|This article is part of|
the History of Malaysia series
|Prehistory (60,000–2,000 BCE)|
|Gangga Negara (2nd–11th century CE)|
|Langkasuka (2nd–14th century)|
|Pan Pan (3rd–5th century)|
|Srivijaya (3rd–14th century)|
|The rise of Muslim states|
|Kedah Sultanate (1136–present)|
|Malacca Sultanate (1402–1511)|
|Sulu Sultanate (1450–1899)|
|Johor Sultanate (1528–current)|
|Jementah Civil War (1879)|
|Portuguese Malacca (1511 - 1641)|
|Dutch Malacca (1641 - 1824)|
|Kingdom of Sarawak (1841–1946)|
|British Malaya (1874–1946)|
|Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824|
|Burney Treaty (1826)|
|Straits Settlements (1826–1946)|
|Larut War (1861–1874)|
|Klang War (1867–1874)|
|Pangkor Treaty of 1874|
|Federated Malay States (1895–1946)|
|Unfederated Malay States (1800s–1946)|
|Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909|
|Battle of Penang (1914)|
|North Borneo (1882–1963)|
|Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896–1900)|
|World War II|
|Japanese occupation (1941–1945)|
|Battle of Malaya (1941–42)|
|Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)|
|Battle of Muar (1942)|
|Battle of Singapore (1942)|
|Battle of North Borneo (1945)|
|Sandakan Death Marches (1945)|
|Malaysia in transition|
|Malayan Union (1946–1948)|
|Federation of Malaya (1948–1963)|
|Malayan Emergency (1948–1960)|
|Bukit Kepong Incident (1950)|
|Independence Day (1957)|
|Federation of Malaysia (1963–present)|
|Operation Coldstore (1963)|
|Indonesia confrontation (1962–1966)|
|Brunei Revolt (1962–1966)|
|Singapore in Malaysia (1963–1965)|
|1964 Race Riots (1964)|
|Communist Insurgency War (1967-1989)|
|May 13 Incident (1969)|
|New Economic Policy (1971–1990)|
|Operation Lalang (1987)|
|1988 constitutional crisis (1987–88)|
|Asian financial crisis (1997–98)|
|[edit this box]|
British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. South East Asia whose strategic sea-lane position brought trade and foreign influences that fundamentally influenced its history Prehistoric Malaysia may be traced back as far as 60000 years ago from stone tools found at Kota Tampan, an archaeological site in Lenggong Perak Gangga Negara is believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom mentioned in the Malay Annals that covered present day Beruas, Dinding and Manjung Langkasuka (- langkha Sanskrit for "resplendent land" - sukkha of "bliss" was an ancient Hindu Malay kingdom located Pan Pan is a lost small Hindu Kingdom believed to have existed around 3rd-7th Century CE Srivijaya or Sriwijaya was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra, Southeast Asia which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. The Sultanate of Kedah was the earliest Sultanate in the Malay Peninsula and arguably the earliest in Southeast Asia founded in year 1136 The Sultanate of Malacca was founded by Parameswara in 1402 and later married the princess of Pasai in 1409. For the province see Sulu. The Sultanate of Sulu was a Muslim State that ruled over many of the islands of the This article concerns the Sultanate of Johor For office of the sultan see Sultan of Johor. Jementah Civil War happened in 1879 in Jementah, Sultanate of Johor when Tengku Alam the heir of Sultan Ali of Muar refused to give the Portuguese Malacca was the territory of Malacca that for more than a century was a Portuguese colony. Dutch Malacca (1641 - 1824 was the longest period of Malacca under foreign control The Kingdom of Sarawak was a state established by Sir James Brooke in 1842 by gaining independence from the Sultanate of Brunei. History The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 designed to solve many of the issues that had arisen due to the British occupation of Dutch properties during the Napoleonic Wars, as The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826 The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826 Larut War was a series of four wars started in July 1861 and ended with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took place in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the British and the Sultan of Perak. This article is not to be confused with the Unfederated Malay States. This article should not be confused with the Federated Malay States. The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was a Treaty between the United Kingdom and Thailand signed on March 10[[ The Battle of Penang occurred on 28 October 1914, during World War I. North Borneo was an independent state and British Protectorate under the sovereign British North Borneo Company from 1882-1946 and subsequently a Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900 Throughout much of World War II, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. The Battle of Malaya was a campaign fought by Allied and Japanese forces in Malaya, from December 8 1941 to January 31 On January 23, 1942, the Parit Sulong Massacre was committed against Allied soldiers by members of the Imperial Guards Division The Battle of Muar was the last major battle of the Malayan campaign. The Battle of Singapore was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the Allied stronghold Saiburi (SriBuri Thai: ไทรบุรี is the name for the Malay state of Kedah returned to Thailand when the Japanese occupied British The Battle of North Borneo was fought in June-August 1945 between Australian and Japanese forces in North Borneo (later known as Sabah) The Sandakan Death Marches were a series of forced marches from Sandakan to Ranau which resulted in the deaths of more than 3600 Indonesian The Malayan Union was a federation of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements excluding Singapore. The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu was a federation of 11 states formed on January 