|Human female's breast|
|Latin||mamma (cf. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. mammal f. L mammalis "of the breast")|
|Artery||internal thoracic artery|
|Vein||internal thoracic vein|
The term breast refers to the upper ventral region of an animal’s torso, particularly that of mammals, including human beings. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Arteries are Blood vessels that carry blood away from the Heart. In Human anatomy, the internal thoracic artery ( ITA) previously known as the internal mammary artery (a name still common among Surgeons, is In the Circulatory system, a vein is a Blood vessel that carries Blood back toward the Heart (as opposed to Artery, a blood vessel In Human anatomy, the internal thoracic vein (previously known as the internal mammary vein) is a vessel that drains the Chest wall and Mamma Torso is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human from which extend the neck and limbs Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus The breasts of a female primate’s body contain the mammary glands, which secrete milk used to feed infants. A primate is a member of the biological order Primates ( Latin: "prime first rank" the group that contains Lemurs the Aye-aye Mammary glands are the organs that in Mammals produce Milk for the sustenance of the young Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. This article deals with the human breast; for other animals, see udder and mammary gland. An Udder is the mammary organ of Female Cattle and some other Mammals including Goats and Sheep. Mammary glands are the organs that in Mammals produce Milk for the sustenance of the young
Breasts are more visible on adult women, but male humans also have breasts which, although usually less prominent, are structurally identical (homologous) to the female, as they develop embryologically from the same tissues. In Evolutionary biology, homology has come to mean any similarity between characters that is due to their shared ancestry. Embryology (from Greek grc ἔμβρυον embryon, "unborn embryo" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the development
The breasts are modified sudoriferous (sweat) glands, producing milk in women, and in some rare cases, men. The skin is the outer covering of living tissue of an animal (or plant The skin contains two different groups of sweat glands: Apocrine sweat glands and Merocrine sweat glands. Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes.  Each breast has one nipple surrounded by the areola. In its most general form a nipple is a Structure from which a fluid emanates This aritcle is about the breast tissue For the Entomology term see Glossary of Lepidopteran_terms#Wings. The areola is colored from pink to dark brown and has several sebaceous glands. The sebaceous glands are Glands found in the Skin of Mammals Locations and morphology A branched type of Acinar gland, these In women, the larger mammary glands within the breast produce the milk. Mammary glands are the organs that in Mammals produce Milk for the sustenance of the young They are distributed throughout the breast, with two-thirds of the tissue found within 30 mm of the base of the nipple.  These are drained to the nipple by between 4 and 18 lactiferous ducts, where each duct has its own opening. The network formed by these ducts is complex, like the tangled roots of a tree. It is not always arranged radially, and branches close to the nipple. The ducts near the nipple do not act as milk reservoirs; Ramsay et al. have shown that conventionally described lactiferous sinuses do not, in fact, exist.
The remainder of the breast is composed of connective tissue (collagen and elastin), adipose tissue (fat), and Cooper's ligaments. Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, Muscle, and Nervous tissue) Collagen is the main Protein of Connective tissue in Animals and the most abundant protein in Mammals making up about 50% of the whole-body protein Elastin is a Protein in Connective tissue that is elastic and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting "Adipose" redirects here For the Doctor Who monster see " Partners in Crime " Cooper's ligaments (also known as the suspensory ligaments of Cooper and the fibrocollegenous septa) are Connective tissue in the Breast that The ratio of glands to adipose tissues rises from 1:1 in nonlactating women to 2:1 in lactating women. 
