|Captain Cook Bridge from Kangaroo Point Lookout|
|Basin area||13,600 km²|
The Brisbane River is situated in southeast Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay. The Captain Cook Bridge is the third crossing of the Brisbane River. For other places named Kangaroo Point see Kangaroo Point Kangaroo Point is a suburb of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia The Conondale Range is a Mountain range in Queensland, located between Maleny and Jimna. A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. South East Queensland (SEQ is a region of the state of Queensland in Australia, which contains approximately two-thirds of the state population Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Brisbane ( is the state capital of Queensland. Brisbane is the third most populous city in Australia and the most populous city of Queensland Moreton Bay is a large bay on the eastern coast of Australia 19 km from Brisbane, Queensland. The river is dammed by the Wivenhoe Dam, forming Lake Wivenhoe, the main water supply for Brisbane. Wivenhoe Dam is a Dam built across the Brisbane River that creates the artificial Lake Wivenhoe. The river was named after the Governor of New South Wales Thomas Brisbane by the explorer John Oxley in 1823. The Governor of New South Wales is the representative in the Australian state of New South Wales of Australia's monarch, Elizabeth II, Major-General Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane 1st Baronet, GCH, GCB ( July 23, 1773 – January 27, 1860) soldier This article is about the person For the Australian pilot ship see John Oxley (ship. Year 1823 ( MDCCCXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
The CityCat ferry service collects and delivers passengers along the inner-city reaches of the river. History The CityCat service runs along the Brisbane River between Apollo Road in the suburb of Bulimba in the east and the University of Queensland The Port of Brisbane manages the movement of larger vessels into the river from the bay. Port of Brisbane is the shipping Port of Brisbane, on the east coast of Australia.
Before European settlement, the Brisbane River was a vital food source for the aboriginal people of the Turrbal Nation. The Turrbal are a tribe of Australian Aboriginal people who before European settlement of Australia inhabited the region around the modern-day city of Brisbane The Turrbal people were a fishing people. The river was also important to the Turrbal people for spiritual and recreational activities.
Four European navigators, namely Captain Cook, Matthew Flinders, John Bingle and William Edwardson, all visited Moreton Bay but they failed to discover the river. A navigator is the person onboard a ship or aircraft responsible for its Navigation. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and Captain Matthew Flinders, RN (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814 was one of the most successful navigators and cartographers of his age Three castaways who were caught in a gale and blown off course all the way from Sydney to Moreton Island were found by John Oxley while he was surveying the east coast for a new penal settlement. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 Moreton Island is a large Sand island on the eastern side of Moreton Bay, on the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. They had previously wandered the area, walking along the river up to Oxley Creek. Oxley Creek is situated in south east Queensland, Australia and is one of the major tributaries of the Brisbane River with an estimated 260 square kilometres
On the 2 December 1823, Oxley and his crew, including two of the castaways, Pamphlett and Finnegan, entered the river and sailed upstream as far as present-day Goodna. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Goodna is a Suburb on the eastern edge of the city of Ipswich in Queensland, Australia.  Oxley noted the abundant fish and tall pine trees. Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. Early European explorers marvelled at the sheer natural beauty they witnessed while travelling up the lower reaches.
Reports by early European explorers such as Allan Cunningham and Oxley indicate rainforest once fringed the Brisbane River and its major tributaries, especially on the broader floodplains such as St. Lucia and Seventeen Mile Rock. The coastal lowlands were extensively vegetated with Melaleuca woodlands in low lying, poorly drained coastal areas. Melaleuca is a Genus of Plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. When first described by Europeans, the lower reaches of the Brisbane River were fringed by a mosaic of open forest, closed forest and rainforest. 
