initially "Local Defence Volunteers"
Walter Rankin LDV painted in 1940 by Sir William Oliphant Hutchison
|Active||14 May 1940 - 3 December 1944|
|Role||Defence from invasion|
|Disbanded||31 December 1945|
The British Home Guard (initially "Local Defence Volunteers" or LDV, or in slang, Look-Duck-Vanish, hence the name change) was a defence organisation active in the United Kingdom during World War II. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Operational from 1940 until 1944, the Home Guard – comprising 1. 5 million local volunteers otherwise ineligible for military service, usually owing to age – acted as a secondary defence force, in case of invasion by the forces of Nazi Germany. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers
The Home Guard began as the brain child of Captain Tom Wintringham, who returning from the Spanish Civil War wrote a book entitled How to Reform the Army, which, among a large number of regular army reforms, called for:
In addition to Regulars and Territorials, twelve divisions of equal quality to that of the International Brigade in Spain. Thomas Henry (Tom Wintringham ( 15 May 1898 &mdash 16 August 1949) was a British soldier military historian journalist poet The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of . . formed the same way, by voluntary enlistment from amongst Ex-servicemen and youths.
How to Reform the Army, April 1939 p. 74
Despite great interest by the War Office in the book's assertion that 'security is possible', Wintringham's call to train 100,000 men immediately was not put in to place. The War Office was a former department of the British Government, responsible for the administration of the British Army between the 17th century and 1963 when
The first to grasp the nettle and form volunteer units along this line was Commander-in-Chief Walter Kirke. General Walter Mervyn St George Kirke (1877-1949 was the Commander in Chief of the British Home Forces during the Second World War. Witness to the destruction of Poland in September 1939, Kirke knew that it was but a matter of time before the tanks and warplanes of the Wehrmacht came to Britain's doorstep. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 Kirke also knew that, in such an event, Britain would be woefully underprepared.
As early as 1939, following the torpedoing of HMS Royal Oak at anchor in Scapa Flow, Scotland, Winston Churchill wrote a letter to the Chiefs of Staff asking, "What would happen if 20,000 enemy troops were to land on the east coast of England?"
General Kirke founded the Local Defence Volunteers in February 1940. The modern torpedo (historically called an automotive automobile locomotive or fish torpedo is a self-propelled explosive Projectile weapon launched above or below Construction The Revenge class to which Royal Oak belonged was ordered in the 1913&ndash14 Estimates Scapa Flow ( Old Norse: Skalpaflói) is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 The Joint Chiefs of Staff ( JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the Armed services in the United States armed forces Initially devised as a means to defend the critical port of Dover, the ranks swelled quickly with local volunteers, too old to enlist but eager to fight. Dover is a town and major ferry port in the county of Kent, England. Though not yet acknowledged by the British government, they began training to operate the batteries of four-, six-, and nine-inch artillery pieces which defended the port. Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at Trained seaward to repel naval bombardment, these gun emplacements doubled in number with emergency positions which were being assembled even as the British Expeditionary Force left for Europe. The British Expeditionary Force ( BEF) was the British army sent to the Western Front in France and Belgium on the outbreak of While the coastal guns and the LDV stayed behind, the BEF marched to the borders of France and into battle. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Secretary of State for War Anthony Eden announced the creation of the LDV in a radio broadcast on 14 May 1940 and asked for volunteers, four days after the German Blitzkrieg started in France and the Low Countries. The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a British Cabinet -level position first applied to Henry Dundas Robert Anthony Eden 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 &ndash 14 January 1977 was a British Conservative Politician Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or " Wires quot Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Blitzkrieg (German for "lightning war" is a popular name for an Offensive operational-level Military doctrine which involves an initial The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt
The announcement met with near-universal enthusiasm and over a quarter of a million men tried to sign up within the next 24 hours. The government had expected 150,000 men to volunteer in total, but by the end of the first month 750,000 men had volunteered. By the end of June 1940, there were nearly 1. 5 million volunteers and the number never fell below a million for the rest of the organisation's existence although the peak was 1. 8 million in March 1943.
