A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction, laid using mortar. The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός ( keramikos) Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar, and the term "masonry" can also refer to the units themselves Mortar is a workable paste formed by mixture of Cement, Water and fine aggregate Masonry to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between
The oldest shaped bricks found date back to 7,500 B. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Trier (Trèves Luxembourgish: Tréier; Augusta Treverorum is a City in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine C. They have been found in Çayönü, a place located in the upper Tigris area, and in south east Anatolia close to Diyarbakir. Çayönü is a Neolithic settlement in southern Turkey inhabited around 7200 to 6600 BC Other more recent findings, dated between 7,000 and 6,395 B. C. , come from Jericho and Catal Hüyük. Jericho ( Arabic, ʼArīḥā; Hebrew, Standard Yəriḥo Tiberian Yərîḫô Çatalhöyük (ʧɑtɑl højyk in Turkish also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without Diacritics çatal is Turkish From archaeological evidence, the invention of the fired brick (as opposed to the considerably earlier sun-dried mud brick) is believed to have arisen in about the third millennium BC in the Middle East. Being much more resistant to cold and moist weather conditions, brick enabled the construction of permanent buildings in regions where the harsher climate precluded the use of mud bricks. Bricks have the added warmth benefit of slowly storing heat energy from the sun during the day and continuing to release heat for several hours after sunset.
The Ancient Egyptians and the Indus Valley Civilization also used mudbrick extensively, as can be seen in the ruins of Buhen, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, for example. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin Buhen was an Ancient Egyptian settlement situated below the Second Cataract. Mohenjo-daro (موئن جودڑو موئن جو دڙو मोहन जोदड़ो Mound of the Dead was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization Harappa ( Urdu:, Hindi: हड़प्पा) is a City in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about 35km (22 miles southwest In the Indus Valley Civilization all bricks corresponded to sizes in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin A ratio is an expression which compares quantities relative to each other
In Sumerian times offerings of food and drink were presented to "the Bone god," who was "represented in the ritual by the first brick. " More recently, mortar for the foundations of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul was mixed with "a broth of barley and bark of elm" and sacred relics, accompanied by prayers, placed between every 12 bricks. Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later
The Romans made use of fired bricks, and the Roman legions, which operated mobile kilns, introduced bricks to many parts of the empire. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," Roman bricks are often stamped with the mark of the legion that supervised its production. Roman brick is a type of Brick with nominal dimensions of 12" x 4" x 2" (30 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm making it longer and narrower (621 ratio than most The use of bricks in Southern and Western Germany, for example, can be traced back to traditions already described by the Roman architect Vitruvius. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c 80–70 BC died after c 15 BC was a Roman Writer, Architect and Engineer (possibly praefectus fabrum
In pre-modern China, brick-making was the job of a lowly and unskilled artisan, but a kilnmaster was respected as a step above the latter. Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era  Early descriptions of the production process and glazing techniques used for bricks can be found in the Song Dynasty carpenter's manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 by the government official Li Jie, who was put in charge of overseeing public works for the central government's construction agency. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms The Yingzao Fashi (營造法式 'Treatise on Architectural Methods' or 'State Building Standards' is a technical treatise on architecture and craftsmanship written by the The historian Timothy Brook writes of the production process in Ming Dynasty China (aided with visual illustrations from the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedic text published in 1637):
. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Song Yingxing ( Traditional Chinese:宋應星 Simplified Chinese:宋应星 Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD was a Chinese Shebli1jpg|right|thumb|The tomb is located on top of a hill adjacent to Damavand For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. . . the kilnmaster had to make sure that the temperature inside the kiln stayed at a level that caused the clay to shimmer with the color of molten gold or silver. He also had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze. To anonymous laborers fell the less skilled stages of brick production: mixing clay and water, driving oxen over the mixture to trample it into a thick paste, scooping the paste into standardized wooden frames (to produce a brick roughly 42 centimeters long, 20 centimeters wide, and 10 centimeters thick), smoothing the surfaces with a wire-strung bow, removing them from the frames, printing the fronts and backs with stamps that indicated where the bricks came from and who made them, loading the kilns with fuel (likelier wood than coal), stacking the bricks in the kiln, removing them to cool while the kilns were still hot, and bundling them into pallets for transportation. It was hot, filthy work. 
