In broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast radio shows and television shows to multiple individual stations, without going through a broadcast network. For the band see Broadcast (band Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or Video signals which transmit Radio programming is the content that is broadcast by Radio stations The original inventors of radio such as Nikola Tesla and Guglielmo A television program (US television programme (UK or television show (U A broadcast network is an Organization, such as a Corporation or other association, that provides live or Recorded content such as It is common in countries where television is organized around networks with local affiliates, notably the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In the rest of the world, however, countries have mainly centralized networks without local affiliates and syndication is less common. Shows can also be syndicated internationally.
When syndicating a show, the production company, or a distribution company or "syndicator," usually attempts to sell the show to one station in each media market or area, in the country and around the world. A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area, DMA or simply market is a region where the Population If successful, this can be lucrative; but the syndicator may only be able to sell the show in a small percentage of the markets.
Syndication differs from selling the show to a television network; once a network picks up a show, it is usually guaranteed to run on all the network's affiliates, on the same day of the week and at the same time (in a given timezone, in countries where this is a concern). A television network is a distribution network for Television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many Television stations Many production companies create their shows and sell them to networks at a loss, at least at first, hoping that the series will succeed and that eventual off-network syndication will turn a profit for the show.
A syndicated program is sold to stations for "cash" (rights are purchased by the stations to insert some or all of the ads at their level); given to stations for access to airtime (wherein the syndicators get the ad revenue); or the combination of both. In Broadcasting, local insertion is the act or capability of a broadcast Television station, Radio station, or Cable TV system to insert or replace The trade of program for airtime is called "barter. Barter is a type of Trade in which goods or services are directly exchanged "
While market penetration can vary widely and revenues can be unreliable, the producers often enjoy more content-freedom in the absence of network standards and practice officials; frequently, some innovative ideas are explored by first-run syndicated programming, which the networks are leery of giving airtime to. Meanwhile, top-rated syndicated shows in the United States usually have a domestic market reach of 98%.
It should also be noted that very often series that are aired in syndication are cut. For example a standard American sitcom runs 22 minutes, but in syndication it may be cut back to 20 minutes to make room for more commercials.
Syndication can take the form of either weekly or daily syndication. The game shows, some "tabloid" and entertainment news shows, and stripped talk shows are broadcast daily or week-daily, while most other first-run syndicated shows are broadcast weekly.
As with radio in the U. S. , television networks in their early years particularly didn't offer full-days-worth of programming for their affiliates, even in the evening or "prime time" hours. Also, from the beginning, other stations were not affiliated with any network. Both groups sought to supplement their locally produced programming and whatever network feeds there were with content that could be flexibly scheduled. The development of videotape and, much later, enhanced satellite downlink access furthered these options. Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto Magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. While most past first-run syndicated shows were shown only in syndication, some canceled network shows continued to be produced for first-run syndication or were revived for syndication several years after their original cancellation.
Ziv Television Programs, Inc., after establishing itself as a major radio syndicator, was the first major first-run television syndicator, creating several long-lived series in the 1950s and selling them directly to regional sponsors, who in turn sold the shows to local stations. Ziv Television Programs Inc was an American Television syndication and production company producer of popular syndicated TV programs in the 1950s Among the most famous and widely watched Ziv offerings were Sea Hunt and Highway Patrol. Sea Hunt was an American Television adventure series from syndicator Ziv TV that ran from 1958 to 1961 and was popular in syndication Highway Patrol is a syndicated action crime drama series that aired from 1955-1959 Some first-run syndicated series were picked up by networks in the 1950s and early '60s, notably The Adventures of Superman and Mr. Ed. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Mister Ed is an American television Situation comedy that first aired in syndication on January 5, 1961 to July 2, The networks started syndicating their reruns in the late 1950s, and first-run syndication shrank sharply, for a decade (CBS's first syndication arm, Viacom, would eventually be split off from the company and eventually come back to purchase CBS, having already purchased Paramount Pictures and its interests, and created UPN). CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. Viacom ( ( short for " Vi deo & A udio Com munications" is an American Media conglomerate with various worldwide interests Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and Distribution company, based in Hollywood California. United Paramount Network ( UPN) was a Television network that broadcast in over 200 markets in the United States and that was in production for over eleven Some stalwart series continued, notably Death Valley Days; other ambitious projects were also to flourish, however briefly, such as The Play of the Week (1959–1961), produced by David Susskind (of the syndicated talk show Open End and also producer of such network fare as NYPD). Death Valley Days is a long-running American radio and Television anthology about true stories of the old American West