The breasts sit over the pectoralis major muscle and usually extend from the level of the 2nd rib to the level of the 6th rib anteriorly. The Pectoralis major (popularly known as pecs) is a thick fan-shaped muscle situated at the upper front ( Anterior) of the Chest wall The superior lateral quadrant of the breast extends diagonally upwards towards the axillae and is known as the tail of Spence. The axilla (or armpit, underarm, or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the Arm connects to the Shoulder The Tail of Spence (or Spence's tail) is an extension of the tissue of the Breast which extends into the Axilla. A thin layer of mammary tissue extends from the clavicle above to the seventh or eighth ribs below and from the midline to the edge of the latissimus dorsi posteriorly. Mammary glands are the organs that in Mammals produce Milk for the sustenance of the young The latissimus dorsi (plural latissimi dorsi is the large flat dorso-lateral muscle on the trunk posterior to the arm and partly covered by the Trapezius on its median (For further explanation, see anatomical terms of location. In fields of Anatomy, anatomical terms of location are descriptive terms to help identify relative positions or directions within a species )
The arterial blood supply to the breasts is derived from the internal thoracic artery (formerly called the internal mammary artery), lateral thoracic artery, thoracoacromial artery, and posterior intercostal arteries. Arteries are Blood vessels that carry blood away from the Heart. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" In Human anatomy, the internal thoracic artery ( ITA) previously known as the internal mammary artery (a name still common among Surgeons, is In Human anatomy, the lateral thoracic artery (or external mammary artery) is a Blood vessel that supplies oxygenated Blood to the lateral structures The thoracoacromial artery ( acromiothoracic artery; thoracic axis) is a short trunk which arises from the forepart of the Axillary artery, its origin being The venous drainage of the breast is mainly to the axillary vein, but there is some drainage to the internal thoracic vein and the intercostal veins. In the Circulatory system, a vein is a Blood vessel that carries Blood back toward the Heart (as opposed to Artery, a blood vessel In Human anatomy, the axillary vein is a large Blood vessel that conveys Blood from the lateral aspect of the Thorax, Axilla In Human anatomy, the internal thoracic vein (previously known as the internal mammary vein) is a vessel that drains the Chest wall and Mamma Both sexes have a large concentration of blood vessels and nerves in their nipples. The blood vessels are part of the Circulatory system and function to transport Blood throughout the body The nipples of both women and men can become erect in response to sexual stimuli, and also to cold.
The breast is innervated by the anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the fourth through sixth intercostal nerves. The peripheral nervous system ( PNS) resides or extends outside the Central nervous system (CNS which consists of the Brain and Spinal cord. A nerve is an enclosed cable-like bundle of peripheral Axons (the long slender projections of Neurons. The nipple is supplied by the T4 dermatome. A Dermatome is an area of Skin associated with a pair of Dorsal roots from the spine
About 75% of lymph from the breast travels to the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes. The lymphatic system in Vertebrates is a network of conduits that carry a clear fluid called Lymph. A Lymph node ( lɪmf noʊd is an organ consisting of many types of cells and is a part of the Lymphatic system. The rest travels to parasternal nodes, to the other breast, or abdominal lymph nodes. The axillary nodes include the pectoral, subscapular, and humeral groups of lymph nodes. These drain to the central axillary lymph nodes, then to the apical axillary lymph nodes. The Axillary lymph nodes are of large size vary from twenty to thirty in number and may be arranged in the following groups Brachial lymph nodes (or "lateral" The lymphatic drainage of the breasts is particularly relevant to oncology, since breast cancer is a common cancer and cancer cells can break away from a tumour and spread to other parts of the body through the lymph system by metastasis. Oncology is the branch of medicine that studies Tumors ( Cancer) and seeks to understand their development diagnosis treatment and prevention Breast cancer is a Cancer that starts in the cells of the Breast in women and men Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled See also Cancer A tumor or tumour is the name for a swelling or lesion formed by an abnormal growth of cells (termed neoplastic Metastasis ( Greek: displacement μετά=next + στάσις=placement, plural metastases) sometimes abbreviated mets,
Breasts vary in both size and shape, and their external appearance is not predictive of their internal anatomy or lactation potential. The shape of a woman’s breasts is in large part dependent on their support, which primarily comes from the Cooper's ligaments, and the underlying chest on which they rest. The breast is attached at its base to the chest wall by the deep fascia over the pectoral muscles. On its upper surface it is given some support by the covering skin where it continues on to the upper chest wall. It is this support which determines the shape of the breasts. In a small fraction of women, the frontal milk sinuses (ampulla) in the breasts are not flush with the surrounding breast tissue, which causes the sinus area to visibly bulge outward.
In discussing the support of breasts, it is helpful to draw a distinction between breasts which rest on the chest below, and those which do not. High, rounded breasts protrude almost horizontally from the chest wall. All breasts are like this in early stages of development, and such a shape is common in younger women and girls. This protruding or “high” breast is anchored to the chest at its base, and the weight is distributed evenly over the area of the base of the approximately dome- or cone-shaped breasts.
