Historical divisions of Brittany with their names in Breton
|- Total||34,034 km² (13,137 sq mi)|
|Population (July 2006 estimate)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|- Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Brittany (Breton: Breizh pronounced [bʁejs]; in French: Bretagne, ; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent kingdom and duchy, and a province of France. The flag of Brittany is called the Gwenn-ha-du which means white and black in Breton. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Nantes (Naoned Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast Rennes ( Gallo: Resnn, Roazhon Condate Condate Riedonum is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern Brest (bʁɛst in French, in Breton) is a city in the Finistère department in Bretagne in northwestern France. Lorient, or L'Orient, (An Oriant is a commune and a Seaport in the Morbihan département, of Brittany. Quimper ( Breton: Kemper, Latin: Corspotium) is a commune and capital of the Finistère department in Vannes (Gwened is a town and commune located in the Morbihan département, in Brittany, in the west of France. Redon is a town and commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Bretagne northwestern France. Saint-Brieuc ( Breton: Sant-Brieg, Gallo: Saent-Berioec) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor Department in See also the St Nazaire Raid Saint-Nazaire ( Breton: Sant-Nazer) is a town and ''commune'' in the Loire-Atlantique département Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. UTC+1 is used in the following locations Central European Time West Africa Time Western European Summer Time Daylight saving time ( DST UTC+2 corresponds to the following Time zones Eastern European Time Egypt Standard Time Central Africa Time The Breton language ( Brezhoneg) formerly often called Armoric or Armorican, is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Gallo is a regional language of France. Gallo is a Romance language, one of the oïl languages. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or A duchy is a territory fief, or domain ruled by a Duke or Duchess. The Kingdom of France was organised into Provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département It is also, more generally, the name of the cultural area whose limits correspond to the old province and independent duchy. Brittany is one of the six Celtic nations. Celtic nations are areas of modern northwest Europe which identify themselves with the Celtic cultures specifically speakers of Celtic languages. It was at one time called "Lesser Britain".
The historical province of Brittany was split between two modern-day régions of France. France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 80% of Brittany has become the région of Bretagne, while the remaining 20% of Brittany (Loire-Atlantique département with its préfecture Nantes, one of the former capitals of the duchy of Brittany) has been grouped with other historical provinces (Anjou, Maine, and so on) to create the région of Pays-de-la-Loire (that is "lands of the Loire"). Loire-Atlantique (formerly Loire-Inférieure) is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative A prefecture ( préfecture) in France can refer to: the Chef-lieu de département, the town in which the administration of a ''département'' Nantes (Naoned Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast Anjou is a former County (c 880) Duchy ( 1360) and province centred on the city of Angers in the lower Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. It corresponds to the old county of Maine centered around the city of Le Mans. Pays de la Loire is one of the 26 Regions of France. It is one of the regions created in the late 20th century to serve as a zone of influence for its capital Nantes The Loire River (lwaʁ in French) is the longest River in France. For the reasons behind the splitting-up of Brittany, and the current debate regarding reunification, see the Bretagne article.
Brittany occupies a large peninsula in the northwest of France, lying between the English Channel to the north and the Bay of Biscay to the south. A peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by Water but connected to Mainland via an Isthmus. Cantabrian Sea redirects here Not to be confused with Biscay Bay Newfoundland and Labrador or Biscayne Bay. Its land area is 34,034 km² (13,137 sq mi). The historical province of Brittany is divided into five departments: to the west is Finistère, Côtes-d'Armor lies to the North, Ille-et-Vilaine is in the north-east, Loire-Atlantique is to the south-east and Morbihan lies in the middle, bordering the Bay of Biscay. Finistère (Penn-ar-Bed is a département of France, located in Brittany ( Breizh in Breton and Bretagne Côtes-d'Armor ( Breton: Aodoù-an-Arvor) is a department in the north of Brittany, in northwestern France. Ille-et-Vilaine (Il-ha-Gwilen is a department of France, located in the region of Bretagne in the northwest of France. Loire-Atlantique (formerly Loire-Inférieure) is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Morbihan (Mor-Bihan is a department in the northwest of France named after the Morbihan ( small sea in Breton) the enclosed sea that is the
In January 2006 the population of Brittany was estimated at 4,300,500 inhabitants. 72% of these live in the Bretagne région, while 28% of these live in the Pays-de-la-Loire région. At the 1999 census, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes (711,120 inhabitants), Rennes (521,188 inhabitants), and Brest (303,484 inhabitants). Nantes (Naoned Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast Rennes ( Gallo: Resnn, Roazhon Condate Condate Riedonum is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern Brest (bʁɛst in French, in Breton) is a city in the Finistère department in Bretagne in northwestern France.