However, FCC rulings in the late 1960s curtailed the U. S. networks' ability to schedule programming in what has become known as the "early fringe," notably the 7-8pm (ET/PT) hour of "prime time," with the stated hope that this might encourage more local programming of social and cultural relevance to communities (off-network syndie repeats were also banned); some projects of this sort came to fruition, though usually relatively commercial and slick ones such as the Group W Evening Magazine/PM Magazine franchise, and such pre-existing national projects as the brief commercial-television run of William F. Buckley, Jr.'s interview/debate series Firing Line. Westinghouse Broadcasting Company, also known as Group W, was the Broadcasting division of Westinghouse Electric Corporation. See also Evening Magazine PM/Evening Magazine was a television series with a news and entertainment format William Frank Buckley Jr ( November 24 1925  – February 27 2008) was an American Author and conservative Firing Line ( 1966 - 1999) was an American public affairs show founded and hosted by conservative William F The more obvious result was a rash of Canadian-produced syndicated dramatic series, such as the Gilligan's Island knock-off Dusty's Trail and the Colgate-sponsored Dr. Simon Locke; game shows, often evening editions of network afternoon series, flourished, and a few odd items such as Wild Kingdom, cancelled by NBC in 1971, had a continuing life as syndicated programming tailor-made for the early fringe. Wild Kingdom, sometimes known as Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom, is an American Television show that features Wildlife The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's
Into the 1970s, first-run syndication continued to be an odd mix: cheaply produced, but not always poor-quality, "filler" programming. These included the dance-music show Soul Train, a sports history series, and 20th Century Fox's That's Hollywood, a television variation on the popular That's Entertainment! theatrically released collections of film clips from the MGM library. Soul Train is a music-related syndicated television program In its 35-year history the show has primarily featured performances by Rhythm and blues, soul That's Entertainment! is a 1974 Compilation film released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to celebrate its 50th anniversary
There were also many imported programs distributed this way. These include the impressive documentary series Wild, Wild World of Animals (repackaged by Time Life with narration by William Conrad) and Thames Television's sober and necessarily grim The World at War. Time Warner Inc ( is the world's largest media and entertainment conglomerate, headquartered in New York City. Thames Television was a licencee of the British ITV television network covering London and parts of the surrounding counties The World at War is a 26-episode television documentary series on World War II, including the events leading up to it and following in its wake The Starlost (1973) was a Canadian series, apparently modified from the vision of science fiction writers Harlan Ellison and Ben Bova. The Starlost was a Canadian -produced Science fiction television series devised by writer Harlan Ellison and broadcast in 1973 on CTV Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934) is a prolific American Writer of Short stories, Novellas, Teleplays Benjamin William Bova (born November 8, 1932) is an American Science fiction author and editor UFO (1970) and Space: 1999 (1975) came from British producer Gerry Anderson and his partner Lew Grade, previously best-known for their Supermarionation (puppet/animation) series, like Thunderbirds. SHADO redirects here For other meanings see Shado. UFO is a British Television Science fiction Space 1999 ( ITC Entertainment and RAI, 1975-77 is a British science-fiction television series For a detailed article on collaborations with Sylvia Anderson see Sylvia and Gerry Anderson; the separated strands aren't working - GA is the common thread throughout Lew Grade Baron Grade (25 December 1906&ndash13 December 1998 born Lev Winogradsky, was an influential Showbusiness Impresario and Television Supermarionation (a Blend of "super" "marionette" and "animation" is a puppetry technique devised in the 1960s by British production Thunderbirds is a British mid-1960s television show devised by Gerry and Sylvia Anderson and made by AP Films using a form of Puppetry The most successful syndicated show in the US in the 1970s was probably the The Muppet Show, also from Lew Grade. The Muppet Show is an American Television program featuring a cast of Muppets which was produced by Jim Henson and his team from
Game shows thrived in syndication in the decade. Five-day-a-week versions of What's My Line? and To Tell the Truth premiered in the late '60s and found loyal audiences until 1975 and 1978, respectively. What's My Line? is a weekly panel Game show which was produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman for CBS To Tell the Truth is an American Television Game show created by Bob Stewart and produced by Goodson - Todman Several daytime network games began producing once-a-week night-time versions for the early-evening hours, usually with bigger prizes and often featuring different hosts (emcees were limited to appearing on one network and one syndicated game simultaneously) and modified titles (Match Game PM, The $100,000 Name That Tune or The $25,000 Pyramid, for example). Match Game also called The Match Game was an American Television Game show that celebrities and contestants answering Name That Tune was a television Game show that put two contestants against each other to test their knowledge of Songs. Pyramid is the collective name of a series of American television