In the “low” breast, a proportion of the breasts’ weight is actually supported by the chest against which the lower breast surface comes to rest, as well as the deep anchorage at the base. The weight is thus distributed over a larger area, which has the effect of reducing the strain. In both males and females, the thoracic cavity slopes progressively outwards from the thoracic inlet (at the top of the breastbone) above to the lowest ribs which mark its lower boundary, allowing it to support the breasts. The thoracic cavity (or chest cavity) is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies that is protected by the Thoracic wall ( Thoracic cage The sternum (from Greek στέρνον sternon, "chest" or breastbone) is a long flat Bone located in the center of the thorax (chest
The inframammary fold (or line, or crease) is an anatomic structure created by adherence between elements in the skin and underlying connective tissue and represents the inferior extent of breast anatomy. Inframammary fold (IMF inframammary crease or inframammary line is the feature of Human anatomy which is a natural boundary of a Breast from Some teenagers may develop breasts whose skin comes into contact with the chest below the fold at an early age, and some women may never develop such breasts; both situations are perfectly normal. The relationship of the nipple position to the fold is described as ptosis, a term also applied to other body parts and which refers in general to drooping or sagging. Breast Ptosis, or sagging Breasts is a medical term for the drooping or sagging of the breast Due to breast weight and relaxation of support structures, the nipple-areola complex and breast tissue may eventually hang below the fold, and in some cases the breasts may extend as far as, or even beyond, the navel. The length from the nipple to the sternal notch (central, upper border) in the youthful breast averages 21 cm and is a common anthropometric figure used to assess both breast symmetry and ptosis. Anthropometry ( Greek άνθρωπος man and μέτρον measure literally meaning "measurement of humans" in Physical anthropology, refers to the Lengthening of both this measurement and the distance between the nipple and the fold are both characteristic of advancing grades of ptosis.
The end of the breast, which includes the nipple, may either be flat (a 180 degree angle) or angled (angles lower than 180 degrees). Breast ends are rarely angled sharper than 60 degrees. Angling of the end of the breast is caused in part by the ligaments that suspend it, such that the breast ends often have a more obtuse angle when a woman is lying on her back. Breasts exist in a range of ratios between length and base diameter, usually ranging from ½ to 1.
The development of a girl's breasts during puberty is triggered by sex hormones, chiefly estrogen. Thelarche is the first stage of secondary (postnatal Breast development usually occurring at the beginning of Puberty in girls Sex steroids, also known as gonadal steroids, are Steroid hormones that interact with Vertebrate Androgen or Estrogen receptors Estrogens (US otherwise oestrogens or œstrogens) are a group of Steroid compounds named for their importance in the Estrous cycle, This hormone has been demonstrated to cause the development of woman-like, enlarged breasts in men, a condition called gynecomastia, and is sometimes used deliberately for this effect in transwomen who receive hormone replacement therapy. Gynecomastia, or gynaecomastia, ˌgaɪnəkoʊˈmæstiə is the development of abnormally large Mammary glands in Males resulting in breast enlargement which A transwoman (also spelled trans woman or trans-woman) is a male-to-female transsexual and the term transwoman is preferred by many such Hormone replacement therapy ( HRT) for Transgender and Transsexual people replaces the Hormones naturally occurring in their bodies with those
In most cases, the breasts fold down over the chest wall during Tanner stage development, as shown in this diagram. The Tanner stages (also known as the Tanner scale) are stages of physical development in Children, Adolescents and Adults The stages  It is typical for a woman’s breasts to be unequal in size particularly while the breasts are developing. Statistically it is slightly more common for the left breast to be the larger.  In rare cases, the breasts may be significantly different in size, or one breast may fail to develop entirely.