31 1948 from the nine Malay states and the British The Malayan Emergency was a State of emergency declared by the British colonial government of Malaya in 1948 and lifted in 1960 as well as an insurrection and Bukit Kepong Incident was an armed encounter which took place on February 23, 1950 between the police and the Malayan Communists in pre-independence Hari Merdeka ( Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Operation Coldstore (sometimes spelled Operation Cold Store) was a security operation conducted by the Government of Singapore in February 1963 in which The Brunei Revolt broke out on December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia The 1964 Race Riots were a series of Riots that took place in Singapore during two separate periods in July and September between Chinese and Malay The Communist Insurgency War, or Second Malayan Emergency was an Insurgency and guerrilla war, conducted by the Malayan Communist Party For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The May 13 Incident is a term for the Sino - Malay Race riots in Kuala Lumpur (then part of the state of Selangor For the Soviet New Economic Policy see New Economic Policy. The Malaysian New Economic Policy ( NEP or DEB for Dasar Operation Lalang ( Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lalang) was carried out on October 27, 1987 by the Malaysian The 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis was a series of events that began with United Malays National Organisation (UMNO general election in 1987 and ended with the suspension The Asian Financial Crisis was a period of Financial crisis that gripped much of Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown ( The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (คาบสมุทรมลายู is a major Peninsula located in Southeast The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the colonies were not placed under a single unified administration. The Malayan Union was a federation of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements excluding Singapore. Instead, British Malaya composed of the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826 This article is not to be confused with the Unfederated Malay States. This article should not be confused with the Federated Malay States. Malaya was one of the most profitable British protectorates, being the world's largest producer of tin and later rubber. Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50
Malayan Union was dissolved and replaced with Federation of Malaya in 1948. The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu was a federation of 11 states formed on January 31 1948 from the nine Malay states and the British It became independent on August 31, 1957. Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) On September 16, 1963, the federation, along with Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore formed a larger federation called Malaysia. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Sabah is a Malaysian state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the Island of Borneo. Singapore For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and
The British first became involved with Malay politics when it tried to set up trading posts in Penang, formerly a part of Kedah, in 1771, and in Singapore in 1819. Kedah ( Jawi: قدح pop 1778188 is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia.
In the mid-18th century, British firms could be found trading in the Malay Peninsula. The history of Penang is closely related to the History of Kedah. The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (คาบสมุทรมลายู is a major Peninsula located in Southeast In April 1771, Jourdain, Sulivan and de Souza, a British firm based in Madras, India sent Francis Light to meet the Sultan of Kedah, Muhammad Jiwa Shah, to open up the state's market for trading. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Captain Francis Light (1740 – 25 October 1794) was the founder of the British colony of Penang (in modern-day Malaysia) and its Kedah ( Jawi: قدح pop 1778188 is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Light was also a captain within the British East India Company. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or
The Sultan faced multiple external threats during this period. Siam, which was at war with Burma and saw Kedah as its vassal state, frequently demanded Kedah to send reinforcements. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Kedah, in many cases, was a reluctant ally to Siam.
Through negotiation between the Sultan and Light, the Sultan agreed to allow the firm to build a trading post and operate in Kedah, if the British agreed to protect Kedah from external pressure. Light conveyed this message to his superiors in India. The British, however, decided against the proposal.
Two years later, Sultan Muhammad Jiwa died and was replaced by Sultan Abdullah Mahrum Shah. The new Sultan, feeling desperate, offered Light (who later became a British representative) the island of Penang in return for military assistance for Kedah. Penang (pəˈnæŋ Malay: Pulau Pinang) is a state in Malaysia, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia Light informed the British East India company of the Sultan's offer. The Company, however, ordered Light to take over Penang, and gave him no guarantee of the military aid that the Sultan had asked earlier. Light later took over Penang and assured the Sultan of military assistance, despite the Company's position. Soon, the Company made up its mind and told Light that they would not give any military aid to Kedah. In June 1788, Light informed the Sultan of the Company's decision. Feeling cheated, the Sultan ordered Light to leave Penang, but Light refused.