Game shows where contestants tried to guess a series of words or phrases based on descriptions Of these shows, Let's Make a Deal and The Hollywood Squares were the first to jump to twice-a-week syndicated versions around 1973. Let's Make a Deal is a Television Game show which originated in the United States and has since been produced in many countries throughout the The Hollywood Squares was an American Television comedy and Game show in which two contestants play Tic-tac-toe to win money The night-time version of Family Feud (1977) quickly jumped from once-weekly to twice, and finally to five-days-a-week, and its massive popularity, along with that of new five-a-day entries like Jack Barry's The Joker's Wild (1977) and Tic Tac Dough (1978) and Chuck Barris's increasingly-raunchy remakes of his '60s hits The Dating Game and The Newlywed Game, brought an end (with rare exceptions) to the era of once-a-week games. Family Feud is a popular Television Game show that pits two families against each other in a contest to name the most popular responses to a survey-type The Joker's Wild was an American television Game show that aired at different times during the 1970s through the 1990s It billed itself as the game Tic-Tac-Dough was an American television Game show based on the Pen-and-paper game Tic-tac-toe. The Dating Game is an ABC television show that first aired on December 20, 1965 and was the first of many shows created and packaged by The Newlywed Game was an American television Game show where newly-married couples answered questions to find out how well the husband and wife knew Also popular in first-run syndication and daytime was The Gong Show, hosted by Barris throughout most of its run. This article is about the show which aired in the 1970s and 1980s
Wait Till Your Father Gets Home (1973) was a Hanna-Barbera cartoon series attempting to ape the All in the Family-style sitcoms; Skippy the Bush Kangaroo (1969) was an Australian children's series in the manner of Flipper or Gentle Ben (a decade later, the decidedly not-for-children Australian Prisoner: Cell Block H would have a brief US syndicated run); and a Canadian sketch-comedy series began appearing on U. Wait till Your Father Gets Home is an Animated television series produced by Hanna-Barbera which aired in first-run syndication in the United All in the Family is an American Situation comedy that was originally broadcast on the CBS television network from January 12 1971 to April S. television stations in 1977—Second City Television would eventually find a home, for two seasons, on NBC, as SCTV Network 90 (and on cable station Cinemax later). Second City Television (SCTV was a Canadian television Sketch comedy show offshoot from Toronto's The Second City troupe that ran between Max (or Cinemax) is a collection of cable Television networks that provide movies special features Erotica, and other services to
The Universal / Paramount-produced package of original programming, Operation Prime Time, began appearing on ad hoc quasi-networks of (almost by necessity) non-network stations in the U. Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures or Universal City Studios) a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is a major Global American Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and Distribution company, based in Hollywood California. Operation Prime Time (OPT was a syndication block of programming offered to Independent stations in 1976 by what was then called MCA (now S. in 1978, with a mini-series adaptation of John Jakes's The Bastard. John William Jakes (born on March 31, 1932) is a Writer of Fiction.
From the latter '60s into the late '70s, Westinghouse also found considerable success with The Mike Douglas Show, a variety/talk show hosted by a singer with an easygoing interview style, which played in afternoons in most markets; similar programs soon followed featuring Merv Griffin, who had been the host of CBS's most sustained late-night answer to The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson previously, and another network veteran, Dinah Shore. The Mike Douglas Show was an American daytime Television Talk show hosted by Mike Douglas that ran from 1961 to 1982 Mervyn Edward "Merv" Griffin Jr ( July 6, 1925 &ndash August 12, 2007) was an American Television host and CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson was a late-night talk show hosted by Johnny Carson under the ''Tonight Show'' franchise from 1962 Dinah Shore (born Frances Rose Shore February 29, 1916 - February 24, 1994) was an American Singer, Actress Also notable was the growing success of audience-participation talk shows, particularly that of the innovator of the format, Phil Donahue. Phillip John "Phil" Donahue (born December 21, 1935 in Cleveland Ohio) is an American media personality and Writer, best known as
First-run syndication in the 1970s also made it possible for some shows no longer wanted by network television to remain on the air. In 1971, ABC cancelled The Lawrence Welk Show, which went on to produce new episodes in syndication for another 11 years. The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. Lawrence Welk ( March 11, 1903 &ndash May 17, 1992) was a Musician, Accordionist Bandleader, and Television Also in 1971, CBS dropped Lassie and Hee Haw, the latter show's run ending as part of the network's cancellation of all of its rural-oriented shows (see The Beverly Hillbillies and Green Acres). CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. Lassie is an Emmy Award -winning American Television series that follows the adventures of a female rough collie named Lassie For the EP by The Birthday Party, see Hee Haw (EP Hee Haw was a Television Variety show co-hosted Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time The Beverly Hillbillies is an American Television series about a Hillbilly family transplanted to Beverly Hills California after finding Green Acres is an American Television series starring Eddie Albert and Eva Gabor as a couple who move from New York City Lassie entered first-run syndication for two years, while Hee Haw continued to produce new episodes until 1992.