A large number of medical conditions are known to cause abnormal development of the breasts during puberty. Virginal breast hypertrophy is a condition which involves excessive growth of the breasts, and in some cases the continued growth beyond the usual pubescent age. Virginal breast hypertrophy (VBH is not a medical name but the more known name for juvenile macromastia and juvenile Gigantomastia. Breast hypoplasia is a condition where one or both breasts fail to develop. Hypoplasia is underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ
In Cameroon, some girls are subjected to breast ironing to stunt breast growth in order to make them less sexually attractive in the belief that this makes them less likely to become a victim of rape. The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa. Breast ironing is a form of Body modification practiced in parts of Cameroon. Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person
As breasts are mostly composed of adipose tissue, their size can change over time. This occurs for a number of reasons, most obviously when a girl grows during puberty and when a woman becomes pregnant. Pregnancy ( Latin graviditas) is the carrying of one or more offspring known as a Fetus or Embryo, inside the Uterus of a Female The breast size may also change if she gains (or loses) weight for any other reason. Any rapid increase in size of the breasts can result in the appearance of stretchmarks. " Striae " is also a general term referring to thin narrow grooves or channels or a thin line or band especially if several of them are parallel or close together
It is typical for a number of other changes to occur during pregnancy: in addition to becoming larger, the breasts generally become firmer, mainly due to hypertrophy of the mammary gland in response to the hormone prolactin. Hypertrophy is the increase of the size of an organ or in a select area of the tissue Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body Prolactin ( PRL) or Luteotropic hormone ( LTH) is a Peptide hormone primarily associated with Lactation. The size of the nipples may increase noticeably and their pigmentation may become darker. These changes may continue during breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is the feeding of an Infant or young Child with Breast milk directly from human Breasts, not from a Baby bottle or other The breasts generally revert to approximately their previous size after pregnancy, although there may be some increased sagging and stretchmarks.
The size of a woman’s breasts usually fluctuates during the menstrual cycle, particularly with premenstrual water retention. The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive-age Females Overt menstruation (where there is blood flow from the Premenstrual water retention is a common phenomenon associated with the Menstrual cycle. An increase in breast size is a common side effect of use of the combined oral contraceptive pill. In Medicine, an adverse effect is a harmful and undesired effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as Chemotherapy or Surgery.
The breasts naturally sag through aging, as the ligaments become elongated. Ageing or aging (American English is the accumulation of changes in an organism In Anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures Fibrous tissue that connects Bones to other bones
The primary function of mammary glands is to nurture young by producing breast milk. Breastfeeding is the feeding of an Infant or young Child with Breast milk directly from human Breasts, not from a Baby bottle or other Mammary glands are the organs that in Mammals produce Milk for the sustenance of the young Breast milk refers to the Milk produced by a mother to feed her baby The production of milk is called lactation. Lactation describes the secretion of Milk from the Mammary glands the process of providing that milk to the young and the period of time that a Mother (While the mammary glands that produce milk are present in the male, they normally remain undeveloped. ) The orb-like shape of breasts may help limit heat loss, as a fairly high temperature is required for the production of milk. Alternatively, one theory states that the shape of the human breast evolved in order to prevent infants from suffocating while feeding.  Since human infants do not have a protruding jaw like human evolutionary ancestors and other primates, the infant’s nose might be blocked by a flat female chest while feeding.  According to this theory, as the human jaw receded, the breasts became larger to compensate. 
Milk production unrelated to pregnancy can also occur. This galactorrhea may be an adverse effect of some medicinal drugs (such as some antipsychotic medication), extreme physical stress or endocrine disorders. Galactorrhea or galactorrhoea is the spontaneous flow of Milk from the Breast, unassociated with Childbirth or nursing In Medicine, an adverse effect is a harmful and undesired effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as Chemotherapy or Surgery. If it occurs in men it is called male lactation. The phenomenon of male Lactation in humans has become more common in recent years due to the use of Medications that stimulate a man's Mammary glands Though Newborn babies are often capable of lactation because they receive the hormones prolactin and oxytocin via the mother's bloodstream, filtered through the placenta. Prolactin ( PRL) or Luteotropic hormone ( LTH) is a Peptide hormone primarily associated with Lactation. Oxytocin ( IPA: /ˌɔksɪˈtoʊsɪn/ (Greek "quick birth" is a Mammalian Hormone that also acts as a Neurotransmitter in the The placenta is an Ephemeral organ present in placental Vertebrates, such as Eutherial Mammals and Sharks during Gestation This neonatal liquid is known colloquially as witch's milk. Witch's milk or neonatal milk is Milk secreted from the Breasts of some Newborn infants It is the result of influence by the mother's Hormones
Breasts play an important part in human sexual behavior. Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display They are one of most visible or obvious female secondary sex characteristics,. Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two Sexes of a species but that are not directly part of the Reproductive system. Compared to other primates, human breasts are proportionately large throughout adult females' lives and may have evolved as a visual signal of sexual maturity and fertility.  On sexual arousal breast size increases, venous patterns across the breasts become more visible, and nipples harden. In the Circulatory system, a vein is a Blood vessel that carries Blood back toward the Heart (as opposed to Artery, a blood vessel Breasts are sensitive to touch as they have many nerve endings, and it is common to press or massage breasts with hands during sexual intercourse.  Oral stimulation of nipples and breasts is also common. Oral stimulation of nipples is a Human Sexual practice. Typically one person will Orally stimulate the Nipples of another person Some women can achieve breast orgasms. An orgasm (sexual climax is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and may be experienced by both males and females In the ancient Indian work the Kama Sutra, marking breasts with nails and biting with teeth are explained as erotic. The Kama Sutra ( Sanskrit: कामसूत्र (alternative spellings Kamasutram or simply Kamasutra) is an ancient Indian 
See also: Mammary intercourse.
