|Comune di Brescia|
Municipal coat of arms
Location of Brescia in Italy
|Elevation||150 m (492 ft)|
|Area||90 km² (35 sq mi)|
|Population (as of December 31, 2004)|
|- Density||2,135/km² (5,530/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET, UTC+1|
|Frazioni||Fornaci, Sant'Eufemia, San Polo, Urago Mella, Sant'Anna, Mompiano|
|Patron||Sts. Faustino and Giovita|
|- Day||February 15|
Brescia (Lombard: Brèsa) is a city in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. Eastern Lombard is a group of related dialects spoken in the eastern side of Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest It is situated at the foot of the Alps, between the Mella and the Naviglio, with a population of around 190,000. It is the second largest city in Lombardy, after the capital, Milan. Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy.
The city is the administrative capital of the Province of Brescia, one of the largest in Italy, with about 1,200,000 inhabitants. The Province of Brescia is a Province in Lombardy, Italy. It borders with the Province of Sondrio in the N and NW the Province of The ancient city of Brixia, Brescia has been an important regional centre since pre-Roman times and a number of Roman and medieval monuments are preserved, among which is the prominent castle. Brixia is the Latin name of the modern city of Brescia in Northern Italy. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC
The city is at the centre of the third-largest Italian industrial area, concentrating on mechanical and automotive engineering and machine tools. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Its companies are typically small or medium- sized enterprises, often with family managements. The financial sector is also a major employer, and the tourist trade benefits from the proximity of Lake Garda, Lake Iseo and the Alps. Lake Garda ( Italian Lago di Garda or Benaco) is the largest Lake in Italy. Lake Iseo or Lago d'Iseo or Sebino is the fourth largest Lake in Lombardy, Italy, fed by the Oglio river
The plan of the city is rectangular, and the streets intersect at right angles, a peculiarity handed down from Roman times, though the area enclosed by the medieval walls is larger than that of the Roman town, which occupied the eastern portion of the present one. The Piazza del Foro marks the site of the forum, and the museum on its north side is ensconced in a Corinthian temple with three cellae, by some attributed to Hercules, but more probably the Capitolium of the city, erected by Vespasian in AD 73 (if the inscription really belongs to the building, which was excavated in 1823. Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Vespasian ( November 17 9 &ndash June 23 79) was a Roman Emperor who The museum houses a famous bronze statue of Victory, found in 1826. Scanty remains of a building on the south side of the forum, called the curia, but which may have been a basilica, and of the theatre, east of the temple, still exist.
Different mythological versions of the foundation of Brescia exist: one assigns it to Hercules, while another attributes it to Altilia ("the other Ilium") by a fugitive from the siege of Troy. Brixia is the Latin name of the modern city of Brescia in Northern Italy. Hercules is the Roman name for the Mythical Greek hero Heracles, son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmena. Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or According to a further one, the founder was the king of the Ligures Cidnus, who had invaded the Padan Plain in the late Bronze Age. The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek:) were an ancient people who gave their name to Liguria The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Other scholars attribute the foundation to the Etruscans. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy
Invaded by the Gauls Cenomani, allied of the Insubri, in the 4th century BC, it became their capital; the city bcame Roman in 225 BC, when the Cenomani submitted to Virginia. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Cenomani ( Greek:, Strabo, Ptol;, Polyb) was an ancient tribe of the Cisalpine Gauls who occupied the tract north of the Padus The Insubres or Insubri were a population settled in Insubria, in what is now Lombardy. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. During the Carthaginian Wars Brixia was usually allied of the Romans: in 202 BC it was part of a Celt confederation against them, but, after a secret agreement, changed side and attacked by surprise the Insubri, destroying them. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient Events By place Carthage Accused of treason by the Carthaginians after being defeated by the Romans at the Battle of the Subsequently the city and the tribe entered peacefully in the Roman world as a faithful allied, maintaining a certain administrative freedom. In 89 BC it was recognized as civitas ("city") and in 41 BC received the Roman citizenship. Year 89 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo and Year 41 BC was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Augustus founded a civil (not a military) colony here in 27 BC, and he and Tiberius constructed an aqueduct to supply it. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The Roman Brixia had at least three temples, an aqueduct, an amphitheater, a forum with a further temple built under Vespasianus, and some baths. An amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is an open-air venue for spectator sports concerts rallies or theatrical performances Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Vespasian ( November 17 9 &ndash June 23 79) was a Roman Emperor who