Throughout the mid to late 1980s, sitcoms continued to enter first-run syndication after being cancelled by the networks, the most successful of which were Mama's Family and Charles In Charge. Mama's Family is an American television sitcom that premiered on NBC on January 22, 1983. Charles in Charge is an American sitcom series which stars Scott Baio as Charles a 19-year-old college student working as a Other sitcoms during this time to enter first-run syndication after network cancellation included Punky Brewster, Silver Spoons, Webster, It's a Living, Too Close for Comfort and What's Happening!! (retitled as What's Happening Now!!). Punky Brewster was an American Sitcom about a girl named Punky Brewster ( Soleil Moon Frye) being raised by her Foster parent Silver Spoons is an American Sitcom that aired on NBC from September 25 1982 to May 11 1986 and in First-run syndication from September Webster is an American sitcom series that premiered on ABC on September 16, 1983, and ran on that network until It's a Living is an American sitcom which aired on ABC from 1980 to 1982. Too Close for Comfort is an American Television Sitcom which ran on the ABC network and in syndication from 1980 to 1985 What's Happening!! is an American television sitcom that aired on ABC from August 5, 1976 to April 28, What's Happening Now!! is an American Sitcom which ran in syndication from 1985 to 1988. Many of these sitcoms produced new shows in syndication mainly to have enough episodes for a profitable run in rerun syndication. Other sitcoms, such as Small Wonder, enjoyed success in syndication throughout the entire run.
During the latter 1980s and early 1990s and throughout the remainder of the decade there was a resurgence of dramatic first-run syndicated programs, many of them in the science fiction and fantasy fields, or adventure dramas with fantastic elements. Star Trek: The Next Generation debuted in 1987 and became one of the most-watched syndicated shows throughout its seven-year run. Star Trek The Next Generation ( STTNG or TNG) is an Emmy and Peabody Award-winning science fiction television program created by Gene Roddenberry The next syndicated show that debuted in 1988 was War of the Worlds. War of the Worlds is a Television program that ran for two seasons from 1988 to 1990 Baywatch, which debuted in 1989 on NBC and was cancelled after one season also became one of the most-watched syndicated shows throughout its ten-year-run, garnering a worldwide audience. Baywatch was an American Television series about the Los Angeles County Lifeguards who patrol the crowded Beaches of The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Star Trek: Deep Space Nine was also syndicated. Hercules: The Legendary Journeys and its spin-off series Xena: Warrior Princess helped build the audiences for such shows; Babylon 5 and Forever Knight drew devoted "cult" audiences; Psi Factor and Poltergeist: The Legacy attempted to draw on the audience for the FOX series The X-Files (as did, even less probably, the short-lived spinoff Baywatch Nights). Media spin-off is the process of deriving new Radio programs Television programs or Video games or even Novels from already existing ones Xena Warrior Princess is an American Television series that aired from September 15 1995 until June 18 2001 Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created produced and largely written by J Forever Knight is a Canadian - German - American Television series about Nick Knight an 800-year-old Vampire working Psi Factor Chronicles of the Paranormal is a Canadian Sci-fi / Drama Television series which was filmed in and around Toronto Poltergeist The Legacy is a Canadian / American horror Television series which ran from 1996 to 1999 The X-Files is a Peabody, Golden Globe and Emmy Award -winning American Science fiction television series created by Chris Carter Baywatch Nights was a Spin-off from the popular television series Baywatch. Among the slightly less fantastic series were Relic Hunter and VIP, She Spies and Once a Thief. Relic Hunter was an American / Canadian / French Television series starring Tia Carrere and Christien Anholt VIP (standing for and also referred to as Vallery Irons Protection) is an American syndicated Television series that ran She Spies is an Action-adventure Television show that ran from September 9 2002 until May 17 2004, in two Once a Thief (also billed as John Woo's Once a Thief) was a 1997 television show inspired by the 1996 film of the same name. In 1997, Earth: Final Conflict, based on ideas from Gene Roddenberry, premiered in syndication. Earth Final Conflict is a Canadian Science fiction Television series based on story ideas created by Gene Roddenberry, and produced Eugene Wesley "Gene" Roddenberry (August 19 1921 &ndash October 24 1991 was an American Screenwriter and producer. Three years later, a second Gene Roddenberry series, Andromeda also premiered in syndication. See Andromeda (disambiguation for other uses of "Andromeda" In 2008, Disney-ABC Domestic Television and ABC Studios are teaming up with Sam Raimi to launch a new first-run syndicated TV series Wizard's First Rule, which is based on Terry Goodkind's Sword