Zoologists point out that no female mammal other than the human has breasts of comparable size, relative to the rest of the body, when not lactating and that humans are the only primate that has permanently swollen breasts. Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of A primate is a member of the biological order Primates ( Latin: "prime first rank" the group that contains Lemurs the Aye-aye This suggests that the external form of the breasts is connected to factors other than lactation alone.
Some zoologists (notably Desmond Morris) believe that the shape of female breasts evolved as a frontal counterpart to that of the buttocks, the reason being that whilst other primates mate in the rear-entry position, humans, because of their upright posture, are more likely to successfully copulate by mating face to face, the so-called missionary position. For the Australian rugby league footballer coach and administrator see Des Morris Desmond John Morris (born 24 January 1928 The buttocks (singular buttock) are rounded portions of the anatomy located on the posterior of the Pelvic region of the Apes including Humans Doggy style is a sex position in which the receiving partner crouches on all fours with the legs slightly spread while the penetrating partner penetrates In Biology, mating is the pairing of opposite- Sex or hermaphroditic Organisms for copulation and in Social animals also to raise their The missionary position is a male-superior (man on top Sex position in which the woman lies on her back and the partners face each other Morris suggested in 1967 that a secondary sexual characteristic on a woman’s chest would have encouraged this in more primitive incarnations of the human race, and a face on encounter may have helped found a relationship between partners beyond merely a sexual one.  However, this theory has since been generally disregarded due to the discovery that other primates, such as orangutans, routinely mate in the face-to-face position even though the females do not have prominent breasts.
Historically, breasts have been regarded as fertility symbols, because they are the source of life-giving milk. A fertility symbol is an object used by early Historical Human Societies representing Fertility. Certain prehistoric female statuettes—so-called Venus figurines — often emphasised the breasts, as in the example of the Venus of Willendorf or the "Snake Goddess" of Minoan civilization. Venus figurines is an Umbrella term for a number of prehistoric Statuettes of women sharing common attributes (many depicted as apparently Obese The Venus of Willendorf, also known as the Woman of Willendorf, is an 11 The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. In historic times, goddesses such as Ishtar were shown with many breasts, alluding to their role as protectors of childbirth and mothering. Ishtar ( D IŠTAR 𒀭𒌋𒁯 is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to The legendary tribe of Amazons bared their breasts, and in some accounts removed one breast to allow better combat and archery. The Amazons (in Greek, grc Ἀμαζόνες are a nation of all-female warriors in Classical and Greek mythology, who were possibly historical
Some religions afford the breast a special status, either in formal teachings or in symbolism. Islam forbids public exposure of the female breasts. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.  In Christian iconography, some works of art depict women with their breasts in their hands or on a platter, signifying that they died as a martyr by having their breasts severed; one example of this is Saint Agatha of Sicily. Christianity has used symbols from its very beginnings Each Saint has a story and a reason why he or she led an exemplary life For communities named after St Agatha see Sainte-Agathe. Saint Agatha of Sicily or Saint Agatha (died 251 is a Christian In Silappatikaram, Kannagi tears off her left breast and flings it on Madurai, cursing it, causing a devastating fire. Silappatikaram ( Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்; siləppəd̪iɡɑːrəm is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature Kannagi or (Kaṇṇaki (கண்ணகி a Legendary Tamil woman is the central character of the South Indian epic Silapathikaram Madurai
Breasts are secondary sex characteristics and sexually sensitive. Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two Sexes of a species but that are not directly part of the Reproductive system. Bare female breasts can elicit heightened sexual desires from men and women. Libido in its common usage means Sexual desire however more technical definitions such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general referring to libido Cultures that associate the breast primarily with sex (as opposed to with breastfeeding) tend to designate bare breasts as indecent, and they are not commonly displayed in public, in contrast to male chests. Decency is conformity to sociocultural standards of conduct and speech Other cultures view female toplessness as acceptable, and in some countries women have never been forbidden to bare their chests; in some African cultures, for example, the thigh is highly sexualised and never exposed in public, but the breast is not taboo. A taboo is a strong Social prohibition (or ban) against words objects actions or discussions that are considered undesirable or offensive by a group culture Opinion on the exposure of breasts often depends on the place and context, and in some Western societies exposure of breasts on a beach may be acceptable, although in town centres, for example, it is usually considered indecent. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings In some areas the prohibition against the display of a woman’s breasts only restricts exposure of the nipples. In its most general form a nipple is a Structure from which a fluid emanates