On 17 May 1940, the Defence (Local Defence Volunteers) Regulations 1940 was passed, which officially brought the LDV into existence. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Within ten days, the BEF had been pushed back and surrounded at Dunkirk. The Battle of Dunkirk was the defense and evacuation of the British and Allied forces that had been separated from the main body of the French defenses by the German advance Field Marshal Sir Edmund Ironside former Chief of the Imperial General Stadd served briefly as its commander-in-chief. Field Marshal William Edmund Ironside 1st Baron Ironside GCB, CMG, CBE, DSO ( 6 May 1880 - 22 September
In July 1940 the name was changed to "Home Guard" at Churchill's instruction.
The Home Guard also served as a cover for the Auxiliary Units, a force of more highly trained volunteer troops that would function as guerilla units if the UK was invaded. The Auxiliary Units (or Auxunits) were specially trained highly secret units created with the aim of resisting the expected invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc
The Home Guard did not, initially, admit women to its ranks. Some women formed their own groups like the Amazon Defence Corps.  Later a more organised but still unofficial Women's Home Defence (WHD) formed with many groups across the country. Limited female involvement was permitted later on the understanding that these would be in traditional female support roles and not in anyway seen as combatants.
The Home Guard was stood down in late 1944 when the danger of invasion was recognised as past and male members were rewarded with a certificate. It would not be until 1945 that those women who had helped as auxiliaries were recognised with their own certificate.
Initially the LDV were very poorly armed, since the regular forces had priority for the weapons and equipment available. Their original role had largely been to observe and report enemy movements but it swiftly changed to a more aggressive role. Nevertheless they would have been expected to fight well-trained and equipped troops with negligible training and weapons such as pitchforks and shotguns or firearms that belonged in a museum. A pitchfork is an agricultural Tool with a long handle and long thin widely separated A shotgun (also known as a scattergun) is a Firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number Patrols were carried out on foot, by bicycle, even on horseback, and often without uniforms, although all volunteers wore an armband that said "LDV". The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists Bicycle infantry are Infantry Soldiers who maneuver on the battlefield using Bicycles The term dates from the late 19th century when the " Safety Horses were first used in warfare over 5000 years ago The earliest evidence of the use of horses ridden in warfare dates There were also river patrols using the private craft of members.  Many officers from the First World War used their Webley Mk VI .455 revolvers. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Webley & Scott is an arms manufacturer based in Birmingham, England. The Webley Revolver (also known as the Webley Break-Top Revolver or Webley There were also numerous private attempts to produce armoured vehicles by adding steel plates to cars or lorries, often armed with machine guns. An armoured fighting vehicle ( AFV) is a military Vehicle, protected by armour and armed with Weapons Most AFVs are equipped for driving in rugged For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation.  Some even had access to armoured cars, though these were makes no longer in service with the regular army. A military armored (or armoured) car (see spelling differences) is a wheeled armored vehicle lighter than other armored fighting vehicles primarily 
Ex-Communist and Spanish Civil War veteran Tom Wintringham, a journalist and key advocate of the LDV and later Home Guard, opened a private training camp for the LDV at Osterley Park, outside London, in early July 1940. A journalist (also called a newspaperman) is a person who practices Journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events trends Osterley Park is a mansion set in a large Park of the same name London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Wintringham's training methods were mainly based on his experience in the International Brigades in Spain. The International Brigades were Republican Military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries Those who had fought alongside him in Spain trained volunteers in anti-tank warfare and demolitions. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Anti-tank refers to any method of combating military Armored fighting vehicles notably Tanks The most common anti-tank systems Demolition is the opposite of Construction: the tearing-down of Buildings and other Structures It contrasts with deconstruction
On 23 July 1940, the LDV was renamed the "Home Guard", a name suggested by Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Within a few months they started to be issued with proper uniforms and equipment as the immediate needs of the regular forces were satisfied. After September 1940 the army began to take charge of the Home Guard training in Osterley, and Wintringham and his associates were gradually sidelined. Wintringham resigned in April 1941. Ironically, despite his activities in support of the Home Guard, Wintringham was never allowed to join the organisation himself because of a policy barring membership to communists and fascists. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology
It was not until 1943 that they were a properly trained and equipped force. They were frequently equipped with improvised weapons, or non-standard ones purchased by the government from abroad. For example, large numbers of M1917 rifles were purchased for the use of the Home Guard. The M1917 Enfield, the "American Enfield" (frequently misidentified or mislabeled as the "P17" "P1917" or "Pattern 1917" formally named These used the (30-06) cartridge - an American 0. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 30 inch round which was a totally different ammunition from the 0.303 round used by the British Lee-Enfield rifle. Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term derived from the French language la munition which The Lee-Enfield Bolt-action, magazine-fed Repeating rifle was the main firearm used by the military forces of the British Empire / Commonwealth A 2-inch wide red band was painted around the fore end of the stock as a warning since a 0. 303 round would load but jam the rifle. That the similar in appearance P14 rifle was supplied to the Home Guard in 0. The Rifle.303 Pattern 1914 (or P14 was a British Service rifle of the First World War period that was principally contract manufactured by companies 303 calibre that took the British round only added to the confusion.