Brittany's traditional and popular history is equally intertwined with the Matter of Britain and Matter of France, for the Breton and Gallo speaking regions respectively. The history of Brittany may refer to the entire history of the Armorican peninsula or only to the creation and development of a specifically Brythonic culture and The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the Legends that concern the Celtic and legendary History of Great Britain, especially those The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle, is a body of Legendary history that springs from the Old French Medieval literature Although much is remarked of Brittany's ancient Celtic links with Britain and for the sake of its western population, Brittany's modern or political history is stereotyped as merely a French, or "Gallo-Romance" matter. The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Occitan, Arpitan, and several other languages spoken in modern France This is a misconception, since the Gallo section (part of Latin Europe) of Brittany reforged links with Britain, albeit as Normandy's "sidekick". Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. The Hundred Years' War has obscured these facts, as well as the Romano-British nature of the Breton people (both Celtic and Romance. The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior Romano-British culture is that of the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire and later the Western Roman Empire, and of those exposed to Roman culture in the years The Bretons are a distinct Ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. )
While the 1066 conquest of England gave control of that kingdom to Normandy via Normans in London, Brittany was imbued with junior status in Northern England via Bretons in Richmond. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Northern England, The North, The North of England or (less commonly The North Country refers to the parts of England north of an ill-defined line The Honour of Richmond was created by Alain Le Roux, son of Eudes Count of Penthièvre, grandson of Geoffrey I Duke of Brittany. The relative positions of the Norman Dukes in London to Breton Dukes in Richmond during the Mediaeval period, was not unlike the Primacy of Canterbury above the Province of York, itself formerly superior to Scottish bishops (until cancelling the Treaty of Falaise disestablished York's control in Scotland, except Whithorn). Within the Church of England, the primacy of Canterbury or primacy of England is the supremacy of the Archbishop of Canterbury (as Primate The Province of York is one of two Ecclesiastical provinces making up the Church of England and consists of 14 Dioceses which cover the northern third of The Treaty of Falaise was an agreement made in December 1174 by the captive William I, King of Scots, and the English King Henry II Whithorn ( Taigh Mhàrtainn in Gaelic) is a former Royal burgh in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, about ten miles south of Wigtown
As the Normans encroached upon Wales, Bretons would simultaneously be influential in Scotland. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Important Breton personages in Scottish history were Conan IV, Duke of Brittany, John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray (FitzRandolph of Middleham), Brian FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan of Bedale (Viceroy of Scotland for Edward I of England). Conan IV of Penthièvre (1138 &ndash February 20 1171) ( Breton: Konan V Penteur and Konan Breizh) called "the Young" was Duke Jean de Bretagne or John of Brittany ( 1266 - 17 January 1334) was English 3rd Earl of Richmond from 15 October 1306 Thomas Randolph 1st Earl of Moray (died 20 July 1332) was Regent of Scotland an important figure in the Scottish Wars of Independence Middleham is a small Market town within the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England. Bedale is a small Market town and Civil parish in the district of Hambleton, North Yorkshire, England, at the foot of Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307 popularly known as Longshanks, was a King of England who achieved historical fame by conquering large parts of Wales and almost The pro-Bruce Randolph and pro-Balliol Alan families were illegitimate lines of the counts and dukes of Penthièvre, with permanent lodgings and responsibilities at Richmond Castle. Robert I King of Scots ( 11 July, 1274 &ndash 7 June, 1329) usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce ( In the 11th and 12th centuries the countship of Penthièvre ( Breton: Penteur) in Brittany (now in the department of Côtes-d'Armor) belonged Richmond Castle in North Yorkshire, England, stands in a breathtaking position above the River Swale, close to the centre of the town of Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond (future King Henry VII) spent quite some time living in Brittany (1471 - 1485). The Tudor dynasty was Welsh and Henry incorporated the White Greyhound of Richmond into his arms, while this animal (or the whippet) is still a favourite pet of Dalesmen to this day. The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period The Welsh people ( Welsh: Cymro ("Welshman" Cymraes ("Welsh woman" Cymry ("Welshmen/women" Cymry The White Greyhound of Richmond is one of the Queen's Beasts, a Greyhound featured prominently in Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. The Yorkshire Dales (also known as The Dales) is the name given to an upland area in Northern England. As a result of the Valois Crown incorporating Brittany to France, the Tudors made Brittanys Richmond estate into a permanent appanage of the Royal Family, with Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset being the first bastard it was conferred upon. See also France in the Middle Ages, Early Modern France Unexpected inheritance The Capetian dynasty seemed secure both during and An apanage or appanage is the grant of an estate titles offices or other things of value to the younger male children of a sovereign who under the system of Henry FitzRoy 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset ( 15 June 1519 &ndash 23 July 1536) was the son of King Henry VIII of England and his
Following the successful example of the Cornish-Viking alliance in 722 at the Battle of Hehil (modern day Padstow) which helped stop for a time the Anglo-Saxon conquest of Cornwall, the Bretons made friendly overtures to the Danish Vikings to help contain Frankish expansionist ideas, and in 865 AD the Vikings and Bretons united as one to defeat a Frankish army at the Battle of Brissarthe, near modern day Le Mans. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas The Battle of Brissarthe was fought on 15 September 866 between the Franks and a joint Breton - Viking army near Brissarthe Le Mans (ləmɑ̃ in French) is a city in France, located on the Sarthe River. Two Frankish kings, Robert the Strong and Ranulf were killed by the Vikings and the Franks were forced to acknowledge Brittany's independence from the Frankish kingdoms. Robert IV the Strong (also known as Rutpert) ( 820 - September 15, 866) was Margrave in Neustria. Ranulf I (also Ramnulf, Rannulf, and Ranulph; 820 &ndash 866 was a Count of Poitiers (from 835 and Duke of Aquitaine (from 852 The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group As with Cornwall in 722, the Vikings tactically helped their Breton allies by making devastating pillaging raids on the Frankish kingdoms. Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar
Brittany is famous for its megalithic monuments, which are scattered over the peninsula, the largest alignments are near Karnag/Carnac. A peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by Water but connected to Mainland via an Isthmus. Carnac ( Breton = Karnag) is a commune beside the Gulf of Morbihan on the south coast of Brittany in the Morbihan The purpose of these monuments is still unknown, and many local people are reluctant to entertain speculation on the subject. The words dolmen (from "daol" table and "maen" stone) and menhir (from "maen" stone and "hir" long) are Breton and commonly used by either Breton or French people. A dolmen (also known as cromlech, anta, Hünengrab, Hunebed, Goindol, quoit, and portal dolmen) is a type of A menhir is a large upright Standing stone. Menhirs may be found singly as Monoliths or as part of a group of similar stones
Brittany is also known for its calvaries, elaborately carved sculptures of crucifixion scenes, to be found at crossroads in villages and small towns, especially in Western Brittany. "Golgotha" redirects here For other uses see Golgotha (disambiguation.
Besides its numerous intact manors and châteaux, Brittany also has several old fortified towns. A manor house or fortified manor-house is a Country house, which has historically formed the administrative centre of a manor (see Manorialism For other senses of this word see Château (disambiguation. A château (plural châteaux) is a Manor house or residence See also List of cities with defensive walls A defensive wall is a Fortification used to defend a city or settlement from potential aggressors The walled city of Saint-Malo (Sant-Maloù), a popular tourist attraction, is also an important port linking Brittany with England and the Channel Islands. Saint-Malo ( Breton: Sant-Maloù; Gallo: Saent-Malô) is a walled port city in Brittany in northwestern ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Channel Islands ( Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are a group of Islands It also was the birthplace of the historian Louis Duchesne, acclaimed author Chateaubriand, famous corsair Surcouf and explorer Jacques Cartier. Abbé Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne ( September 13, 1843 - April 21, 1922) was a French priest philologist, teacher and Surcouf redirects here for ships of this name see French ship Surcouf. Jacques Cartier (December 31 1491&ndashSeptember 1 1557 was a French explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France The town of Roscoff (Rosko) is served by ferry links with England and Ireland. Roscoff ( Breton: Rosko) is a commune in the Finistère department in Bretagne in northwestern France. See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world
Significant urban centres include:
The island of Ushant (Breton: Enez Eusa, French: Ouessant) is the north-westernmost point of Brittany and France, and marks the entrance of the English Channel. Nantes (Naoned Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast Rennes ( Gallo: Resnn, Roazhon Condate Condate Riedonum is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern Brest (bʁɛst in French, in Breton) is a city in the Finistère department in Bretagne in northwestern France. Lorient, or L'Orient, (An Oriant is a commune and a Seaport in the Morbihan département, of Brittany. Quimper ( Breton: Kemper, Latin: Corspotium) is a commune and capital of the Finistère department in Vannes (Gwened is a town and commune located in the Morbihan département, in Brittany, in the west of France. Redon is a town and commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Bretagne northwestern France. Saint-Brieuc ( Breton: Sant-Brieg, Gallo: Saent-Berioec) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor Department in See also the St Nazaire Raid Saint-Nazaire ( Breton: Sant-Nazer) is a town and ''commune'' in the Loire-Atlantique département Ushant (Enez Eusa Ouessant is an Island in the English Channel which marks the north-westernmost point of European France. Other islands off the coast of Brittany include:
French, the only official language of the French Republic, is today spoken throughout Brittany. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory The two regional languages have no official status with regards to the state, although they are supported by the regional authorities within the strict constitutional limits: Breton, strongest in the west but to be seen all over Brittany, is a Celtic language most closely related to Cornish, and Gallo, which is spoken in the east, is one of the Oïl languages. A regional language is a Language spoken in an area of a Nation state, whether it be a small area a federal State or Province, or The Breton language ( Brezhoneg) formerly often called Armoric or Armorican, is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. For the Cornish-English dialect see West Country dialects and List of Cornish dialect words. Gallo is a regional language of France. Gallo is a Romance language, one of the oïl languages. Langues d'oïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages originating from the northern territories of Roman Gaul,
From the very beginning of its history and despite the end of the independence of Brittany, Breton remained the language of the entire population of western Brittany, except for bishops and French administrators or officers. French laws and economic pressure led people to abandon their language to that of the ruler, but until the 1960s, Breton was spoken and understood by the majority of the western inhabitants. Since the beginning of the 20th century, it has been very efficiently fought by the French administration and educational system ("It is forbidden to spit on the ground and to speak Breton") in the process of promoting French as the sole language of the country. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people According to an interview with Erwan Le Coadic, the development officer of the Breton Language Service, "Over the course of the twentieth century, the policies of the government in Paris were calculated to eradicate the use of Breton completely". While he says that there are signs that the "situation has now stabilized", he points to the "almost catastrophic decline" in the Breton language: "Fifty years ago, there were 1,300,000 people who spoke Breton; today there are just 300,000". 
Breton was traditionally spoken in the west (the "Breizh-Izel" or "Basse-Bretagne"), and Gallo in the east (the "pays Gallo", "Breizh-Uhzel" or "Haute-Bretagne"). Basse-Bretagne ( Breizh Izel in Breton) denotes the parts of Brittany west of Ploërmel, where the Breton language was traditionally Basse-Bretagne ( Breizh Izel in Breton) denotes the parts of Brittany west of Ploërmel, where the Breton language was traditionally The dividing line stretched from Plouha on the north coast to a point to the south-east of Vannes. French had, however, long been the main language of the towns. The Breton-speaking area formerly covered territory much further east than its current distribution.
In the Middle Ages, Gallo expanded into formerly Breton-speaking areas. Now restricted to a much reduced territory in the east of Brittany, Gallo finds itself under pressure from the dominant Francophone culture. It is also felt by some to be threatened by the Breton language revival which is gaining ground in territories that were never part of the main Breton-speaking area. Language revitalization is the attempt by interested parties including individuals cultural or community groups governments or political authorities to recover the spoken use of a
Privately funded Diwan ("Seed") schools, where classes are taught in Breton by the immersion method, play an important part in the revival of the Breton language. The issue of whether they should be funded by the State has long been, and remains, controversial. Some bilingual classes are also provided in ordinary schools.
Despite the resistance of French administration, bilingual (Breton and French) road signs may be seen in some areas, especially in the traditional Breton-speaking area. Signage in Gallo is much rarer.