The idea of signing one's name on one's work and signifying the place where the product was made—in this case, bricks—was nothing new to the Ming era and had little or nothing to do with vanity.  As far back as the Qin Dynasty (221 BC–206 BC), the government required blacksmiths and weapon-makers to engrave their names onto weapons in order to trace the weapon back to them, lest their weapons should prove to be of a lower quality than the standard required by the government. Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China blacksmith is a person who creates objects from Iron or Steel by Forging the Metal; i 
In the 12th century, bricks from Northern Italy were re-introduced to Northern Germany, where an independent tradition evolved. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest It culminated in the so-called brick Gothic, a reduced style of Gothic architecture that flourished in Northern Europe, especially in the regions around the Baltic Sea which are without natural rock resources. Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik is a reduced style of Gothic architecture common in Northern Europe, especially in Northern Germany and the regions around See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. Northern Europe is a term for the northern part of Europe. The United Nations defines Northern Europe as (Finland The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. Brick Gothic buildings, which are built almost exclusively of bricks, are to be found in Denmark, Germany, Poland and Russia. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
During the Renaissance and the Baroque, visible brick walls were unpopular and the brickwork was often covered with plaster. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Brickwork Masonry is produced when a Bricklayer uses Bricks and mortar to build up structures such as Walls Bridges and The term plaster can refer to plaster of Paris Lime plaster, or Cement plaster. It was only during the mid-18th century that visible brick walls regained some degree of popularity, as illustrated by the Dutch Quarter of Potsdam, for example. Also see Potsdam New York (in the USA For the Potsdam Conference see Potsdam Conference.
The transport in bulk of building materials such as paper over long distances was rare before the age of canals, railways, roads and heavy goods vehicles. Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany Before this time bricks were generally made as close as possible to their point of intended use. It has been estimated that in England in the eighteenth century carrying bricks by horse and cart for ten miles (16 km) over the poor roads then existing could more than double their price.
Bricks were often used, even in areas where stone was available, for reasons of speed and economy. The buildings of the Industrial Revolution in Britain were largely constructed of brick and timber due to the unprecedented demand created. Again, during the building boom of the nineteenth century in the eastern seaboard cities of Boston and New York, for example, locally made bricks were often used in construction in preference to the brownstones of New Jersey and Connecticut for these reasons. The City of New York Brownstone is a brown Triassic Sandstone which was once a popular Building material. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America.
The trend of building upwards for offices that emerged towards the end of the 19th century displaced brick in favor of cast and wrought iron and later steel and concrete. Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Some early 'skyscrapers' were made in masonry, and demonstrated the limitations of the material - for example, the Monadnock Building in Chicago (opened in 1896) is masonry and just seventeen stories high, the ground walls are almost 1. A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper The Monadnock Building, also known as Monadnock Block, is a historic proto-skyscraper in the Loop district of downtown Chicago, Illinois 8 meters thick, clearly building any higher would lead to excessive loss of internal floor space on the lower floors. Brick was revived for high structures in the 1950s following work by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the Building Research Establishment in Watford, UK. The Building Research Establishment (BRE is a former UK government establishment (but now a private organisation funded by the building industry that carries out research consultancy Watford (ˈwɒtfəd) is a town and district in Hertfordshire, England, situated 19 miles (30 km northwest of London This method produced eighteen story structures with bearing walls no thicker than a single brick (150-225 mm). This potential has not been fully developed because of the ease and speed in building with other materials, in the late-20th century brick was confined to low- or medium-rise structures or as a thin decorative cladding over concrete-and-steel buildings or for internal non-loadbearing walls.