When Constantine advanced against Maxentius in 312, an engagement took place at Brescia in which the enemy was forced to retreat as far as Verona. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius (c 278 - 28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312 Events By Place Roman Empire October 28 — Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius and Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. In 402 the city was ravaged by the Visigoths of Alaric I. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Stilicho recalls troops from the frontiers of the Roman Empire to The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Alaric I ( Alareiks in the original Gothic; Alarik or Alarich in modern Germanic languages Alaricus in Latin and Alarico During the invasion of the Huns under Attila, the city was again besieged and sacked (452) while, some forty years later, it was one of the first conquests of the Goth general Theoderic the Great in his war against Odoacer. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy Events By Place Western Roman Empire Attila, king of the Huns, invades Italy. Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the
In 568 or 569 Brescia was occupied by the Lombards, who made it the capital of one of their semi-independent duchies. Events By Place Europe April 1 — King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy refugees fleeing from them go on Events By Place Byzantine Empire The King of the Garamantes signs a peace treaty with Byzantium. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from First duke was one Alachis, who died in 573. Events By Place Europe The Battle of Arfderydd is fought between Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio and the sons of Eliffer Gwrgi and Later dukes included the future king Rotharis and Rodoald, and Alachis II, a fervent anti-Catholic who was killed in the batte of Cornate d'Adda (688). Rothari or Rothair, of the house of Arodus, was King of the Lombards from 636 to 652 previously he had been duke of Brescia. Rodoald (or Rodwald) was a Lombard king of Italy, who succeeded his father Rothari on the throne in 652 Cornate d'Adda is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Milan in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 30 km northeast of For the submarine see Los Angeles class submarine. ---- Events By Place Europe Emperor Justinian II The last king of the Lombard, Desiderius, had been also duke of Brescia. Desiderius (also known as Daufer or Dauferius; Didier in French and Desiderio in Italian) was the last king of the In 774 Charlemagne captured the city and ended the existence of the Lombard kingdom in northern Italy. Events By Place Europe Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his
Notingus was the first (prince-)bishop (in 844) who bore the title of Count (see Bishopric of Brescia). Events By Place Europe Rhodri ''Mawr'' ('the Great' becomes king of Gwynedd. A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin Later the power of the bishop as imperial representative was gradually defied by the local citizens and nobles, Brescia becoming a free commune around the early 12th century. Subsequently it expanded in the nearby countryside, first at the expenses of the local landholders, and later against the neighbouring communes, notably Bergamo and Cremona. Bergamo ( Bèrghem in Lombard, antiquated Wälsch-Bergen in German) is a town in Lombardy, Italy, about Cremonese redirects here For the football team see US Cremonese Cremona is a City in northern Italy, situated Brescia defeated the latter two times at Pontoglio, and then at the Grumore (mid-12th century) and in the battle of the Malamorte(Bad Death) (1192).
In the successive struggles between the Lombard cities and the emperors, Brescia was implicated in some of the leagues and in all of the uprisings against them. In the Battle of Legnano the contingent from Brescia was the second in size after that of Milan. The Battle of Legnano was fought on May 29 1176 between the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, led by emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. The Peace of Constance (1183) that ended the war with Frederick Barbarossa confirmed officially the free status of the commune. The Peace of Constance of 1183 was signed in Konstanz by Frederick Barbarossa and representatives of the Lombard League. Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 &ndash 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned In 1201 the podestà Rambertino Buvalelli made peace and established a league with Cremona, Bergamo, and Mantua. For information on the phantom island of the same name see Podesta (island. Rambertino di Guido Buvalelli (1170/1180 &ndash September 1221 a Bolognese judge statesman diplomat and poet was the earliest of the Podestà - Cremonese redirects here For the football team see US Cremonese Cremona is a City in northern Italy, situated Bergamo ( Bèrghem in Lombard, antiquated Wälsch-Bergen in German) is a town in Lombardy, Italy, about Mantua (Màntova in the local dialect of Lombard language Mantua is a city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province of the Memorable is also the siege laid to Brescia by the emperor Frederick II in 1238 on account of the part taken by this city in the battle of Cortenova (27 November 1237). The Siege of Brescia occurred in 1238. The Guelphs were attempting to take the town of Brescia. Frederick II ( December 26, 1194 &ndash December 13, 1250) of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was a Pretender to the title The Battle of Cortenuova was fought on 27 November, 1237, when Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II defeated the Lombard League. Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont Brescia came through this assault victorious. After the fall of the Hohenstaufen, republican institutions declined at Brescia as in the other free cities and the leadership was contested between powerful families, chief among them the Maggi and the Brusati, the latter of the (pro-imperial, anti-papal) Ghibelline party. The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting respectively the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy In 1258 it fell into the hands of Eccelino of Verona.