Light's refusal caused the Sultan to strengthen Kedah's military and fortify Prai, a stretch of beach opposite Penang. Seberang Perai (also known in English as Province Wellesley) is a narrow Hinterland opposite Penang island on the Malay Peninsula, Recognizing this threat, the British moved in and razed the fort in Prai. With this defeat, the British forced the Sultan to sign an agreement that legally allowed the British to occupy Penang; in return, the Sultan would receive an annual rent of 6,000 Spanish pesos. On May 1, 1791, the Union Jack was officially raised in Penang for the first time. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In 1800, Kedah ceded Prai to the British and the Sultan received a further 4,000 pesos to his annual rent. Penang was later named Prince of Wales Island while Perai was renamed Province Wellesley. Seberang Perai (also known in English as Province Wellesley) is a narrow Hinterland opposite Penang island on the Malay Peninsula, Seberang Perai (also known in English as Province Wellesley) is a narrow Hinterland opposite Penang island on the Malay Peninsula,
In 1821, Siam invaded Kedah, sacked the capital of Alor Star, and occupied the state until the year 1842. Alor Star, formerly known as Alor Setar is the state capital of Kedah, Malaysia, and Kota Setar District's Administrative Centre.
Before the late 19th century, the British largely practiced a non-interventionist policy. Several factors such as fluctuating supply of raw material and security convinced the British to play a more active role in the Malay states.
From the 17th to the early 19th century, Malacca was a Dutch colony. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands During the Napoleonic Wars, between 1811 and 1815, Malacca as with other Dutch holdings in Southeast Asia, was under the care of British. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions This was done in order to prevent the French from claiming the Dutch possessions. When the war ended in 1815, Malacca was returned to the Dutch. In 1824, the British and the Dutch signed a treaty known as Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. History The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 designed to solve many of the issues that had arisen due to the British occupation of Dutch properties during the Napoleonic Wars, as The treaty, among other things, legally transferred Malacca to British administration. The treaty also became the one agreement that officially divided the Malay world into two separate entities and the basis for current Indonesian-Malaysian boundary. The concept of the Malay World is based on the idea of a Malay race, and refers to a cultural and linguistic sphere of influence covering the archipelago of modern-day
Modern Singapore was founded by Sir Stamford Raffles with a great deal of help from Major William Farquhar. For other uses of Farquhar, see Farquhar (disambiguation Major-General William Farquhar (c Before establishing Singapore, Raffles was the Lieutenant Governor of Java from 1811 till 1815. In 1818, he was appointed as of Bencoolen. Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. It is on the southwest coast of the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of West Sumatra, Realizing how the Dutch were monopolizing trade in the Malay Archipelago, he was convinced that the British needed a new trading colony to counter Dutch trade power. The Malay Archipelago is a name given to the Archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia ( Indochina) and Australia. Months' worth of research brought him to Singapore, an island at the tip of the Malay Peninsula. The island was ruled by a temenggung. Temenggung or Temenggong is an ancient Malay title of nobility usually given to the chief of public security
Singapore was then under the control of Tengku Abdul Rahman, the Sultan of the Johor-Riau-Lingga Sultanate (otherwise known as the Johor Sultanate), in turn under the influence of the Dutch and the Bugis. Hence, he would never agree to a British base in Singapore. However, Tengku Abdul Rahman had become a sultan only because his older brother, Tengku Hussein or Tengku Long, had been away getting married in Penang when their father, the previous sultan died in 1812. Sultan Hussein Shah was the seventeenth Sultan of Johor. He ruled Johor from 1819 to 1835 According to Malay culture, a person has to be by the dying sultan in order to be considered as a new ruler. Tengku Abdul Rahman was present when their father died. The older brother was not happy with the development while the temenggung who was in charge of Singapore preferred Tengku Hussein to the younger brother.