Women in some areas and cultures are approaching the issue of breast exposure as one of sexual equality, since men (and pre-pubescent children) may bare their chests, but women and teenage girls are forbidden. Gender equality (also known as gender equity, gender egalitarianism, or sexual equality) is the goal of the Equality of the Genders In the United States, the topfree equality movement seeks to redress this imbalance. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Topfreedom is a Social movement seeking the recognition of a right of women and girls to be topfree in public where men and boys have that right This movement won a decision in 1992 in the New York State Court of Appeals—“People v. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Santorelli”, where the court ruled that the state’s indecent exposure laws do not ban women from being barebreasted. A similar movement succeeded in most parts of Canada in the 1990s. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page In Australia and much of Europe it is acceptable for women and teenage girls to sunbathe topless on some public beaches and swimming pools, but these are generally the only public areas where exposing breasts is acceptable. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
When breastfeeding a baby in public, legal and social rules regarding indecent exposure and dress codes, as well as inhibitions of the woman, tend to be relaxed. Breastfeeding is the feeding of breastmilk to a child directly from mouth to breast contact See also Public indecency, Exhibitionism Indecent exposure is the deliberate exposure by a person of a portion or portions of his or her own body under Clothing is an aspect of Human physical appearance, and like other aspects of human physical appearance it has social significance Numerous laws around the world have made public breastfeeding legal and disallow companies from prohibiting it in the workplace. Yet the public reaction at the sight of breastfeeding can make the situation uncomfortable for those involved.
See also modesty, nudism and exhibitionism. Standards of modesty (also called demureness or reticence) are aspects of the Culture of a Country or people at a given point in time Naturism or nudism is a cultural and Political movement advocating and defending social Nudity in private and in public. Although the implications of each may overlap in special circumstances generally exhibitionism is not to be confused with Indecent exposure.
Since the breasts are flexible, their shape may be affected by clothing, and foundation garments in particular. A foundation garment (also known as shapewear or shape-wear) is an Undergarment designed to change the wearer's shape producing a more fashionable figure A brassiere (bra) may be worn to give additional support and to alter the shape of the breasts. brassiere ( Brit /'bɹæzɪə(ɹ/ US /bɹə'ziɹ/ commonly referred to as a bra, /bɹɑ/ is an article of clothing that covers supports and elevates There is some debate over whether such support is desirable. A long term clinical study showed that women with large breasts can suffer shoulder pain as a result of bra straps, although a well fitting bra should support most of the breasts’ weight with proper sized cups and back band rather than on the shoulders. brassiere ( Brit /'bɹæzɪə(ɹ/ US /bɹə'ziɹ/ commonly referred to as a bra, /bɹɑ/ is an article of clothing that covers supports and elevates
Plastic surgical procedures of the breast include those for both cosmetic and reconstructive surgery indications. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty interested in the correction of form and function Plastic surgery is a medical specialty interested in the correction of form and function Reconstructive surgery is in its broadest sense the use of Surgery to restore the form and function of the body Some women choose these procedures as a result of the high value placed on symmetry of the human form, and because they identify their femininity and sense of self with their breasts. Symmetry generally conveys two primary meanings The first is an imprecise sense of harmonious or aesthetically-pleasing proportionality and balance such that it reflects beauty or
After mastectomy (the surgical removal of a breast, usually to treat breast cancer) some women undergo breast reconstruction, either with breast implants or autologous tissue transfer, using fat and tissues from the abdomen (TRAM flap) or back (latissiumus muscle flap). In Medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both Breasts partially or completely Breast cancer is a Cancer that starts in the cells of the Breast in women and men Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a Breast, usually in women. A breast implant is a Prosthesis used to enlarge the size of a woman's Breasts (known as breast augmentation, breast enlargement, mammoplasty A TRAM flap is a surgical procedure, most commonly employed for Breast reconstruction.