Bricks may be made from clay, shale, soft slate, calcium silicate, concrete, or shaped from quarried stone. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Shale (also called mudstone) is a fine-grained Sedimentary rock whose original constituents were Clay minerals or Muds It is characterized by Calcium silicates are a set of four compounds obtained by reacting Calcium oxide and silica in various ratios
Clay is the most common material, with modern clay bricks formed in one of three processes - soft mud, dry press, or extruded.
In 2007 a new type of brick was invented, based on fly ash, a by-product of coal power plants. Fly ash is one of the residues generated in the Combustion of Coal. A fossil fuel power plant burns Fossil fuels such as Coal, Natural gas or Petroleum (oil to produce Electricity.
The soft mud method is the most common, as it is the most economical. It starts with the raw clay, preferably in a mix with 25-30% sand to reduce shrinkage. The clay is first ground and mixed with water to the desired consistency. The clay is then pressed into steel moulds with a hydraulic press. For the mechanical technology see Hydraulic machinery and Hydraulic cylinder Hydraulics is a topic of science and Engineering The shaped clay is then fired ("burned") at 900-1000 °C to achieve strength.
In modern brickworks, this is usually done in a continuously fired tunnel kiln, in which the bricks move slowly through the kiln on conveyors, rails, or kiln cars to achieve consistency for all bricks. Kilns are thermally insulated chambers or Ovens in which controlled temperature regimes are produced The bricks often have added lime, ash, and organic matter to speed the burning.
In Pakistan and India, brick making is typically a manual process. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The most common type of brick kiln in use there are Bull's Trench Kiln (BTK), based on a design developed by British engineer W. Bull in the late 1800s.
An oval or circular trench, 6-9 meters wide, 2-2. 5 meters deep, and 100-150 meters in circumference, is dug in a suitable location. A tall exhaust chimney is constructed in the center. Half or more of the trench is filled with "green" (unfired) bricks which are stacked in an open lattice pattern to allow airflow. The lattice is capped with a roofing layer of finished brick.
In operation, new green bricks, along with roofing bricks, are stacked at one end of the brick pile; cooled finished bricks are removed from the other end for transport. In the middle the brickworkers create a firing zone by dropping fuel (coal, wood, oil, debris, etc) through access holes in the roof above the trench.
The advantage of the BTK design is a much greater energy efficiency compared with clamp or scove kilns. Sheet metal or boards are used to route the airflow through the brick lattice so that fresh air flows first through the recently burned bricks, heating the air, then through the active burning zone. The air continues through the green brick zone (pre-heating and drying them), and finally out the chimney where the rising gases create suction which pulls air through the system. The reuse of heated air yields a considerable savings in fuel cost.
As with the rail process above, the BTK process is continuous. A half dozen laborers working around the clock can fire approximately 15,000-25,000 bricks a day. Unlike the rail process, in the BTK process the bricks do not move. Instead, the locations at which the bricks are loaded, fired, and unloaded gradually rotate through the trench. 
The dry press method is similar to mud brick but starts with a much thicker clay mix, so it forms more accurate, sharper-edged bricks. The greater force in pressing and the longer burn make this method more expensive.
In extruded bricks the clay mix is 20-25% water, this is forced through a die to create a long cable of material of the proper width and depth. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. A die is a specialized Tool used in Manufacturing industries to cut shape and form a wide variety of products and components This is then cut into bricks of the desired length by a wall of wires. Most structural bricks are made by this method, as hard dense bricks result, and holes or other perforations can be produced by the die. The introduction of holes reduces the needed volume of clay through the whole process, with the consequent reduction in cost. The bricks are lighter and easier to handle, and have thermal properties different from solid bricks. The cut bricks are hardened by drying for between 20 and 40 hours at 50-150 °C before being fired. The heat for drying is often waste heat from the kiln. Kilns are thermally insulated chambers or Ovens in which controlled temperature regimes are produced
The raw materials for calcium silicate bricks include lime mixed with quartz, crushed flint or crushed siliceous rock together with mineral colorants. Calcium silicates are a set of four compounds obtained by reacting Calcium oxide and silica in various ratios Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in Flint (or flintstone) is a hard sedimentary Cryptocrystalline form of the Mineral Quartz, categorized as a variety of Chert A colourant or colorant is something added to something else to cause a change in Colour. The materials are mixed and left until the lime is completely hydrated, the mixture is then pressed into moulds and cured in an autoclave for two or three hours to speed the chemical hardening. An autoclave is a pressurized device designed to heat aqueous solutions above their Boiling point at normal atmospheric pressure to achieve sterilization The finished bricks are very accurate and uniform, although the sharp arrises need careful handling to avoid damage to brick (and brick-layer). Arris is an architectural term that describes the sharp edge formed by the intersection of two surfaces such as the corner of a masonry unit; the junction between The bricks can be made in a variety of colours, white is common but a wide range of "pastel" shades can be achieved. .