The British had first acknowledged Tengku Abdul Rahman at the time of their first presence in Malacca. The situation however had changed. In 1818, Farquhar visited Tengku Hussein in the little island of Penyengat, off the cost of Bintan, the capital of the Riau Archipelago. Bintan Island or Negeri Segantang Lada is an island of 1866 square kilometers and is part of the Riau Islands province of Indonesia. There, new plans were drawn and in 1819, Raffles made a deal with Tengku Hussein. The agreement stated that the British would acknowledge Tengku Hussein as the legitimate ruler of Singapore if he allowed them to establish a trading post there. Furthermore, Tengku Hussein and the temenggung would receive yearly stipend from the British. The treaty was ratified on February 6, 1819. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1819 ( MDCCCXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar in the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year With the Temenggung's help, Hussein left Penyengat pretending that he was 'going fishing', and reached Singapore where he was quickly installed as Sultan.
The Dutch were extremely displeased with Raffles' action. However, with the signing of Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, the Dutch receded its opposition to the British presence in Singapore. The treaty also divided the Sultanate of Johor into modern Johor and the new Sultanate of Riau.
After the British secured Singapore from the Dutch through the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, the British aimed to centralize the administration of Penang, Malacca and Singapore. The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826 History The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 designed to solve many of the issues that had arisen due to the British occupation of Dutch properties during the Napoleonic Wars, as As such, in 1826, a framework known as the Straits Settlements was established with Penang as its capital. Later in 1832, the capital was moved to Singapore. While the three holdings formed the backbone of the Settlements, throughout the years Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Labuan and Dinding of Perak were placed under the authority of the Straits Settlements. The Territory of Christmas Island is a small territory of Australia located in the Indian Ocean, 2600 kilometres (1600 mi northwest of Labuan is the main island of the Malaysian Federal Territory of Labuan. Manjung, previously also known as Dinding, is a district in the southwestern part of the state of Perak, Malaysia. Perak is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is the second largest state in Peninsular Malaysia bordering Kedah and Yala Province of
Until 1867, the Settlements were answerable to the British administrator of the East India Company in Calcutta. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or The Settlements' administrators were unsatisfied with how Calcutta was handling their affairs and they complained to London. The Company even tried to annul Singapore's free port status in 1856. A free port ( porto franco) or free zone (US Foreign-Trade Zone is a port or area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location
The Company however was dissolved in 1858 and India was made into a crown colony. With Calcutta's waning power and intense lobbying by the Settlements' administrators, in 1867 the colony was placed directly under the power of the Colonial Office in London and was declared as a crown colony. The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British Colonies. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories that are under the Sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom The declaration gave the colony considerable independence and power within the British Empire. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
In 1946 after the Second World War, the colony was dissolved and was absord into the Malayan Union while Singapore was separated from the Union and formed a new crown colony. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Malayan Union was a federation of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements excluding Singapore. The Malayan Union later was replaced with Federation of Malaya in 1948 and in 1963, together with North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore formed a greater federation called Malaysia.
Prior to the late 19th century, the British East India Company was only interested in trading and tried as much as possible to stay away from Malay politics. The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826 The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was a Treaty between the United Kingdom and Thailand signed on March 10[[ From 1768 to 1932 the area of modern Thailand was dominated by Siam, an absolute monarchy with capitals briefly at Thonburi and later at The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or However, Siam influence in northern Malay states, especially Kedah, Terengganu, Kelantan and Pattani was preventing the Company from trading in peace. Within Malaysia, the Malay states are the nine states of Peninsular Malaysia that have hereditary Rulers. Kedah ( Jawi: قدح pop 1778188 is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Terengganu ( Jawi: ترڠڬانو, formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu) is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia Kelantan is a state of Malaysia. The capital and royal seat is Kota Bharu. Patani (Pattani is known to have been part of the ancient Srivijayan kingdom Therefore, in 1826, the British through the Company signed a secret treaty known today as the Burney Treaty with the king of Siam. The four Malay states were not present during the signing of the agreement. In that treaty, British acknowledged Siamese sovereignty over all those states. In return, Siam accepted British ownership of Penang and Province Wellesley and allowed the Company to trade in Terengganu and Kelantan unimpeded. Seberang Perai (also known in English as Province Wellesley) is a narrow Hinterland opposite Penang island on the Malay Peninsula,
Almost a hundred years later, a new treaty now known as Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was signed between the two powers. In the new agreement, Siam agreed to give up claim over Kedah, Perlis, Terengganu and Kelantan while Pattani remains as Siamese territory. Kedah ( Jawi: قدح pop 1778188 is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. This article is about the Malaysian state For the computer scientist see Alan Perlis. Terengganu ( Jawi: ترڠڬانو, formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu) is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia Kelantan is a state of Malaysia. The capital and royal seat is Kota Bharu. Perlis was previously part of Kedah but during Siamese reign, Perlis was separated from Kedah. Kedah's district of Satun however was annexed by Siam in the same agreement. Satun (สตูล is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Pattani on the other hand was dissected into Pattani proper, Yala and Narathiwat after the signing of the treaty. Pattani ( Thai ปัตตานี is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Yala (ยะลา is the southernmost province ( changwat) of Thailand. Narathiwat (นราธิวาส is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand.