of Truth novel series. Disney-ABC Domestic Television is the domestic Television syndication firm of the Disney-ABC Television Group, a division of The Walt Disney Company ABC Studios is the Television production division of Disney-ABC Television Group. Samuel Marshall "Sam" Raimi (born October 23, 1959) is an American Film director, producer, Actor and Wizard's First Rule, written by Terry Goodkind, is the first book in the Epic fantasy series The Sword of Truth. Terry Goodkind (born 1948 in Omaha Nebraska USA is a contemporary American writer and Author of the best-selling Epic fantasy series The The Sword of Truth is an epic fantasy series written by Terry Goodkind. It'll be the very first weekly dramatic first-run syndicated program in six years since the fall first-run syndication premiere of She Spies and also the very first weekly dramatic first-run syndicated program to be shot and available in HDTV. High-definition television (HDTV is a Digital television Broadcasting system with higher resolution than traditional television systems (standard-definition
Shows featuring competition in one form or another, such as Star Search and American Gladiators, also enjoyed popularity in syndication around this time. Star Search is a Television show that was produced from 1983 to 1995 and hosted by Ed McMahon. American Gladiators (2008 TV series American Gladiators (1989-1996 was an American competition Television program that matched a cast of
Also in the 1980s, news programming of various sorts began to be offered widely to stations. Independent Network News, which was produced at WPIX studios in New York City, was a half-hour weekdaily program that ran for several years on independent stations; CNN would offer a package of its Headline News to broadcast stations later. WPIX, channel 11 is a television station in New York City. It has been owned by the Tribune Company since its inception and is currently an affiliate of the The City of New York Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner Headline News is a Spin-off network from the original Cable News Network ( CNN) television news network in the United States. Entertainment Tonight began its long and continuing run as a "soft" news daily strip, with a number of imitations following; and "tabloid" television, in the wake of ABC's 20/20 and, more immediately, FOX's A Current Affair, would become a syndication staple with such series as Extra and Real TV. Entertainment Tonight is a daily Television entertainment news show that is syndicated by CBS Television Distribution throughout the United The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. 20/20 is an American television Newsmagazine broadcast on ABC since June 6, 1978. A Current Affair is a Television Newsmagazine that ran from 1986 to 1996 before reappearing briefly in 2005. Real TV (commonly known as America's Best Caught on Tape) is a reality Television program that ran in syndication from September 9,
Another area where network dominance was challenged by syndicated programming in the 1980s was in late-night talk shows; The Arsenio Hall Show was the first and only very successful one, but Alan Thicke's earlier shortlived Thicke of the Night, Lauren Hutton's innovatively-shot Lauren Hutton and. The Arsenio Hall Show was an Emmy Award winning Talk show which aired on late night in syndication from 1989 to 1994 Alan Thicke (born March 1, 1947) is a Canadian Actor, Songwriter, Game show host and talk-show emcee Lauren Hutton (born November 17, 1943, in Charleston South Carolina) is an American former Supermodel and occasional Actress . . , and Dennis Miller, Whoopi Goldberg, David Brenner and Keenan Ivory Wayans attempted similar programs; Magic Johnson's The Magic Hour was seen as a massive flop. Dennis Miller (born November 3, 1953) is an American Stand-up comedian, political/sports commentator, and television/radio personality Whoopi Goldberg (born Caryn Elaine Johnson; November 13, 1955) is an American actress, comedienne, and television David Brenner (born February 4, 1945) is an American Standup comedian, Actor, Author, and Filmmaker. Keenen Ivory Wayans (born June 8, 1958) is an American Actor, Comedian, director and writer known as the
As UPN and the WB began offering their affiliates ever-more nights of primetime programming, less call has been felt for first-run drama, at least, in the U. S. ; much as with the closing of windows that provided opportunity for Ziv in the '50s and various producers in the early '70s. The more expensive dramatic projects are less attractive to syndicators (particularly when they might be sold, with somewhat less risk, to cable channels); "reality" series such as Cheaters and Maximum Exposure and several series about dating stunts began to be more common in the early 2000s. Cheaters is a weekly syndicated reality TV show that documents people who are suspected of cheating on their partners Some of the more low-key programs in this category were designed to appeal to children, such as Beakman's World, Animal Rescue and Jack Hanna's Animal Adventures. They were able to get significant clearance because of stricter FCC enforcement of rules on children's programming.