In 1311 Emperor Henry VII laid siege to Brescia for six months, losing three-fourths of his army. Henry VII ( Heinrich; c 1275 (or 1279 &ndash 24 August 1313) was the King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Later the Scaliger of Verona, aided by the exiled Ghibellines, sought to place Brescia under subjection. The citizens of Brescia then recoursed to John of Luxemburg, but Mastino II della Scala expelled the governor appointed by him. John the Blind ( Luxembourgish: Jang de Blannen; German: Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg Mastino II della Scala (1308 – June 3, 1351) was lord of Verona. His mastery was soon contested by the Visconti of Milan, but not even their rule was undisputed, as Pandolfo Malatesta in 1406 took possession of the city, but in 1416 bartered it to Filippo Maria Visconti, who in 1426 sold it to the Venetians. Pandolfo Malatesta is the name of four members of the Italian House of Malatesta: Pandolfo I Malatesta (c Filippo Maria Visconti, ( September 23, 1392 &ndash August 13, 1447) was ruler of Milan from 1412 to 1447 The Milanese nobles forced Filippo to resume hostilities against the Venetians, and thus to attempt the recovery of this city, but he was defeated in the battle of Maclodio (1427), near Brescia. The Battle of Maclodio was fought on 11 October 1427, resulting in a victory for the Venetians under Carmagnola over the Milanese In 1439 Brescia was once more besieged by Francesco Sforza, captain of the Venetians, who defeated Niccolò Piccinino, Filippo's condottiero. Francesco I Sforza ( July 23, 1401 - March 8, 1466) was an Italian Condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Niccolò Piccinino ( 1386 - October 15 1444) was an Italian Condottiero. Condottieri (singular condottiero, rarely condottiero) were Mercenary leaders employed by the Italian City-states from the Late Middle Thenceforward Brescia acknowledged the authority of Venice, with the exception of the years between 1512 and 1520, when it was occupied by the French armies under Gaston of Foix, Duke of Nemours. Gaston de Foix Duc de Nemours ( 10 December 1489 &ndash 11 April 1512) also known as The Thunderbolt of Italy was a French Early in the 16th century it was one of the wealthiest cities of Lombardy, but has never recovered from its sack by the French. It subsequently shared the fortunes of the Venetian republic until 1796, when it came under Austrian dominion. Year 1796 ( MDCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
After the end of the Napoleonic era, Brescia was annexed to the Austrian puppet state called Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto Lombardo-Venezianisches Königreich was a kingdom in northern Italy, and part of the Austrian Empire. Brescia revolted in 1848. It distinguished again for the revolt called the Ten Days of Brescia (march 1849), for which the poet Giosuè Carducci called it "Leonessa d'Italia" ("Italian Lioness"), being the only Lombard town to rally to Charles Albert in the latter year; but was taken after ten days' obstinate street fighting by the Austrians under Haynau. The Ten Days of Brescia was a revolt which broke out in the northern Italian city of that name which lasted from March 23 to April 1 1849. Giosuè Carducci (pseudonym Enotrio Romano ( July 27, 1835 – February 16, 1907) was an Italian poet oft reckoned one of Italy's greatest
In 1769 the city was devastated when the Church of San Nazaro was struck by lightning. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or The resulting fire ignited 200,000 lb (90,000 kg) of gunpowder being stored there, causing a massive explosion which destroyed one sixth of the city and killed 3,000 people. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes
Brescia was annexed to Italy in 1859.
The city was awarded a Gold Medal for its resistance against Fascism, in World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
On May 28, 1974, it was the seat of the bloody Piazza della Loggia bombing. Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The Piazza della Loggia bombing was a bombing that took place on the morning of May 28, 1974, in Brescia, Italy during a anti-fascist
The city has no less than seventy-two public fountains. The stone quarries of Mazzano, 20 km east of Brescia, supplied marble for the Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II in Rome. See also Mazzano Romano. Mazzano is a commune in the Province of Brescia, in Lombardy. The Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (National Monument of Victor Emmanuel II or Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland or "Il Vittoriano"
Brescia is the start and the arrival of the historical car race Mille Miglia that takes place every year in May and also the now defunct Coppa Florio, one of the first ever sport motor races. The Mille Miglia (Thousand Miles - pronounced 'miʎʎa was an open-road endurance race which took place in Italy twenty-four times from 1927 to 1957 (thirteen Coppa Florio was an Italian car race started in 1900 and renamed in 1905 when Vincenzo Florio offered the initial 50 000 Lira and a cup designed It is also the home of Brescia Calcio football club and Rugby Leonessa 1928. Brescia Calcio is a football club based in Brescia, Italy. The club was formed in 1911 and currently plays in the Italian Serie B, having Rugby Leonessa 1928 is an Italian Rugby union club currently competing in Italy's Serie A
Sight of the city center
Crystal Palace, Brescia
Old and New Cathedrals in Brescia
Capitol Hill Temple, Brescia
Plant of La Rotonda (Cathedral)
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The University of Brescia ( Italian: Università degli Studi di Brescia, UNIBS) is a college situated in Brescia, Italy. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913. The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language Encyclopedia published by The Encyclopedia