Though the Siamese King Chulalongkorn was reluctant to sign the treaty, increasing French pressure on the Siamese eastern border forced Siam to cooperate with the British. Chulalongkorn ( Rama V) (royal name Phra Chula Chomklao Chaoyuhua; พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. As with Rama IV, Chulalongkorn hoped that the British would leave Siam alone if he acceded to the British demands. Earlier in 1893, Siam had lost Shan region of north-eastern Burma to the British. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. This demarcation as stated in the agreement remains today as Malaysia-Thailand Border. The Malaysia-Thailand border consist of both a land boundary across the Malay Peninsula and maritime boundaries in the Straits of Malacca and the Gulf of
Malay rulers did not acknowledge the agreement. Regardless, the rulers were too weak to resist British influence. In Kedah after the Bangkok Treaty, George Maxwell was posted by the British in Kedah as the sultan's advisor. The British effectively took over economics planning and execution. Rail line was built to connect Kedah with Siam in 1912 while land reformed was introduced in 1914. Only in 1923 did the ruler of Kedah, Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Syah accept a British Advisor.
Perlis had similar experience. The ruler did not recognize the 1909 treaty but the British was de facto administrator of the state. It was only in 1930 the ruler, Raja Syed Alwi recognized British presence in Perlis by admitting Meadows Frost as the first British Advisor in Perlis.
Perak is a state on the western shore of the Malay Peninsula and in the 18th and 19th century, it was discovered the state was rich in tin. Larut War was a series of four wars started in July 1861 and ended with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the British and the Sultan of Perak. Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 In fact, Perak had the richest alluvial deposits of tin in the world. Europe at the same time was undergoing an industrial revolution and this created a huge demand for tin. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The British as well as the Dutch were active in the states, each seeking to monopolize production of tin and other lesser commodities. However, political atmosphere in Perak was sufficiently volatile to raise the cost of tin mining operations. For instance, in 1818, Siam ordered Kedah to attack Perak. The lack of security in Perak forced to British to protect Perak in 1826.
As Perak continued to increase its mining operations, it suffered a shortage of labor. Looking to solve the problem, Malay administrator Long Jaafar invited the Chinese in Penang to work in Perak; particularly at Larut. Taiping is a town in the state of Perak, Malaysia.With a population of 191104 (2007, it is the second largest town in Perak after Ipoh the state capital By the 1840s, Perak's Chinese population exploded. The new immigrants more often than not were members of Chinese secret societies. Two of the largest were Ghee Hin and Hai San. The Ghee Hin Kongsi ( is a Secret society in Singapore and Malaya, formed in 1820 These two groups regularly tried to increase their influence in Perak and this resulted in frequent skirmishes. These skirmishes were getting out of hand, so that even Ngah Ibrahim the Menteri Besar (equivalent of a chief minister) was unable to enforce the rule of law properly. Literally "big minister" in Malay, a Menteri Besar is a Chief Executive of the state governments of Perlis, Johor, Kedah, Perak A Chief Minister is the elected Head of government of a sub-national (e
Meanwhile, there was a power struggle in Perak royal court. Sultan Ali died in 1871 and the next in line for the throne was the Raja Muda or the crown prince, Raja Abdullah. Despite that fact, he was not present during the burial of the sultan. Much like the case of Tengku Hussein of Johor, Raja Abdullah was not appointed as the new sultan by the ministers of Perak. Instead, the second in line Raja Bendaraha Raja Ismail became the next sultan of Perak.
Raja Abdullah was furious and refused to accept the news kindly. He then sought and gathered political supports from various channels, including several of Perak's local chiefs and several British personnel with whom he had done business in the past, with the secret societies becoming their proxies in the fight for the throne. Among those British individuals was British trader W. H. M. Read. Furthermore, he promised to accept a British advisor if the British recognized him as the legitimate ruler of Perak.