The Home Guard inherited weapons that the regular Army no longer required - such as the Blacker Bombard anti-tank weapon - or desired - such as the Sticky bomb. The Blacker Bombard was a cheap Anti-tank weapon devised by Lieutenant-Colonel Stewart Blacker in the early years of the Second World War Popularly known as the sticky bomb, the No 74 ST Grenade was an unusual British Hand grenade issued in World War II. Their arsenal also included weapons that could be produced cheaply without consuming materials that were needed to produce armaments for the regular units - such as the Northover projector - a blackpowder powered mortar, the No. 76 Special Incendiary Grenade - a glass bottle filled with highly flammable material, and the Smith Gun - a small artillery gun that could be towed by a private motorcar. The Northover projector was a simple World War II weapon devised for the British Home Guard. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes A mortar is a muzzle-loading Indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities short ranges and high-arcing ballistic trajectories The No 76 was an incendiary grenade based on white phosphorus used during World War II. The Smith Gun was developed in Britain in 1940 as an emergency gun for issue to the Home Guard.
The use of German Paratroopers in Rotterdam, where Fallschirmjäger landed in a football stadium and then hijacked private transport to make their way to the city centre, demonstrated that nowhere was safe. Rotterdam (pronounced) is the 2nd-largest City by population in the Netherlands, located in the province of (often rendered Fallschirmjager in English; from the German Fallschirm "parachute" and Jäger, "hunter Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered A modern stadium (plural stadiums or stadia in English is a place or venue for (mostly outdoor Sports Concerts or other events consisting Worse still, the airborne abduction attempt of the Dutch Royal family had failed only because the Dutch had possessed detailed plans of the operation well in advance. The Netherlands has been an independent Monarchy since 16 March 1815, and has been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands To counter the threat of an airborne assault, the Home Guard manned observation posts where soldiers spent every night until almost the end of the war continuously watching the skies, and initially armed with a shotgun. An observation post, temporary or fixed is a position from which soldiers can watch enemy movements to warn of approaching soldiers (such as in Trench warfare
To spread word in the event of an invasion, the Home Guard set up a relatively simple code to warn their compatriots. For instance, the word 'Cromwell' indicated that a paratrooper invasion was imminent, and 'Oliver' meant that said invasion had commenced. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known Additionally, the Home Guard arranged to use church bells as a call-to-arms for the rest of the LDV. A church bell is a bell which is rung in a (especially Christian) church either to signify the Hour or the time for worshippers to go to This inevitably led to a series of complex rules governing who had keys to bell towers, also the ringing of church bells was forbidden at all other times. A Tower which contains one or more bells or which is obviously designed to hold bells (even if it has none is a bell tower. The British defence relied heavily on improvisation and ingenuity.
The first line of defence against the Luftwaffe was detecting incoming raids. ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. Even before the war, Britain had invested much time and resources into the construction of the Chain Home radar line. Chain Home was the codename for the ring of coastal Radar stations built by the British before and during World War II. The CH system which dotted the English coastline operated on a twenty four hour schedule, and could detect incoming aircraft from well over seventy miles away. Moreover, to find low-flying planes, which could avoid detection at less than 500 ft (152 m), the British also operated the narrow wavelength "Chain-Home: Low" system, which detected planes traveling low yet still over five hundred feet. These gave the British sufficient warning to allow their fighters to reach the necessary altitude before the arrival of the bombers.