In May 2007, Haoxaing Fei, a retired civil engineer, announced that he had invented a new brick composed of fly ash and water compressed at 4,000 psi (27,939 kPa) for two weeks. A civil engineer is a person who practices Civil engineering, one of the many engineering professions Fly ash is one of the residues generated in the Combustion of Coal. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. The pound per square inch or more accurately pound-force per square inch (symbol psi or lbf/in² or lbf/in²) is a unit of Owing to the high concentration of calcium oxide in fly ash, the brick is considered "self-cementing". Calcium oxide ( CaO) commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used Chemical compound. The brick is toughened using an air entrainment agent, which traps microscopic bubbles inside the brick so that it resists penetration by water, allowing it to withstand up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles. Air entrainment is the intentional creation of tiny Air Bubbles in Concrete. Since the manufacturing method uses a waste by-product rather than clay, and solidification takes place under pressure rather than heat, it has several important environmental benefits. It saves energy, reduces mercury pollution, alleviates the need for landfill disposal of fly ash, and costs 20% less than traditional clay brick manufacture. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum For other uses see Water treatment and Land reclamation. A landfill, also known as a dump (and historically as Liu intends to license his technology to manufacturers in 2008. 
The fired colour of clay bricks is significantly influenced by the chemical and mineral content of raw materials, the firing temperature and the atmosphere in the kiln. For example pink coloured bricks are the result of a high iron content, white or yellow bricks have a higher lime content. Most bricks burn to various red hues, if the temperature is increased the colour moves through dark red, purple and then to brown or grey at around 1300 °C. Calcium silicate bricks have a wider range of shades and colours, depending on the colorants used.
Bricks formed from concrete are usually termed blocks, and are typically pale grey in colour. Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag They are made from a dry, small aggregate concrete which is formed in steel moulds by vibration and compaction in either an "egglayer" or static machine. The finished blocks are cured rather than fired using low-pressure steam. Concrete blocks are manufactured in a much wider range of shapes and sizes than clay bricks and are also available with a wider range of face treatments - a number of which are to simulate the appearance of clay bricks.
An impervious and ornamental surface may be laid on brick either by salt glazing, in which salt is added during the burning process, or by the use of a "slip," which is a glaze material into which the bricks are dipped. Pottery referred to as salt glazed or salted is created by adding common salt, Sodium chloride, into the chamber of a hot Kiln Subsequent reheating in the kiln fuses the slip into a glazed surface integral with the brick base.
Natural stone bricks are of limited modern utility, due to their enormous comparative mass, the consequent foundation needs, and the time-consuming and skilled labour needed in their construction and laying. They are very durable and considered more handsome than clay bricks. Only a few stones are suitable for bricks. Common materials are granite, limestone and sandstone. Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. Other stones may be used (e. g. marble, slate, quartzite, etc. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Slate is a fine-grained foliated homogeneous, Metamorphic rock derived from an original Shale -type Sedimentary rock composed of Clay Quartzite (from German Quarzit) not to be confused with the Mineral Quartz, is a hard Metamorphic rock which was originally ) but these tend to be limited to a particular locality.