Unfortunately for Raja Abdullah, the Straits Settlements governor at that time was Sir Harry Ord and the governor was a friend of Ngah Ibrahim, who had unresolved issues with Raja Abdullah. Major-General Sir Harry St George Ord GCMG, CB, RE, was born on 4 August 1819 in North Cray, Kent With Ord's aid, Ngah Ibrahim sent sepoy troops from India to prevent Raja Abdullah from actively claiming the throne and to some extending control over the Chinese secret societies.
By 1873, the Colonial Office in London came to perceive Ord as incompetent. He was soon replaced by Sir Andrew Clarke and Clarke was ordered to get a complete picture of what was happening in the Malay states and recommend how to streamline British administration in Malaya. Lieutenant-General Sir Andrew Clarke (1824 – 1902 was born on 27 July 1824 in Southsea, Hampshire in England. The reason was that London was increasingly aware that the Straits Settlements were increasingly dependent on the economy of the Malay states, including Perak. Upon Clarke's arrival in Singapore, many British traders including Read became close to the governor. Through Read, Clarke learned of Raja Abdullah's problem and willingness to accept a British representative in his court if the British assisted the once apparent heir.
Clarke seized the opportunity to expand British influence. First, he called all Chinese secret societies and demanded these groups to a permanent truce. Later, through the signing of Pangkor Treaty on January 20, 1874, Clarke acknowledged Raja Abdullah as the legitimate sultan of Perak. The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the British and the Sultan of Perak. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1874 ( MDCCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Immediately, J.W.W. Birch was appointed as a British resident in Perak. James Wheeler Woodford Birch, commonly known as J W W Birch ( 3 April 1826 - 2 November 1875) was the first British Resident A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a state official of certain representative -diplomatic and/or colonial- types required to take up permanent residency abroad officially Raja Ismail on the other hand, while not a party to the agreement, was forced to abdicate due to intense external pressure applied by Clarke.
Along with Perak, Selangor, which is another Malay state just south of Perak, had considerable deposits of tin around Hulu Selangor on the north, Hulu Klang in the central area and Lukut near Negeri Sembilan to the south. The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took place in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator Selangor ( Jawi script: سلاڠور population 72 million is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. Hulu Selangor is a district in Selangor state Malaysia. The district's principal town is Kuala Kubu Bharu. Lukut is a small town in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Lukut is situated within the parliamentary constituency of Teluk Kemang. Around 1840, under the leadership of Raja Jumaat from Riau, tin mining became a huge enterprise. His effort soon was rewarded by Sultan Muhammad of Selangor; Raja Jumaat was appointed as Lukut's administrator in 1846 Raja Jumaat. By the 1850s, the area emerged as one of the most modern settlements on the Malay Peninsula (if the Straits Settlements were discounted. ) At one point, there were no less than 20,000 laborers, of which most of them were enthic Chinese imported from China. He died in 1864 and his death created a leadership vacuum. Slowly, Lukut slid backward and was forgotten.
Meanwhile, Hulu Klang enjoyed unprecedented growth due to tin mining. Between 1849 and 1850, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, Raja Jumaat's cousin, was appointed by the sultan as Klang's administrator. As Lukut's economic importance was slowly degrading, Hulu Klang was rising up to the top. This attracted many laborers to relocate there, especially Chinese immigrants whohad worked in Lukut. One person who was responsible for persuading the Chinese to move from Lukut to Hulu Klang was Sutan Puasa from Ampang. Ampang is a district in Malaysia that is located in both the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor. He supplied the mining colonies in Hulu Klang with goods ranging from rice to opium. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( As Hulu Klang prospered, several settlements started to rise up by the late 1860s. Two of them were Kuala Lumpur and Klang. Kuala Lumpur (ˈkwɑːləlʊmˈpʊər Malay /kwɑlɑlʊmpʊ/ and locally /kwɑləlʊmpɔ/ or even /kɔlɔmpɔ/ or often abbreviated as K Klang (ˈklæŋ ( Malay: Kelang ( is the royal capital of the state of Selangor, Malaysia within a district A Chinese kapitan named Yap Ah Loy was instrumental in developing Kuala Lumpur. Kapitan refers to an assortment of different political and military positions held historically in several different areas Yap Ah Loy ( Chinese: 葉亞來 Pinyin: Yè Yă Lái also known as Yap Tet Loy and Yap Mao Lan, started the development of Kuala
As occurred in Perak, these rapid development attracted tremendous interest from the British in the Straits Settlements. The economy of Selangor became important enough to the prosperity of the Straits Settlements that any disturbance in that state would hurt the Straits Settlement itself. Therefore, the British felt they needed to have a say in Selangor politics. The one major disturbance, amounting to a civil war, was the Klang War which begun in 1867. A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took place in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator
In November 1873, a ship from Penang was attacked by pirates near Kuala Langat, Selangor. Kuala Langat is a district of Selangor, Malaysia. It is situated in the southwestern part of Selangor Selangor ( Jawi script: سلاڠور population 72 million is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. A court was assembled near Jugra and suspected pirates were sentenced to death. Bandar Jugra is a historical town and former royal town in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The sultan expressed concern and requested assistance from Sir Andrew Clarke. Initially in 1874. Frank Swettenham was appointed to serve as the sultan's advisor. Approximately year later, a lawyer from Singapore named J. Singapore G. Davidson was appointed as British Resident in Selangor. A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a state official of certain representative -diplomatic and/or colonial- types required to take up permanent residency abroad officially Frank Swettenham was nominated for the Resident post but he was deemed too young. Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham GCMG CH ( 28 March 1850 &ndash 11 June 1946) was the first Resident General
The civil war ended in 1874.
