The ideal telecommunication network would have the following characteristics: broadband, multi-media, multi-point, multi-rate and economical implementation for a diversity of services (multi-services) . A telecommunications network is a network of Telecommunications links and nodes arranged so that messages may be passed from one part of the network to another over The term broadband can have different meanings in different contexts The Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) provides these characteristics in today's networks. In the 1980s the Telecommunications industry expected that digital services would follow much the same pattern as voice services did on the Public switched telephone network, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a target technology for meeting these requirements and is widely deployed as a broadband network . In electronic digital data transmission systems the Network protocol Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM encodes data traffic into small fixed-sized cells
Society is becoming more informationally and visually oriented. Personal computing facilitates easy access, manipulation, storage, and exchange of information. These processes require reliable transmission of data. The means or media for communicating data are becoming more diverse. Communicating documents by images and the use of high-resolution graphics terminals provide a more natural and informative mode of human interaction than just voice and data. Video teleconferencing enhances group interaction at a distance. A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive Telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact High-definition entertainment video improves the quality of pictures but requires much higher transmission rates.
These new data transmission requirements may require new transmission means other than the present overcrowded radio spectrum . A modern telecommunications network (such as the broadband network) must provide all these different services (multi-services) to the user.
Conventional telephony communicates using:
In contrast, modern communication services depart from the conventional telephony service in these three essential aspects. Modern communication services can be:
These aspects are examined individually in the following three sub-sections .
A multi-media call may communicate audio, data, still images, or full-motion video, or any combination of these media. Each medium has different demands for communication qualities, such as:
The information content of each medium may affect the information generated by other media. For example, voice could be transcribed into data via voice recognition and data commands may control the way voice and video are presented. These interactions most often occur at the communication terminals, but may also occur within the network .
A few examples will be used to contrast point-to-point communications versus multi-point communications. Traditional voice calls are predominantly two party calls, requiring a point-to-point connection using only the voice medium. To access pictorial information in a remote database would require a point-to-point connection that sends low bit-rate queries to the database, and high bit-rate video from the database. Entertainment video applications are largely point-to-multi-point connections, requiring one way communication of full motion video and audio from the program source to the viewers. Video teleconferencing involves connections among many parties, communicating voice, video, as well as data. Thus offering future services requires flexible management of the connection and media requests of a multi-point, multi-media communication call .
A multi-rate service network is one which allocates transmission capacity flexibly to connections. A multi-media network has to support a broad range of bit-rates demanded by connections, not only because there are many communication media, but also because a communication medium may be encoded by algorithms with different bit-rates. For example, audio signals can be encoded with bit-rates ranging from less than 1 kbit/s to hundreds of kbit/s, using different encoding algorithms with a wide range of complexity and quality of audio reproduction. Similarly, full motion video signals may be encoded with bit-rates ranging from less than 1 Mbit/s to hundreds of Mbit/s. Thus a network transporting both video and audio signals may have to integrate traffic with a very broad range of bit-rates .
Traditionally, the various services mentioned above were carried via separate networks – voice on the telephone network, data on computer networks or local area networks (LANs), video teleconferencing on private corporate networks, and television on broadcast radio or cable networks. For the band see Broadcast (band Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or Video signals which transmit
These networks are largely engineered for a specific application and are not suited for other applications. For example, the traditional telephone network is too noisy and inefficient for bursty data communication. On the other hand, data networks which store and forward messages using computers have very limited connectivity, usually do not have sufficient bandwidth for digitised voice and video signals, and suffer from unacceptable delays for the real-time signals. Television networks using the radio or the cable medium are largely broadcast networks with minimum switching facilities .
It is desirable to have a single network for providing all these communication services in order to achieve the economy of sharing. This economy motivates the general idea of an integrated services network. Integration avoids the need for many overlaying networks, which complicate network management and reduce the flexibility in the introduction and evolution of services. This integration is made possible with the advances in broadband technologies and high speed information processing .
While there are multiple network structures capable of supporting broadband services, an ever increasing percentage of broadband and MSO providers are opting for fiber optic network structures to support both present and future bandwidth requirements.
CATV (cable television), HDTV (high definition television), VoIP (voice over internet protocol), and broadband internet are some of the most common applications now being supported by fiber optic networks, in some cases directly to the home (FTTh – Fiber To The Home). High-definition television (HDTV is a Digital television Broadcasting system with higher resolution than traditional television systems (standard-definition Voice-over-Internet protocol ( VoIP, vɔɪp is a protocol optimized for the transmission of voice through the Internet Broadband Internet access, often shortened to just Broadband, is high-speed Internet access—typically contrasted with dial-up access over a Modem These types of fiber networks incorporate a wide variety of products to support and distribute the signal from the central office to an optic node, and ultimately to the subscriber (end-user).
Modern networks have to carry integrated traffic consisting of voice, video and data. The Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) satisfies these needs . In the 1980s the Telecommunications industry expected that digital services would follow much the same pattern as voice services did on the Public switched telephone network, The types of traffic supported by a broadband network can be classified according to three characteristics :
The different types of traffic found in a broadband network (with examples) and their respective requirements are summarized in Table 1.
|TRAFFIC TYPE||EXAMPLE||REQUIRED BANDWIDTH||CELL-DELAY VARIATION||LATENCY|
|Constant||Voice, Guaranteed circuit emulation||Minimal||Low|
|Available||Data||Not guaranteed||Widely variable||Variable|
 ATM Congestion Control, Fang Lu, http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~jain/cis788-95/ftp/atm_cong/index.html, Last accessed 1 March 2005. In electronic digital data transmission systems the Network protocol Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM encodes data traffic into small fixed-sized cells Teletraffic engineering is a well-understood discipline in the traditional Voice network, where traffic patterns are established growth rates can be predicted and vast amounts The term broadband can have different meanings in different contexts In Telecommunications a circuit switching network is one that establishes a fixed bandwidth circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals Packet switching is a network communications method that splits data traffic (digital representations of text sound or video data into chunks called packets, that are then
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