Once inland, the movements of German aircraft were visually tracked and reported by the Royal Observer Corps, a volunteer civil unit formed in 1925 administered by the Royal Air Force. The Royal Observer Corps ( ROC) was a defence warning organisation operating in the United Kingdom between 1925 and 31 December 1995 when it was stood down It eventually grew to over 40,000 men and women and 1,500 observation posts nationwide, their work allowing the RAF to know the strength as well as location and direction of their enemy, and therefore permitted them to predict the target and defend it with the minimum fuel consumption.
Aircraft proved to be a menace throughout the war. Operating in both day and night raids, the defence against the Luftwaffe required huge amounts of anti-aircraft construction. For the British, heavy anti-aircraft weaponry was in no short supply. With over a thousand HAA guns divided across seven divisions under Anti-Aircraft Command, the British troops had guns in a quantity rivalled only by variety. Anti-Aircraft Command was a British Army command of the Second World War that controlled the anti-aircraft artillery units of the British Isles In the early months of the war Great Britain still used Great War surplus armaments in the form of a truck-mounted 3 inch gun which provided more enthusiasm than firepower. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The next largest was the QF 3.7 inch gun, which shared some of the anti-armour capabilities of the legendary German 88 mm gun. The 37-Inch QF AA was Britain's primary heavy Anti-aircraft gun during World War II, the equivalent of the German 88 mm FlaK with a slightly The 88 mm gun ( eighty-eight) is a German anti-aircraft and anti-tank Artillery gun from World War II. The largest guns were the 4. 5-inch and the enormous 5. 25 inch similar to guns used aboard some Royal Navy warships which were mounted in two different types of turret, one identical to the naval mount. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat. Though the Royal Artillery handled most of the shells physically, the men of the Home Guard often filled in as adequate replacements. The Royal Artillery, is the common name for the Royal Regiment of Artillery, is an Arm of the British Army. From April 1942, Home Guard Anti-Aircraft units were formed and by 1944 these units had taken over many anti-aircraft batteries, operating artillery from the light to heavy guns and also the semi-secret rocket batteries (also known as "Z-batteries").
The aiming and management of communication, however, was the sole domain of women of the Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS). The Auxiliary Territorial Service ( ATS; often pronounced as an Acronym) was the women's branch of the British Army during the Second World War Indeed on the Wirral Peninsula, Cheshire, the physical shortage of men, who were guarding the beaches, required women to operate the town's single AA battery alone. Wirral or the Wirral (ˈwɪrəl is a Peninsula in the north west of England. Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a county in North West England.
The HAA stations could stop a high flying bomber but not the fast moving escort fighters and the dreaded Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers which came with them. The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Stu rz' ka' mpfflugzeug, " Dive bomber " was a two-seat (pilot and rear gunner The Light Anti Aircraft was in dire shortage thanks to a lack of direction and planning. In the 1930s, the British had expected to use their own Vickers 2 pounder "pom-pom", but with complex multiple gun mounts weighing 800 lb (363 kg) it was limited to Royal Navy use. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 2004 The 2-pounder gun, officially designated the QF 2-pounder ( QF denoting "quick firing" and universally known as the pom-pom, was a 1 Therefore they turned to foreign sources.
In 1937, the British Army had ordered one hundred of the Swedish Bofors 40 mm gun. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Bofors 40 mm gun is a famous Anti-aircraft Autocannon designed by the Swedish firm of Bofors. The Bofors had attracted immediate international attention as a weapon of quality. Britain had evaluated the gun and arranged licensed UK production. With engineering revision and reduction, the British produced it twice as fast at half the cost. Yet even so, in March 1940, even the USS Saratoga had more of these guns than the United Kingdom. Pre-War Years 1928 – 1940 Saratoga, the first fast carrier in the Navy quickly proved the value of her type Production steadily increased at 200 or more per month by mid 1940 but production was not expected to match requirements until 1942.