Negeri Sembilan was another major producer of tin in Malaya. Negeri Sembilan (also Negri Sembilan, Jawi: نڬري سمبيلن meaning "state of nine" in Malay, is a state of Malaysia. In 1869, a power struggle arose between Tengku Antah and Tengku Ahmad Tunggal, as both aspired to become the next ruler of Negeri Sembilan, the Yamtuan Besar. In Malay Yang di-Pertuan Besar, literally "He Who Is Made Great " or "Great Ruler", is a royal Title. This conflict between the two princes divided the confederation and threatened the reliability of tin supply from Negeri Sembilan.
Sungai Ujong, a state within the confederation in particular was the site of many locally important mines. Negeri Sembilan (also Negri Sembilan, Jawi: نڬري سمبيلن meaning "state of nine" in Malay, is a state of Malaysia. It was ruled by Dato' Kelana Sendeng. However, another local chieftain named Dato' Bandar Kulop Tunggal had more influence than Dato' Kelana. Dato' Bandar received great support from the locals and even the Chinese immigrants who worked at the mines of Sungai Ujong. Dato' Kelana limited popularity made him dependent on another chieftain named Sayid Abdul Rahman, who was the confederation's Laksamana Raja Laut (roughly royal sea admiral). The strained relationship between Dato' Bandar and Dato' Kelana caused frequent disturbances in Sungai Ujong.
The years before 1873 however were years of relative calm as Dato' Kelana had to give extra attention to Sungai Linggi as Rembau, another state within the confederation, tried to wrestle Sungai Linggi from Sungai Ujong's control. Rembau is a town within a district that shares the same name (i Negeri Sembilan at that time was connected to Malacca via Sungai Linggi, and a high volume of trade passed through Sungai Linggi daily. Whoever controlled Sungai Linggi would gain wealth simply through taxes.
Later in that year, Dato' Kelana Sendeng died. In early 1873, Sayid Abdul Rahman rose up to the former's place, becoming the new Dato' Kelana. The death however did not repair the relationship between Dato' Kelana and Dato' Bandar. On the contrary, it deteriorated. The new Dato' Kelana was deeply concerned with Dato' Bandar's unchecked influence and sought ways to counter his adversary's power.
When the British changed their non-inteventionist policy in 1873 by replacing Sir Harry Ord with Sir Andrew Clarke as the new governor of the Straits Settlements, Dato' Kelana immediately realized that the British could strengthen his position in Sungai Ujong. Dato' Kelana wasted no time to contact and lobby the British in Malacca to support him. In April 1874, Sir Clarke seized Dato' Kelana's request as a means to build British presence in Sungai Ujong and Negeri Sembilan in general. Sir Clarke acknowledged Dato' Kelana as the legitimate chief of Sungai Ujong. The British and Dato' Kelana signed a treaty which required Dato' Kelana to rule Sungai Ujong justly, protect traders, and prevent any anti-British action there. Dato' Bandar was not invited to sign the agreement and hence asserted that he was not bound to the agreement. Moreover, Dato' Bandar and the locals disapproved the British presence in Sungai Ujong. This further made Dato' Kelana unpopular there.