In the same year of 1823, the river was named after Sir Thomas Brisbane, the then Governor of New South Wales. Major-General Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane 1st Baronet, GCH, GCB ( July 23, 1773 – January 27, 1860) soldier The Governor of New South Wales is the representative in the Australian state of New South Wales of Australia's monarch, Elizabeth II,
Upon the establishment of a local settlement in 1824, other explorers such as Allan Cunningham, Patrick Logan and Major Edmund Lockyer made expeditions and surveys further upstream, and, in 1825, the Moreton Bay penal colony at Redcliffe relocated to North Quay. Allan Cunningham ( 13 July 1791 – 27 June 1839) was an English botanist and explorer, primarily known Captain Patrick Logan (1791 - October 1830 is best known as commandant of Moreton Bay Penal colony from 1826 until his death by murder in 1830 Edmund Lockyer, 21 January 1784 - 10 June 1860, was a British soldier and explorer of Australia.   Redcliffe is a residential suburb of the Moreton Bay Regional Council in the north-east of the Redcliffe peninsula North Quay is a location in the Brisbane central business district and the name of street in the same area running along the Brisbane River from an intersection near 
The first small private wharves were built on the river in about 1848. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap  and the once popular, shark-proof river baths were first built in 1857 at Kangaroo Point. 
From 1862 the Brisbane River has been dredged for navigation purposes. Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday  Throughout much of the 20th century large quantities of sand and gravel were extracted from the estuary of the river. Sand is a naturally occurring Granular material composed of finely divided rock and Mineral particles Gravel is rock that is of a specific Particle size range In Geology, gravel is any loose rock that is larger than two millimeters (2mm Since the rate of materials being deposited is not as high as that which was removed, the river has acted as a subaqueous mine. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body
In 1866 there was a breakwater built at the junction of the Bremer and Brisbane rivers that was designed to stop shingle from blocking the access to the Bremer's boat channel. Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal defence or to protect an anchorage from the effects of Weather and Longshore drift. The first pile light using kerosene was built in 1882. pile lighthouse was a type of Lighthouse used primarily in Florida, including on open reefs adjacent to the Florida Keys. Kerosene, sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage is a Combustible Hydrocarbon liquid Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  The steel framed light also served as an early port signal station. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 A sea mark, also seamark and Navigation mark, is a Pilotage aid which identifies the approximate position of a maritime channel hazard
For some time the growth and settlement of Brisbane has inversely impacted the Brisbane River. By 1928 the water quality had deteriorated to the point where several public baths had to cease sourcing water from the river. Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness Often the term public is misleading to some people as they will have restrictions based upon who can use the facility 
Even up to the 1930s, the water was very clear, with reports of people seeing the river bed 5 or 6m below the surface. In the middle tidal reaches today, visibility is about 0. 2m.  As Brisbane grew, the river became a handy open sewer and waste dump. The banks were cleared of timber and introduced animals rapidly changed the river's ecology. 
On the 25 March 1941, a USA goodwill flotilla arrived in the city docking at wharves along the River. A flotilla (from Spanish meaning a flota of small ships and this from French flotte) or naval flotilla, is a formation of small 
1987 was proclaimed the "Year of the River" by the Lord Mayor of Brisbane at the time, Sallyanne Atkinson. This is a list of the Mayors and Lord Mayors of the City of Brisbane, a Local Government Area of Queensland, Australia. Sallyanne Atkinson AO (born 23 July, 1942) is an Australian Politician, former Lord Mayor of Brisbane and former chair
There has been much dredging and widening work done over the years to allow ships to transport cargo to and from Brisbane. Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train, The river has served as an important carriageway between Brisbane and Ipswich before a railway linking the towns was built in 1875. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Year 1875 ( MDCCCLXXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  By early 1825 buoys were being laid along the South Passage and shortly after that the first pilots were commissioned to guide ships entering from Moreton Bay and another service for those travelling upstream. Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common  Flying boats used the waters of the river in Pinkenba, to take-off for domestic and international destinations in the 1930's. Pinkenba is the name of a suburb in eastern Brisbane on the northern side of the Brisbane River 
The river depth was progressively increased and narrow points widened to allow larger vessels into the river and further upstream. For navigation and safety reasons the Seventeen Mile Rocks were completely removed in 1965 after numerous partially successful attempts in the past. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. The northern river bank at the mouth of the river has undergone reclamation projects over the years, especially in the suburbs of Hamilton and Pinkenba. Hamilton is an inner northern suburb of Brisbane, Australia, lying on the north bank of the Brisbane River along Bulimba Reach Pinkenba is the name of a suburb in eastern Brisbane on the northern side of the Brisbane River More recently, extensive port facilities have been constructed on Fisherman's Island which has also seen significant land reclamation into the bay.