In 1939, the only other supply of LAA was a hastily conceived plan to purchase Breda 20 mm guns from Italy. Breda Meccanica Bresciana, widely known simply as Breda is a large Italian manufacturer of small arms and ammunition located in Brescia. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest However, the Tripartite Pact ended that possibility.
Yet even with the impressive series of anti-aircraft defences which spread across the island over the next four years, emergency precautions were taken to reduce the danger to civilians. The Air Raid Precautions (ARP) Civil Defence Service was controlled by the Home Office. Air Raid Precautions (ARP was an organisation in the United Kingdom set up as an aid in the prelude to the Second World War dedicated To protect the population against the ill effects of air attack the Civil Defence Service was initiated in Great Britain by the Home Office in 1935 The Home Office is the United Kingdom government department responsible for security and order Men and women alike offered their services as fire fighters in the Auxiliary Fire Service, but 'fire watching' (reporting of fires in commercial buildings and dealing with individual incendiary bombs) was compulsory for all civilians in towns. The Auxiliary Fire Service ( AFS) was first formed in 1938 in Great Britain as part of Civil Defence Air raid precautions. Early warning observers were used during the V-1 campaign. All of these jobs served to relieve the local population.
Despite a history of coastal defences stretching back to the days of Henry VIII, the British had not extensively fortified their coast, but had concentrated on what were considered 'vulnerable points'. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of The result was a series of ports guarded by 6 inch and 9 inch guns; a number of 9. 2, 13. 5 and 18 inch railway guns and howitzers (the 18 inch howitzer being nicknamed "Bosch Buster") were deployed to various parts of the coast immediately after the Dunkirk evacuation; surrounded by open undefended beach with nothing but the sand to block a landing army. The Dunkirk evacuation, codenamed Operation Dynamo by the British was the Evacuation of Allied soldiers from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk
To remedy this, the Home Guard was charged with guarding the beaches as well. The Home Guard produced a coastline peppered with unarmoured gun emplacements, armed with old First World War naval guns. Worse still, some of the LDV manning these positions were untrained and armed with little more than shotguns. Others, such as Robert Neal, had rifles dating from the 1880s, and wrote in his diary, "I don't know what they expect me to do, I can't even use my own gun, much less this enormous contraption next to me. Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of Electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered " In the event of an invasion at that time, the beaches would almost certainly have fallen to German forces.
It was, however, never the intention for coastal defences to halt an invasion such as the planned Operation Sealion. Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe was Germany's plan to invade the United Kingdom during World War II, beginning in 1940 The coastal defences were only intended to delay an invasion of this type, and combined with Stop Lines, slow down an attack in order that Naval Forces could be deployed to cut off supply lines, and troops moved into appropriate locations. British anti-invasion preparations of World War II entailed a large-scale division of military and civilian mobilization in response to the threat of invasion This strategy was borne out in wargames conducted at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, in which a combination of the Coastal Defences, Stop Lines and a naval deployment from Scapa Flow to halt Axis naval forces effected a surrender of the Invading Forces. Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are simulations in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst ( RMAS) commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is the British Army officer initial training centre Scapa Flow ( Old Norse: Skalpaflói) is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries Surrender is when Soldiers, nations or other combatants stop fighting and become Prisoners of war, either as
Even once the threat of invasion had passed, the Home Guard remained in existence manning guard posts and performing other duties to free up regular troops for duties overseas. In 1942 the National Service Act allowed for compulsory enrolment where units were below strength. At this time, the lowest rank within the Home Guard, 'volunteer', was renamed to 'private' to match the regular army usage.
However following the successful invasion of France and the drive towards Germany by allied armies, the Home Guard were formally stood down on 3 December 1944 and finally disbanded on 31 December 1945. Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar
A modernised version of the Home Guard was briefly re-established in December 1951. Although units in coastal areas were authorised to recruit to full strength, it fell foul of a complete reassessment of Britain's defence posture following the advent of the H-bomb and was disbanded in July 1957. In the 1980s, the Home Service Force was established, consisting of older ex-servicemen who could not meet Territorial Army (TA) training requirements; it was envisaged that this force, a company in every Territorial battalion, would be used to guard strategic points in the event of an emergency so as to free up the better-trained Territorial forces for more important roles. The Home Service Force was a Home Guard type force established in the United Kingdom in 1982 The Territorial Army ( TA) is the principal and Volunteer reserve force of the British Army, the land armed forces branch of the United Kingdom The Force was disbanded in 1993.