Soon, a company led by William A. Pickering — of the Chinese Protectorate from the Straits Settlements — was sent to Sungai Ujong to assess the situation on behalf of the Straits Settlements. William A Pickering (1840&ndash1907 was the first Protector appointed (in 1877 by the British government to administer the Chinese Protectorate in colonial The Chinese Protectorate was an administrative body responsible for the well-being of ethnic Chinese residents of the Straits Settlements during that territory's He recognized the predicament Dato' Kelana was in and reported back to the Straits Settlements. This prompted the British to send 160 soldiers to Sungai Ujong to aid Pickering to defeat Dato' Bandar. At the end of 1874, Dato' Bandar fled to Kepayang. Despite defeat, the British paid him a pension and granted asylum in Singapore.
As the year progressed, British influence increased to the point that an assistant resident was placed there to advise and assist Dato' Kelana with the governance of Sungai Ujong.
The British became involved in the administration of Pahang after a civil war between two candidates to the kingdom's throne between 1858 and 1863.
To streamline the administration of the Malay states and especially to protect and further develop the lucrative trade of tin-mining and rubber, Britain sought to consolidate and centralize control by federating the four states of Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang into the Federated Malay States (FMS). This article is not to be confused with the Unfederated Malay States. This article should not be confused with the Federated Malay States. With Kuala Lumpur as the capital, the Residents-General administered the federation but compromised by allowing the Sultans to have powers limited only to the role as authority on Islam and Malay customs. Modern legislation was introduced to the Malay states with the creation of the Federal Council. Although the Sultans had less power than their counterparts in the Unfederated Malay States, the FMS enjoyed a much higher degree of modernization. Federalization also brought benefit through cooperative economic development, as evident in the earlier period, where Pahang was developed using funds from the revenue of Selangor and Perak.
The Unfederated Malay States on the other hand maintained their quasi-independence, had more autonomony and instead of having a Resident they were only required to accept a British Advisor, though in reality, they were still bound by treaty to accept the advice. Economic exploitation by the British were much less as the emphasis was more on keeping these states in line. Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu were surrendered by Siam after the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909. The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was a Treaty between the United Kingdom and Thailand signed on March 10[[ Independent Johor meanwhile, had to surrender Singapore to the British earlier on and despite the Sultan's political effort was forced to accept an advisor in 1914, becoming the last Malay state to lose her sovereignty.
This period of slow consolidation of power to a centralized government and compromise (the Sultans retain their reign but not rule in their states) would have a great impact later on the road to nationhood. It effectively marked the transition of the idea of Malay states as a collective of lands governed by feudal rulers to a more Westminster-type federal constitutional monarchy. The Westminster system is a democratic Parliamentary system of Government modelled after the British government (the Parliament of the United This was to become the acceptable model for the future Federation of Malaya and ultimately Malaysia, a government type unique in the region where other countries adopted a stricter, heavily centralized administration.
After the World War I, the British adopted a decentralization policy in Malaya. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All This was done to entice the Unfederated Malay States to join the Federated Malay States.
During the 1930s, the world economy was undergoing depression. Due to the integration of the Malayan economy to the global supply chain, Malaya did not escape the depression.
Malaya and Singapore were under Japanese occupation from 1942 until 1945. Throughout much of World War II, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. The Battle of Malaya was a campaign fought by Allied and Japanese forces in Malaya, from December 8 1941 to January 31 The Battle of Singapore was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the Allied stronghold Japan rewarded Siam for its cooperation during this period by giving it the state of Kedah. After Japan's surrender in the Second World War following the dropping of the atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the United States, Malaya and Singapore were placed under the British Military Administration. ( is the Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. The Japanese city of ( is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū, the largest of Japan 's The British Military Administration (BMA was the Interim administrator of British Malaya between the end of World War II and the establishment of the
Within a year after World War II, the loose administration of British Malaya was finally consolidated with the formation of the Malayan Union on April 1, 1946. The Malayan Union was a federation of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements excluding Singapore. The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu was a federation of 11 states formed on January 31 1948 from the nine Malay states and the British The Malayan Union was a federation of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements excluding Singapore. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Singapore however was not included and was considered a crown colony by itself. The new Union was greeted with strong opposition from the local Malays. The opposition revolved around two issues: loose citizenship requirements and reduction of Malay rulers' power. Due to the pressure exerted, the Union was replaced with the Federation of Malaya on January 31, 1948. The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu was a federation of 11 states formed on January 31 1948 from the nine Malay states and the British Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Federation achieved independence on August 31, 1957. Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) All Malayan states later formed a larger federation called Malaysia on September 16, 1963 together with Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.