Early rivers crossings were made using small oared boat ferries, beginning in 1843 , followed by steam ferries. See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and In 1865 the first Victoria Bridge, later destroyed in a flood, was built across the river. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Victoria Bridge is the fifth crossing of the Brisbane River. Professor Hawken of the University of Queensland undertook a study in 1914 to identify the future crossing points for the river. Roger William Hercules Hawken ( 12 May 1878 &ndash 18 October 1947) an Australian Engineer, was the first lecturer in The University of Queensland (UQ is one of Australia's premier learning and research institutions
Historically, the Brisbane River contained upstream bars and shallows and has a natural tidal limit of only 16km. The current tidal limit now extends 85km upstream due to continual channel dredging. 
Brisbane River's source is located in the Conondale Range, east of Kingaroy. The Conondale Range is a Mountain range in Queensland, located between Maleny and Jimna. Kingaroy is an agricultural town in Queensland, Australia, approximately 209 kilometres or about 2 It then makes its way south, past Mount Stanley, and townships including Moore and Toogoolawah before joining with the Stanley River, just south of Somerset Dam. Toogoolawah is a small town in Queensland, Australia. Toogoolawah is a centre for Gliding and Parachuting. The Stanley River in Queensland is the main tributary of the Brisbane River. The river runs from there into Lake Wivenhoe, created by the Wivenhoe Dam. Beyond the dam, the river meanders eastward, meeting the Bremer River near Ipswich, then making its way through Brisbane's western suburbs, including Jindalee, Indooroopilly and Toowong. The Bremer River is the name of several rivers in Australia Bremer River (Queensland is a tributary of the Brisbane River Bremer River (South Australia Ipswich is a city and Local Government Area situated on the Bremer River in South East Queensland, Australia. Jindalee is an outer suburb of Brisbane, Australia located 12km south-west of the Brisbane CBD, and is a part of the Centenary suburbs Indooroopilly (ˌɪndrʊˈpɪli is a suburb of Brisbane, Australia which is located 7 km west of the Brisbane central business district. Toowong is an inner suburb of Brisbane, Australia which is located 5 km west from of the Brisbane CBD. Through the city, the river is travelled upon by CityCats, winding its way through the city centre. History The CityCat service runs along the Brisbane River between Apollo Road in the suburb of Bulimba in the east and the University of Queensland The Brisbane River then flows through the Port of Brisbane area and out into Moreton Bay. Port of Brisbane is the shipping Port of Brisbane, on the east coast of Australia. Moreton Bay is a large bay on the eastern coast of Australia 19 km from Brisbane, Queensland.
On the southern side of the river, opposite Gardens Point, are the Kangaroo Point Cliffs. Gardens Point is a point on the northern bank of the Brisbane River. The Kangaroo Point Cliffs are located at Kangaroo Point just across the Brisbane River from the Brisbane CBD in Queensland, Australia The Kangaroo Point Cliffs were created by a quarrying operation that according to Allan Cunninghams' Field Book, was underway prior to 1829 when he observed a "stone wharf presumably used for landing the blocks of stone ferried across the river for the construction of buildings in the settlement" this was in the vicinity of Edward Street ferry terminal. Edward Street is a busy thoroughfare in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The volcanic rock or rhyolite lava flows which form the cliffs were deposited in the Tertiary period about 30 million years ago and filled up an ancient river valley. Volcanic rock is an Igneous rock of volcanic origin Texture Volcanic rocks are usually fine-grained or Aphanitic to glassy in This page is about a volcanic rock For the ghost town see Rhyolite Nevada, and for the satellite system see Rhyolite/Aquacade. Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures The chuprichondira geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non- avian Dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately They currently form the banks of the Brisbane River.
