|
|Gerald Schoenfeld Theatre||A Chorus Line||236 West 45th Street||1093||October 5, 2006||August 17, 2008|
|Shubert Theatre||Spamalot||225 West 44th Street||1468||March 17, 2005||Open-ended|
|Neil Simon Theatre||Hairspray||250 West 52nd Street||1428||August 15, 2002||Open-ended|
|St. James Theatre||Gypsy: A Musical Fable||246 West 44th Street||1710||March 27, 2008||Open-ended|
|Studio 54||Sunday in the Park with George||254 West 54th Street||922||February 21, 2008||June 29, 2008|
|August Wilson Theatre||Jersey Boys||245 West 52nd Street||1222||November 6, 2005||Open-ended|
|Winter Garden Theatre||Mamma Mia!||1634 Broadway||1498||October 18, 2001||Open-ended|