A large influx of English-speaking immigrants and second-home owners in some villages sometimes adds to linguistic diversity. In modern usage a cottage is a dwelling typically in a rural or semi-rural location (although there are cottage-style dwellings in cities
The first Christian missionaries came to the region from Ireland and Great Britain. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands With more than 300 "saints" (only a few recognized by the Catholic Church), the region is strongly Catholic. A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Since the nineteenth century at least, Brittany has been known as one of the most devoutly Catholic regions in France, in contrast to many other more secularised areas (see "Bl. Julien Maunoir"). Blessed Julien (Julian Maunoir SJ, ("Juluan Maner" in Breton) known as the "Apostle of Brittany " was born in France in 1606 The proportion of students attending Catholic private schools is the highest in France. As in other Celtic regions, the legacy of Celtic Christianity has left a rich tradition of local saints and monastic communities, often commemorated in place names beginning Lan, Lam, Plou or Lok. Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes called the Celtic Church or the British Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval The patron saint of Brittany is Santez Anna Saint Anne, the Virgin's mother. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Saint Anne (also Ann or Anna of David's house and line was the mother of the Virgin Mary, according to Christian tradition But the most famous saint is Saint Ivo of Kermartin ('saint Yves' in French, 'sant Erwan' in Breton), a 13th century priest who devoted his life to the poor. Saint Ivo of Kermartin ( 17 October, 1253 at Kermartin a manor near Tréguier, Brittany, France - 19 May, 1303
Once a year, believers go on a "Pardon", the saint's feast day of the parish. A Pardon is a typically Breton form of Pilgrimage and one of the most traditional demonstrations of popular Catholicism in Brittany. The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches It often begins with a procession followed by a mass in honour of the saint. There is always a secular side, with some food and craft stalls. The three most famous Pardons are:
In Brittany, there is a very old pilgrimage called the Tro Breizh (tour of Brittany), where the pilgrims walk around Brittany from the grave of one founder saint to another. Locronan ( Lokorn in Breton) is a commune in Finistère department in Bretagne in northwestern France There were at least twelve Saints called Rónán, a common name in early Ireland borne also by several kings Saints There are twelve Irish saints bearing A Pardon is a typically Breton form of Pilgrimage and one of the most traditional demonstrations of popular Catholicism in Brittany. In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance Tro Breizh ( Breton for "Tour of Brittany" is a Catholic Pilgrimage that links the towns of the seven founding saints of The seven founder saints of Brittany are:
Historically, the pilgrimage was made in one trip (a total distance of around 600 km). Paul Aurelian (also known in Breton as Paol Aorelian and in Latin, as Paulinus Aurelianus) is a 6th century Welsh Saint Saint Tudwal (died c 564 was a Breton Monk. He is considered one of the Seven founder-saints of Brittany. Saint Brioc ( Welsh: Briog; also known in French as Brieuc, and in Breton as Brieg) was an early 6th century Saint Malo (also known as Maclou or Mac'h Low and in Latin, as Maclovius or Machutus) was the mid-6th century founder of Saint-Malo Saint Samson of Dol (born late 5th century was a Christian religious figure who is counted among the Seven founder saints of Brittany. Saint Patern (circa 440 born in Armorica) was a Breton saint Patern was of Gallo-Roman origin and was the first Bishop of Valves. Saint Corentin (Corentinus in Breton, Sant Kaourintin) (d 460 AD is a Breton Saint. Nowadays, however, pilgrims complete the circuit over the course of several years. In 2002, the Tro Breizh included a special pilgrimage to Wales, symbolically making the reverse journey of the Welshmen Sant Paol, Sant Brieg, and Sant Samzun. Whoever does not make the pilgrimage at least once in his lifetime will be condemned to make it after his death, advancing only by the length of his coffin each seven years.
Some old pagan traditions and customs from the old Celtic religion have also been preserved in Brittany. The most powerful folk figure is the Ankou or the "Reaper of Death". Ankou is a personification of death in Breton Mythology. Background It is said that he is the one who collects the Souls of the Sometimes a skeleton wrapped in a shroud with the Breton flat hat, sometimes described as a real human being (the last dead of the year, devoted to bring the dead to Death), he makes his journeys by night carrying an upturned scythe which he throws before him to reap his harvest. Sometimes he is on foot but mostly he travels with a cart, the Karrig an Ankou, drawn by two oxen and a lean horse. Two servants dressed in the same shroud and hat as the Ankou pile the dead into the cart, and to hear it creaking at night means you have little time left to live.
Some hogdys are also produced. Historically Brittany was a beer-producing region. However, as wine was increasingly imported from other regions of France, beer drinking and production slowly came to an end in the early to mid 20th century. In the 1970s, due to a regional comeback, new breweries started to open and there are now about 20 of them. Whisky is also produced by a handful of distilleries with excellent results. Whisky (uisge-beatha or whiskey (uisce beatha or fuisce) refers to a broad category of Alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented Another recent drink is kir Breton (crème de cassis and cider) which may be served as an apéritif. Crème de Cassis is a Blood - Red, Sweet, Blackcurrant -flavored Liqueur, and is an ingredient of kir, an An apéritif (also spelled aperitif) is an alcoholic drink that is usually served to stimulate the appetite before a meal
Tourists often try a mix of bread and red wine.