Several game shows are currently syndicated; the most popular by far are Wheel of Fortune and the latest incarnation of Jeopardy!, premiering in 1983 and 1984 respectively. The shows have been 1-2 or 1-3 in the syndication ratings consistently since at least the late-'80s. In fact, according to the Guinness Book of World Records, Wheel is the most popular syndicated television program not only in the United States, but worldwide as well. Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Family Feud ended its first syndication run in 1985; a revival was a moderate hit from 1988 to 1994 and still another revival has been airing since 1999. Family Feud is a popular Television Game show that pits two families against each other in a contest to name the most popular responses to a survey-type By far the most successful entry into the market in the 2000s has been the daily version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, premiering in 2002. In the United States, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire (also known simply as Millionaire) is a Television Game show which New game show concepts (that is, not based on an existing or pre-existing format) are rarely tried and usually unsuccessful in syndication; Street Smarts was somewhat of an exception. Street Smarts was a United States Game show that features two in-studio contestants trying to predict the outcome of interviews of people that were A Hollywood Squares revival also thrived during the late-'90s and early-2000s, running six seasons until its 2004 cancellation. The Hollywood Squares was an American Television comedy and Game show in which two contestants play Tic-tac-toe to win money Between 2003 and 2007, no new games debuted in syndication, marking four consecutive seasons where no new game show debuted, a syndication first. The fall-2007 debuts of Temptation and Merv Griffin's Crosswords helped stop that streak, bringing the daytime tally to six game shows. The American version of the Australian show Temptation The New Sale of the Century was a television Game show. Merv Griffin's Crosswords is a syndicated Game show based on the paper-and-pencil pastime of Crosswords The show was created by its namesake More new shows are slated for fall-2008 and 2009, including a daytime run of Deal or No Deal and an adaptation of the popular board game Trivial Pursuit. Deal or No Deal is the name of several closely related Television Game shows, the first of which (launching the format was produced by Dutch producer Trivial Pursuit is a Board game in which progress is determined by a player's ability to answer general knowledge and Popular culture questions
The dominant form of first-run syndication in the U. S. for the last three decades has been the "stripped" talk show, such as Donahue, Oprah Winfrey, The Tyra Banks Show, and The Jerry Springer Show. The Phil Donahue Show, also known as Donahue, was the first Tabloid talk show. The Oprah Winfrey Show is a United States syndicated Talk show, hosted and produced by its namesake Oprah Winfrey, and is the highest-rated The Tyra Banks Show is a Daytime Emmy Award winning American Talk show hosted by former supermodel and America's Next Top Model The Jerry Springer Show is a television Tabloid talk show hosted by Jerry Springer, a former politician broadcast in the United States and other In many markets, a stripped show will be seen twice daily, usually with different episodes. Sometimes, station groups with more than one station in a market, or a "duopoly," will run one episode of a strip on one of their stations in the morning, and the other available episode on another of their stations that night. A true duopoly is a specific type of Oligopoly where only two producers exist in one Market.
Meanwhile, the popularity of some of the audience-participation talk shows continues to encourage new participants, some of whom, such as Morton Downey, Jr. and Rosie O'Donnell, have brief periods of impressive ratings and influence; others, such as Oprah Winfrey and Maury Povich, have a sustained run. Morton Downey Jr (born Sean Morton Downey; December 9, 1932 - March 12, 2001) was a American Television Talk Roseann "Rosie" O'Donnell A notable scheduling decision was made by KRON-TV in San Francisco; a dispute with NBC led to their disaffiliation from the network, and since all the other larger networks were already represented in San Francisco, KRON decided to become the largest-market independent commercial station on the VHF band in the U. KRON-TV, channel 4 is the MyNetworkTV affiliate for the San Francisco Bay Area. Very high frequency (VHF is the Radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. S. , with the exception of Los Angeles's Viacom and now CBS-owned KCAL (coincidentally once owned by KRON's current owners, Young Broadcasting), and soon tried running Dr. Phil, a popular new stripped series hosted by Winfrey-associate Phil McGraw, in primetime, with impressive ratings results. Viacom ( ( short for " Vi deo & A udio Com munications" is an American Media conglomerate with various worldwide interests Dr Phil is an American Talk show hosted by Phil McGraw. After McGraw's success with his segment on The Oprah Winfrey Show
While in earlier times, independent TV stations thrived on syndicated programming (including some venerable and quite profitable stations such as KMSP in the Minneapolis-St. Paul market), with the loosening of FCC regulations and the creation of new additional TV networks (Fox, The CW, MyNetworkTV and ION Television), most of these independents have joined one or another of these or smaller (religious or low-budget) networks. KMSP-TV, channel 9 is an owned-and-operated television station of the News Corporation -owned Fox Broadcasting Company, located in Minneapolis Minnesota The CW Television Network ( The CW) is a Television network in the United States launched at the beginning of the 2006-2007 television season. MyNetworkTV (unofficially abbreviated MyNet or MNT) is a Television network in the United States, owned by the Fox Broadcasting Company Ion Television is a broadcast television network first broadcast on August 31 1998
It is commonly said in the U. S. industry that "syndication is where the real money is" when producing a TV show. In other words, while the initial run of any particular television series may theoretically lose money for its producing studio, the ensuing syndication will generate enough profit to balance out any losses.
Off-network syndication occurs when a network television show is syndicated in packages containing some or all episodes, and sold to as many television stations/markets as possible. Sitcoms (short for "situation comedies") often do better in syndication than some dramatic shows due to the fact that most sitcoms have few ongoing storylines; a viewer can tune into many half-hour sitcoms without worrying about having missed the last episode. With some dramatic series, missing an episode can throw off the viewer, even if the episode itself is a self-contained story. Moreover, syndicators and stations often will run episodes of some series out-of-order to satisfy other requirements at the expense of viewer satisfaction; this is less costly for sitcoms than other shows with more pronounced serial elements.