On the southside Bulimba Creek, Norman Creek, Oxley Creek, Bremer River and Lockyer Creek waterways enter the Brisbane River. Breakfast Creek is a small tributary of the Brisbane River. It joins the river at Newstead, next to Newstead Park. Moggill Creek is a creek in Brisbane, the largest city in Queensland, Australia. The Stanley River in Queensland is the main tributary of the Brisbane River. The Bulimba Creek catchment has it sources in the marshy parts of the suburbs of Runcorn and Kuraby in the south of Brisbane. Norman Creek is a small tributary of the Brisbane River. The headwaters of the creek are located on the northern slopes of Toohey Mountain and Mount Gravatt Oxley Creek is situated in south east Queensland, Australia and is one of the major tributaries of the Brisbane River with an estimated 260 square kilometres The Bremer River is the name of several rivers in Australia Bremer River (Queensland is a tributary of the Brisbane River Bremer River (South Australia Lockyer Creek is a major Drainage system in the Lockyer Valley, South East Queensland that flows into the Brisbane River.
The following smaller creeks also flow into the river; Cressbrook Creek, Cooyar Creek, Cubberla Creek, Wolston Creek, Woogaroo Creek, Goodna Creek, Six Mile Creek, Bundamba Creek, Pullen Pullen Creek and Kholo Creek.
Currently the Brisbane River is crossed by 13 major bridges, including the historic Story Bridge and the tolled Gateway Bridge. The Brisbane River running through Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, is crossed by 13 major bridges, from the Gateway downsteam to The Story Bridge is a Cantilever bridge and the second crossing of the Brisbane River. The Gateway Bridge is a road bridge at the centre of the Gateway Motorway (M1 which skirts the eastern suburbs of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia There are two other major bridges upstream west of Brisbane, on the D'Aguilar Highway and the Brisbane Valley Highway. The D'Aguilar Highway is a two-lane Highway linking the Bruce Highway near Caboolture with Kingaroy in the state of Queensland, Australia The Brisbane Valley Highway is a state Highway in Queensland.
The Brisbane City Council has been developing a network of riverwalk pavements along the banks of the Brisbane River. Brisbane City Council is the governing council for Brisbane, which is the capital of Queensland, Australia.  Jim Soorley, a former mayor of Brisbane, encouraged serious investment into the quality and capacity of the Brisbane riverwalk. James (Jim Gerard Soorley (born 1951 is a former Australian Politician. An interesting section is the floating walkway between the Story Bridge and Merthyr Street New Farm. The Story Bridge is a Cantilever bridge and the second crossing of the Brisbane River. New Farm is an inner suburb of Brisbane, Australia, located 2 km east of the Brisbane CBD on a Peninsula on the Brisbane River. Brisbane City planners require many developers of formerly private riverfront blocks to create new sections of the Brisbane Riverwalk that are accessible to the public.
The Brisbane River floods frequently, although the occurrence and magnitude of flooding has diminished following the construction of the Wivenhoe Dam on the upper reaches of the River. The Victoria Bridge is the fifth crossing of the Brisbane River. Wivenhoe Dam is a Dam built across the Brisbane River that creates the artificial Lake Wivenhoe.
Past floods have resulted in both deepening and reduction in river depth, creation of new sand banks and shoals as well as increased transport of suspended sediment from upstream. A shoal or sandbar (also called sandbank) is a somewhat Linear Landform within or extending into a body of Water, A shoal or sandbar (also called sandbank) is a somewhat Linear Landform within or extending into a body of Water, Before the invention of modern dredging techniques the sediment deposited by flooding created hazards to ships navigating the river. Dredging is an Excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater in shallow seas or Fresh water areas with the purpose of Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of A hazard is a situation which poses a level of threat to Life, Health, Property or environment. Even medium sized vessels no longer travel up the Brisbane River beyond the city reach, and dredging of the upper reaches has ceased, allowing the river to recover substantially from the fine silt dislodged by gravel and sand extraction.
Significant floods have occurred several times since the European settlement of Brisbane. The most significant of these events was the 1974 Brisbane Flood. The 1974 Brisbane flood occurred in January 1974 in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, when waterways in the city experienced significant Notable instances of flooding include:
Flooding along the Brisbane River has the potential to be devastating. For much of the river's length its banks are relatively high, but topped by a broad plain. The river's sinuous course means that flood waters from upstream cannot be quickly discharged into Moreton Bay. Thus higher than normal flows cause river levels to rise rapidly and once the top of the banks are breached the floodwaters can spread over wide areas of the city.