Very thin, wide pancakes made from buckwheat flour are eaten with ham, eggs and other savoury fillings. Pancakes are a type of Flatbread prepared from a sweet batter that is cooked on a hot Griddle or in a Frying pan. Buckwheat refers to plants in two genera of the Dicot family Polygonaceae: the Eurasian genus Fagopyrum, and the North American genus They are usually called galettes (Breton galetes), except in the western parts of Brittany where they are called crêpes (Breton krampouezh). Galette is a general term used in French to designate different types of round and flat crusty cakes A crêpe (kreɪp French kʀɛp is a type of very thin cooked Pancake usually made from Wheat Flour. Thin crêpes made from wheat flour are eaten for dessert. Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal usually consisting of sweet Food but sometimes of a strongly-flavored one such as some Cheeses The Other pastries, such as kouign amann ("butter cake" in Breton) made from bread dough, butter and sugar, or far, a sort of sweet Yorkshire pudding, or clafoutis with prunes, are traditional. This article describes Pastry in food For the Distributed Hash Table system see Pastry_(DHT. Kouign amann (/kwiɲ amɑ̃n/ pl Kouignoù amann is a Breton cake Yorkshire pudding is a dish that originated in Yorkshire but attained wider popularity Clafouti, sometimes spelled clafoutis, is a Custard -like baked French Dessert that is typically made by baking fresh fruit (traditionally cherries
Surrounded by the sea, Brittany offers a wide range of fresh sea food and fish, especially mussels and oysters. The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of Clams or Bivalve Molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats The common name oyster is used for a number of different groups of Bivalve Mollusks most of which live in marine habitats or Brackish water. Among the sea food specialities is cotriade. Cotriade ( Kaoteriad in Breton) is a fish Stew specialty from the French province of Brittany that is made with different kinds of
Located on the west coast of France, Brittany has a warm, temperate climate. Rainfall occurs regularly - which has helped keep its countryside green and wooded, but sunny, cloudless days are also common. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time
In the summer months, temperatures in the region can reach 30 degrees Celsius, but remain comfortable compared to parts of France south of the Loire. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. The Loire River (lwaʁ in French) is the longest River in France. Brittany generally has a moderate climate during both summer and winter, and rain is not uncomfortably common or rare.
Brittany's most popular summer resorts are on the south coast (La Baule, Belle Île, Gulf of Morbihan), although the wilder and more exposed north coast also attracts summer tourists. La Baule-Escoublac, commonly referred to as La Baule, is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique département of France. Belle-Île or Belle-Île-en-Mer ( ar Gerveur in Modern Breton)— Guedel in Old Breton—is a French Island off the "Golfe du Morbihan" redirects here For the similarly named gulf in the Kerguelen Islands see Golfe du Morbihan (Kerguelen.
There are several airports in Brittany serving destinations in France and England. TGV train services link the region with cities such as Paris, Lyon, Marseille, and Lille in France. The TGV ( t rain à g rande v itesse, French for "high-speed train" is France 's High-speed rail service Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ Lille (lil Rijsel is a city in northern France. It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in the country In addition there are ferry services that take passengers, vehicles and freight to Ireland, England and the Channel Islands.
Brittany Ferries operates the following regular services:
Irish Ferries operates the following routes:
Brittany Ferries is a French Ferry company that runs ships between France, the UK, Ireland and Spain. Plymouth ( is a city and unitary authority area on the coast of Devon, England about south west of London. Roscoff ( Breton: Rosko) is a commune in the Finistère department in Bretagne in northwestern France. History See also History of Portsmouth There have been settlements in the area since before Roman times mostly being offshoots of Portchester, which Saint-Malo ( Breton: Sant-Maloù; Gallo: Saent-Malô) is a walled port city in Brittany in northwestern Roscoff ( Breton: Rosko) is a commune in the Finistère department in Bretagne in northwestern France. Cork (Corcaigh is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland 's third most populous city after Dublin and Belfast Roscoff ( Breton: Rosko) is a commune in the Finistère department in Bretagne in northwestern France. This article is about the 1944 Battle for Brest in France. For other uses see Battle of Brest (disambiguation Bleimor ( Breton language for Seawolf) more fully Urz Skatoued Bleimor, was a Breton Scouting organization taken This is a list of places in the United Kingdom having standing links to local communities in other countries Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar The Open Directory Project ( ODP) also known as dmoz (from directory