Syndication has been known to spur the popularity of a series that only experienced moderate success during its original network run. The most notable example of this is Star Trek, which ran for three seasons on NBC from 1966 to 1969, but became a worldwide cult phenomenon after it entered off-network syndication, the success of which ultimately led to the Star Trek film series and the made-for-syndication revival Star Trek: The Next Generation and three other series. Star Trek is a Science fiction Television series created by Gene Roddenberry that aired from September 8, 1966 through Star Trek The Next Generation ( STTNG or TNG) is an Emmy and Peabody Award-winning science fiction television program created by Gene Roddenberry Another example is The Brady Bunch. The Brady Bunch is an American Television Situation comedy based around a large blended family.
Cable stations have been known to vie among themselves for off-net syndication. Other series seen on multiple cable channels simultaneously were often being shared by channels which had the same corporate owners.
In recent years, more and more fee plugs have appeared during off-network syndication non-game shows. Some of these fees charged pay for the distribution and editing of these shows for syndication, while others pay for closed captioning and promotional consideration.
In any event, the amount of stations airing syndicated shows depends on which station in a particular market airs a particular show.
Sometimes, how a program is acquired for syndication varies. In the case of shows syndicated by one company, stations loyal to the company generally have first choice on any program it offers. For other shows syndicated by other companies, the syndication rights may be auctioned off to the highest bidder in a particular market.
The rise in popularity of infomercials in the 1980s and 1990s has resulted in a marked decrease in the number of older off-network syndicated series being aired by American and Canadian broadcasters, many of which now air paid programming such as infomercials during the overnight hours formerly occupied by old series reruns. Infomercials (or informercials are Television commercials that run for one minute or for as long as a typical Television program
Off-network syndication can take several forms. The most common form is known as strip syndication or daily syndication, when episodes of a television series are shown daily five times a week. Stripping is an industry term used to refer to the practice of running a syndicated television series every day of the week Typically, this means that enough episodes must exist to allow for continual strip syndication to take place over the course of several months, without episodes being shown again. If a small number of episodes exist, the entire run of the series can be shown in a matter of weeks. As explained by David Crane (creator and executive producer of Friends), "A show will go in syndication for sure when it has reached its 5th year or 100th episode. Friends was an If a Network Show only runs for 2 years or so there is usually no demand for syndication. " However, there are exceptions, such as the option is the 65-episode block (common in Children's programming), which allows for a 13-week cycle of daily showings, so there will only be four repeats in a year.
In some cases, more than one episode is shown daily. Half-hour sitcoms are sometimes syndicated in groups of two or four episodes, taking up one or two hours of broadcast time.
If a series is not strip syndicated, it may be aired once a week, instead of five times a week. This allows shows with fewer episodes to last long in syndication, but it also may mean viewers will tire of waiting a week for the next episode of a show they have already seen and stop watching. More often, hourlong dramas in their first several runs in syndication are offered weekly; sitcoms are more likely to get stripped. In recent years there has been something of a trend toward showing two consecutive episodes of a program on Saturday and Sunday nights after prime time (generally following the local news). Prime Time is the major News analysis current affairs and Politics programme broadcast on Radio Telefís Éireann in Ireland This pattern has been particularly prominent for shows which are still in production but have run long enough to have many episodes.
As with commercial stations, not all the air time nor all the perceived audience are met by the productions offered U. S. public-broadcasting stations by PBS; additionally, there are some independent public stations in the U. S. which take no programming from that (somewhat) decentralized network. As a result, there are several syndicators of programming for the non-profit stations, several of which are descendants of the regional station groups which combined some, not all, of their functions into the creation of PBS in 1969. American Public Television (APT) is the largest of these, nearly matched by NETA, the National Educational Telecommunications Association; similarly, the recently defunct Continental Program Marketing was another of the syndicator-descendants (of the Northeastern, Southeastern, and Rocky Mountain educational networks, respectively) of the pre-PBS era. American Public Television ( APT) is the largest of the Television syndication distributors of programming for public television stations in the United States Neta may refer to Neta Nepal Ñetas Among the other notable organizations in the U. S. are Westlink Satellite Operations (based at Albuquerque's KNME), BBC Worldwide Americas (which often works with other distributors and individual stations, since it has no satellite access of its own in the U. S. ), Deutsche Welle, Executive Program Services, the Program Resource Group and its member-station WLIW, Long Island, NY's PBS station, which is (with the arguable exception of KNME) the most prolific contributor of any individual station of syndicated programming, most obviously the BBC World News, Doctor Who and Monty Python's Flying Circus in the U. Deutsche Welle ('Welle' pronounced with a 'v' sound IPA /'vɛlə/ or DW, is Germany's international broadcaster. WLIW, channel 21 is a noncommercial television station licensed to Garden City New York which serves as a secondary PBS member station for the New York City Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. Monty Python’s Flying Circus (also known as Flying Circus or during the final series just Monty Python) is a BBC Sketch comedy S.