For efficient handling and laying bricks must be small enough and light enough to be picked up by the bricklayer using one hand (leaving the other hand free for the trowel). Bricks are usually laid flat and as a result the effective limit on the width of a brick is set by the distance which can conveniently be spanned between the thumb and fingers of one hand, normally about four inches (about 100 mm). Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to In most cases, the length of a brick is about twice its width, about eight inches (about 200 mm) or slightly more. This allows bricks to be laid bonded in a structure to increase its stability and strength (for an example of this, see the illustration of bricks laid in English bond, at the head of this article. Brickwork Masonry is produced when a Bricklayer uses Bricks and mortar to build up structures such as Walls Bridges and The wall is built using alternating courses of stretchers, bricks laid longways and headers, bricks laid crossways. The headers tie the wall together over its width.
The correct brick for a job can be picked from a choice of color, surface texture, density, weight, absorption and pore structure, thermal characteristics, thermal and moisture movement, and fire resistance.
|United States||8 × 4 × 2¼ inches||203 × 102 × 57 mm|
|United Kingdom||8½ × 4 × 2½ inches||215 × 102. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 5 × 65 mm|
|South Africa||8¾ × 4 × 3 inches||222 × 106 × 73 mm|
|Australia||9 × 4⅓ × 3 inches||230 × 110 × 76 mm|
In England, the length and the width of the common brick has remained fairly constant over the centuries, but the depth has varied from about two inches (about 51 mm) or smaller in earlier times to about two and a half inches (about 64 mm) more recently. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland In the United States, modern bricks are usually about 8 × 4 × 2. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 25 inches (203 × 102 × 57 mm). In the United Kingdom, the usual ("work") size of a modern brick is 215 × 102. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 5 × 65 mm (about 8. 5 × 4 × 2. 5 inches), which, with a nominal 10 mm mortar joint, forms a "coordinating" or fitted size of 225 × 112. 5 × 75 mm, for a ratio of 6:3:2.
Some brickmakers create innovative sizes and shapes for bricks used for plastering (and therefore not visible) where their inherent mechanical properties are more important than the visual ones.  These bricks are usually slightly larger, but not as large as blocks and offer the following advantages:
Blocks have a much greater range of sizes. Standard coordinating sizes in length and height (in mm) include 400×200, 450×150, 450×200, 450×225, 450×300, 600×150, 600×200, and 600×225; depths (work size, mm) include 60, 75, 90, 100, 115, 140, 150, 190, 200, 225, and 250. They are usable across this range as they are lighter than clay bricks. The density of solid clay bricks is around 2,000 kg/m³: this is reduced by frogging, hollow bricks, etc. ; but aerated autoclaved concrete, even as a solid brick, can have densities in the range of 450–850 kg/m³.
Bricks may also be classified as solid (less than 25% perforations by volume, although the brick may be "frogged," having indentations on one of the longer faces), perforated (containing a pattern of small holes through the brick removing no more than 25% of the volume), cellular (containing a pattern of holes removing more than 20% of the volume, but closed on one face), or hollow (containing a pattern of large holes removing more than 25% of the brick's volume). Blocks may be solid, cellular or hollow
The term "frog" for the indentation on one bed of the brick is a word that often excites curiosity as to its origin. The most likely explanation is that brickmakers also call the block that is placed in the mould to form the indentation a frog. Modern brickmakers usually use plastic frogs but in the past they were made of wood. When these are wet and have clay on them they resemble the amphibious kind of frog and this is where they got their name. Over time this term also came to refer to the indentation left by them. [Matthews 2006]
The compressive strength of bricks produced in the United States ranges from about 1000 lbf/in² to 15,000 lbf/in² (7 to 105 MPa or N/mm² ), varying according to the use to which the brick are to be put. In England clay bricks can have strengths of up to 100 MPa, although a common house brick is likely to show a range of 20–40 MPa.
In the early 1900s, most of the streets in the city of Grand Rapids, Michigan were paved with brick. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Today, there are only about 20 blocks of brick paved streets remaining (totaling less than 0. 5 percent of all the streets in the city limits). 