During the 1800's and early 20th century, the river's surface was periodically choked by large swathes of the noxious weed known as water hyacinth. The seven species of water hyacinths comprise the genus Eichhornia. The plant was originally imported from South America. 
Environmentally, the river is in a poor condition and has been so for many years. The major causes of pollution are excess nutrients, hydrocarbons, pesticides and bacteria which become concentrated in the river and its sediment after flowing off surrounding lands. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of This river is also considered too murky and it is not recommended to swim in its waters. 
Historically, the river was actively dredged by Boral Sands Inc, ostensibly to make the river navigable. Mangroves (generally are Trees and Shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the Tropics and Subtropics. History The CityCat service runs along the Brisbane River between Apollo Road in the suburb of Bulimba in the east and the University of Queensland A wharf is a landing place or Pier where ships may tie up and load or unload Queensland University of Technology (QUT is located in Brisbane, Queensland, and is one of Australia's largest universities. Boral is a Multinational Company dealing in Building and Construction materials The constant extraction of river bed material by dredges has had considerable effect on the river. These impacts include increased turbidity, bed and bank erosion and changes in tidal hydraulics. The tidal nature of the river and the generally muddy nature of the sands removed by dredging created a woefully sludgy clayey sediment load in the river which did not clear. The efficacy of dredging the river upstream of the city reach to make it "navigable" was always in doubt, and the effect of the artificial sediment load in Moreton Bay grew to concern environmentalists worried that sediment was choking sea grass paddocks which were grazing territory for dugong. The dugong ( Dugong dugon) is a large Marine Mammal which together with the Manatees is one of four living species of the order Sirenia In a meeting concerning the matter in October 1996, including two State Government Ministers and three Mayors, an agreement to cease the dredging of sand and gravel from the river by September 30, 1997 was formed. Boral Resources Pty. Ltd. resisted the agreement, but ultimately all dredging was stopped by the agreed date.
The river has several important ecological areas where remnant populations of mangroves exist; these include areas around drainage culverts, in Breakfast Creek, New Farm, a small preserve at the city bend, near the Queensland University of Technology and around the shipping terminals at the river's terminus into Moreton Bay. Mangroves (generally are Trees and Shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the Tropics and Subtropics. New Farm is an inner suburb of Brisbane, Australia, located 2 km east of the Brisbane CBD on a Peninsula on the Brisbane River. Queensland University of Technology (QUT is located in Brisbane, Queensland, and is one of Australia's largest universities.
These mangroves have recently become classified as protected nature reserves. nature reserve ( natural reserve, nature preserve, natural preserve) is a Protected area of importance for Wildlife, flora
The freshwater reaches of the Brisbane River once supported a unique species of cod, similar to Murray cod and closely related to eastern freshwater cod. This article is about the Australian freshwater fish For other uses see Cod (disambiguation and Murray (disambiguation The Murray cod Eastern freshwater cod, Maccullochella ikei, also known as eastern cod are a large and striking predatory freshwater fish of the Maccullochella genus and Unfortunately this unique native fish became extinct somewhere between the 1930s and 1950's due to habitat degradation and overfishing. The river has been restocked with cod from the Mary River.
The Brisbane River hosts numerous events including the Riverfestival, Riverfire and the Brisbane River Classic fishing competition. River festival, which began in 1998 is a week-long festival held in September each year at South Bank Parklands and surrounding areas (including the Victoria River festival, which began in 1998 is a week-long festival held in September each year at South Bank Parklands and surrounding areas (including the Victoria The Brisbane River Classic is a fishing competition held on the Brisbane River in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Many schools and clubs use the river to conduct rowing regattas on Milton Reach. GB coxless pair of Toby Garbett & Rick Dunn at Henley Royal Regatta 2004 Sailing regattas are also held on this reach as well as the Hamilton reach.