Radio syndication generally works the same way as in television, except that radio stations usually are not organized into strict affiliate-only networks. This article is about radio broadcasting for other uses see Radio (disambiguation. Radio networks generally are only distributors of programming, and individual stations (though often owned by large conglomerates) decide which shows to carry from a wide variety of networks and independent providers. A radio network is a network system which distributes programming to multiple stations simultaneously or slightly delayed for the purpose of extending total A conglomerate is a large Company that consists of seemingly unrelated Business sections As a result, radio networks like Westwood One or Premiere Radio Networks, despite their influence in broadcasting, are not as recognized among the general public as television networks like CBS or ABC. Some examples of widely-syndicated commercial music programs include weekly countdowns like Rick Dees' Weekly Top 40, the American Top 40, the Canadian Hit 30 Countdown, and the nightly program, Delilah, heard on many U. A countdown is the backward counting to indicate the seconds days etc Rick Dees is an American comedic performer entertainer and radio personality best known for his #1 internationally syndicated radio show The Rick Dees Weekly Top 40 Countdown American Top 40 (commonly abbreviated to AT40) is an internationally- syndicated, independent The Canadian Hit 30 Countdown, often abbreviated CH30 is a Canadian radio Countdown show Delilah Rene Luke (born February 15, 1960 in Reedsport Oregon) almost always simply known as Delilah S. stations.
Syndication is particularly popular in talk radio. Talk radio is a Radio format containing discussion about topical issues While syndicated music shows (with the exception of some evening and overnight shows such as Delilah mentioned above) tend to air once a week and mostly recorded, most popular talk radio programs are syndicated daily and live. Also, with a relative dearth in 24-hour talk radio networks, most radio stations are free to assemble their own lineup of talk hosts as they so choose. Examples of syndicated talk programs are Premiere Radio Networks' Rush Limbaugh Show, Talk Radio Network's Savage Nation, and ABC Radio Networks' Imus in the Morning. Premiere Radio Networks is an American Radio network. It is the largest syndication company in the United States based on popularity of The Rush Limbaugh Show (also called The Rush Limbaugh Program, the Excellence in Broadcasting Network, or the EIB Network) is an American Talk Radio Network (abbreviated TRN) is an American Radio network. The Savage Nation (also called The Michael Savage Show) is an American radio show hosted by conservative commentator ABC Radio Networks, known as ABC Radio for short is an American Radio network. Imus in the Morning is an American radio show hosted by Don Imus on ABC Radio Networks and Simulcast on RFD-TV
National Public Radio, Public Radio International, and American Public Media all sell programming to local public radio member stations in the U. Public Radio International ( PRI) is a Minneapolis -based American Public radio organization with locations in Boston, New York American Public Media is the second largest producer of public radio programs after National Public Radio. Public broadcasting refers to radio television and other electronic media outlets that receive some or all of their funding from the public S. , in contrast to true public radio networks like Canada's CBC, which owns all of its stations. CBC Radio is the Radio division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Two independently-produced, non-commercial syndicated programs, heard on hundreds of community radio and indie radio stations, are Alternative Radio and Pacifica's Democracy Now!. Community radio is a type of Radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more This is the list of indie radio stations. Included are any Non-profit Over-the-air terrestrial Radio stations not directly Affiliated owned Alternative Radio is an internationally syndicated, one hour weekly radio program featuring interviews with progressive thinkers and activists Pacifica Radio is a network of five independently operated non-commercial listener-supported Radio stations in the United States that is known for its progressive Democracy Now! is a syndicated program of news analysis and opinion aired by more than 700 Radio and Television, satellite
Some radio programs are also offered on a barter system usually at no charge to the radio station. The system is used for live programming or preproduced programs and include a mixture of ad time sold by the program producer as well as time set aside for the radio station to sell.
Syndication also applies to international markets. Same language countries often syndicate programs to each other- such as programs from the United Kingdom being syndicated to Australia and vice versa. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Another example would be programs from the United Kingdom, Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina being syndicated to local TV stations in the United States, and programs from the United States being syndicated elsewhere in the world. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
One of the best-known internationally syndicated television series has been The Muppet Show, which was produced in the United Kingdom and shown on ITV, and appeared around the world, including the United States, where it aired in syndication, and Canada, where CBC Television aired the show. The Muppet Show is an American Television program featuring a cast of Muppets which was produced by Jim Henson and his team from The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Independent Television (generally known as ITV) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters set up under the Independent The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page CBC Television is a Canadian English language Television network. Many soaps, and long running series are also successfully syndicated around the globe.
Colombian, Brazilian, Mexican and Venezuelan telenovelas are programmed throughout the Portuguese and Spanish-speaking world and even in India, China and Europe. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the A telenovela is a limited-run Television serial Melodrama of the type made famous in Latin America. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National