Bricks are used for building and pavement. In the USA, brick pavement was found incapable of withstanding heavy traffic, but it is coming back into use as a method of traffic calming or as a decorative surface in pedestrian precincts. Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by Urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce Traffic, thereby improving safety Car-free zones (also known as auto-free zones and pedestrian zones) are areas of a city or town in which automobile traffic is prohibited
Bricks are also used in the metallurgy and glass industries for lining furnaces. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many A furnace is a device used for Heating The name derives from Latin fornax, Oven. They have various uses, especially refractory bricks such as silica, magnesia, chamotte and neutral (chromomagnesite) refractory bricks. A refractory is a material that retains its strength at high Temperatures ASTM C71 defines refractories as "non-metallic materials having those chemical and physical The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Magnesia (Μαγνησία Magnisía, maɣniˈsia deriving from the tribe name Magnetes, is the name of the southeastern area of Thessaly Grog (also called firesand or chamotte) is a Ceramic raw material A fire brick, firebrick, or refractory brick is a block of refractory Ceramic material used in lining Furnaces Kilns This type of brick must have good thermal shock resistance, refractoriness under load, high melting point, and satisfactory porosity. Thermal shock is the name given to cracking as a result of rapid temperature change A refractory is a material that retains its strength at high Temperatures ASTM C71 defines refractories as "non-metallic materials having those chemical and physical Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material and is measured as a fraction between 0–1 or as a Percentage between 0–100% There is a large refractory brick industry, especially in the United Kingdom, Japan and the U.S.A.. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
In the United Kingdom, bricks have been used in construction for centuries. Until recently, many houses were built almost entirely from red bricks. This use is particularly common in areas of northern England and some outskirts of London, where rows of terraced houses were rapidly and cheaply built to house local workers. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. In Architecture and City planning, a terrace(d or row house or townhouse (though the latter term can also refer to Patio houses These houses have survived to the present day. Although many houses in the UK are now built using a mixture of concrete blocks and other materials, many houses are skinned with a layer of bricks on the outside for aesthetic appeal. A concrete masonry unit (CMU, concrete block, cement block or foundation block is a large rectangular Brick used in Construction
Brickwork, United States. Adobe bricks are a Natural building material made from Sand, Clay, water and some kind of fibrous or Organic material ( Sticks, Brick tinting is the process of physically tinting Bricks to either change the color or blend-in offending areas of brickwork with the surrounding Masonry. Brickwork Masonry is produced when a Bricklayer uses Bricks and mortar to build up structures such as Walls Bridges and The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός ( keramikos) A fire brick, firebrick, or refractory brick is a block of refractory Ceramic material used in lining Furnaces Kilns Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar, and the term "masonry" can also refer to the units themselves Mortar is a workable paste formed by mixture of Cement, Water and fine aggregate Masonry to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between A Millwall brick is an improvised weapon made of a manipulated Newspaper. A mudbrick is a firefree Brick made of Clay, or mud mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw Roman brick is a type of Brick with nominal dimensions of 12" x 4" x 2" (30 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm making it longer and narrower (621 ratio than most Wienerberger AG is the world’s largest producer of Bricks and No Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Brickwork Masonry is produced when a Bricklayer uses Bricks and mortar to build up structures such as Walls Bridges and The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Brick sculpturing on Thornbury Castle, Thornbury, near Bristol, England. Thornbury Castle is a castle in Thornbury South Gloucestershire, England. Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The chimneys were erected in 1514
Frauenkirche (Munich), erected 1468-1488, looking up at the towers
Mudéjar brick church tower in Teruel (14th c. A chimney is a system for venting hot Flue gases or Smoke from a Boiler, Stove, Furnace or Fireplace to the outside The Frauenkirche (full name Dom zu unserer lieben Frau, "Cathedral of Our Blessed Lady" is the largest church in the Bavarian capital of Mudéjar is the name given to the Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus, who remained in Christian territory after the Reconquista but were Teruel is a city in Aragon, Spain, the capital of Teruel Province. )
Porotherm style clay block brick