The Home Guard was immortalised in the British 1960s and 1970s television comedy, Dad's Army (1968-1977), which followed the formation and running of a platoon in the fictional south coast town of Walmington-on-Sea, and is widely regarded to have kept the efforts of the Home Guard in the public consciousness. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Dad’s Army is a British sitcom about the Home Guard in the Second World War. Walmington-on-Sea is a fictional Seaside resort where the BBC Television Sitcom, BBC radio series and film Dad's Army was The Home Guard also played a significant part in Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger's 1943 film The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp. Michael Latham Powell ( 30 September 1905 &ndash 19 February 1990) was a British Film director, renowned for his partnership Emeric Pressburger ( 5 December &ndash 5 February) was an Oscar -winning Hungarian / British screenwriter film director and producer The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp ( is a film by the British filmmaking team of Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger under the banner of The In it, the lead character, a career soldier who's been retired from the active list, joins the Home Guard and rises to a leadership position in it.
The 1943 British film Get Cracking starred George Formby as a Home Guard Lance Corporal who is constantly losing and winning back his stripe. George Formby Jr, OBE ( 26 May, 1904 &ndash 6 March, 1961) was an English ukulele player (banjolele Lance Corporal is a Military rank, used by many armed forces worldwide and also by some Police forces and other uniformed organizations Formby's platoon are involved in rivalry between the Home Guard Divisions of local villages Major and Minor Wallop. A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two to four sections or Squads and containing about 30 to 50 soldiers At the end of the film Formby is promoted to sergeant after inventing a secret weapon - a home made tank. Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries police forces and other uniformed organizations around the world 
The Home Guard also featured in the 1971 Disney film Bedknobs and Broomsticks, and in the 2003 "War Games" episode of the British detective series Foyle's War, which is set in Hastings in World War II. Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner was established Bedknobs and Broomsticks is an Academy Award winning 1971 Musical film produced by Walt Disney Productions, which combines Live action Foyle's War is a British detective Television programme created by screen-writer and author Anthony Horowitz, and commissioned Hastings is a town on the coast of East Sussex in England; it is also the administrative centre for the Borough of the same name
Noel Coward wrote a song in 1943, "Won't you please oblige us with a Bren Gun?" that pokes fun at the disorder and shortage of supplies and equipment that were common in the Home Guard, and indeed all of Britain, during the war. Sir Noël Peirce Coward ( 16 December 1899 26 March 1973) was an English Actor, Playwright
British wartime propaganda film 'Went the Day Well?' starring Thora Hird made at Ealing Studios in 1942 focuses on the Home Guard victory in quelling a German Paratroop invasion. Went the Day Well? is a British War film produced by Ealing Studios in 1942. Dame Thora Hird DBE ( 28 May 1911 — 15 March 2003) was an English actress and is best remembered for her For the film see Ealing Comedy (film. For the film comedies see Ealing Comedies. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Paratroopers are Soldiers trained in Parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. A similar story is told in 'The Eagle Has Landed', a book by Jack Higgins made into a popular film staring Michael Caine, Donald Sutherland, Donald Pleasence and Robert Duvall, released in 1976, with the United States Army Rangers instead of the Home Guard. The Eagle Has Landed is a book by Jack Higgins first published in 1975. Jack Higgins (b July 27, 1929) is the principal pseudonym of UK Novelist Harry Patterson. Sir Maurice Joseph Micklewhite Jr, CBE (born 14 March 1933 better known by his screen name Michael Caine, is an Oscar - and BAFTA Donald McNicol Sutherland OC (born July 17, 1935) is a Canadian Actor with a film career spanning over 50 years Donald Henry Pleasence, OBE, (5 October 1919 – 2 February 1995 was an English stage and film actor. Robert Selden Duvall (born January 5, 1931) is an American Film Actor and director who has won an Academy Award The United States Army Rangers or simply Army Rangers are specialized elite American light infantry and Special operations troops