Breast reduction surgery is a common procedure which involves removing excess breast tissue, fat, and skin with repositioning of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC). Breast reduction or reduction mammoplasty is an Outpatient surgical procedure which involves the reduction in the size of Breasts by excising Cosmetic procedures include breast lifts (mastopexy), breast augmentation with implants, and procedures that combine both elements. Mastopexy or breast lift surgery refers to a group of elective surgical operations designed to improve the appearance of the Breast. A breast implant is a Prosthesis used to enlarge the size of a woman's Breasts (known as breast augmentation, breast enlargement, mammoplasty Implants containing either silicone gel or saline are available for augmentation and reconstructive surgeries. Silicones are largely inert compounds with a wide variety of forms and uses Surgery can repair inverted nipples by releasing ductal tissues which are tethering. An inverted nipple (occasionally invaginated nipple) is a Nipple that instead of pointing outward is retracted into the Breast. Breast lift with or without reduction can be part of upper body lift after massive weight loss body contouring.
Any surgery of the breast carries with it the potential for interfering with future breastfeeding, causing alterations in nipple sensation, and difficulty in interpreting mammography (xrays of the breast). Mammography is the process of using low-dose X-rays (usually around 0 A number of studies have demonstrated a similar ability to breastfeed when breast reduction patients are compared to control groups where the surgery was performed using a modern pedicle surgical technique.  Plastic surgery organizations have generally discouraged elective cosmetic breast augmentation surgery for teenage girls as the volume of their breast tissue may continue to grow significantly as they mature and because of concerns about understanding long-term risks and benefits of the procedure. Breast surgery in teens for reduction of significantly enlarged breasts or surgery to correct hypoplasia and severe asymmetry is considered on a case by case basis by most surgeons. Hypoplasia is underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ
Malignant diseases include:
Among women worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death. This article deals with health related issues of Breast. Breast diseases can be classified either with disorders of the Integuement, or The pink ribbon is an international symbol of Breast cancer awareness Breast cancer is a Cancer that starts in the cells of the Breast in women and men Carcinoma in situ (CIS is an early form of Carcinoma defined by the absence of invasion of surrounding tissues Malignant (from the Latin roots mal- = "bad" and -genus = "born" is a medical term used to describe a severe and progressively worsening disease Breast cancer is a Cancer that starts in the cells of the Breast in women and men Paget's disease of the Breast, also known as Paget's disease of the Nipple, is a condition that outwardly may have the appearance of Eczema -  Breast self-examination (BSE) is an easy but unreliable method for finding possible breast cancer, which is recommended once every month. Breast self-examination (BSE is an easy but unreliable method for finding possible Breast cancer. Breast cancer is a Cancer that starts in the cells of the Breast in women and men
These may be caused among others by trauma, secretory stasis/milk engorgement, hormonal stimulation, infections or autoimmune reactions. Repeated occurrence unrelated to lactation requires endocrinological examination.
Benign conditions include:
Front view of woman's breasts
Side view of a woman's breasts
Illustration of saggital section of a human breast
Diagram showing inframammary fold
Women topless on European beach
Three women flashing their breasts
Woman wearing pasties
Breasts with pierced nipples
Nipple shield piercing on a woman's painted breast
International breastfeeding symbol
Diagram of dissected lactating breast
Breasts of a woman in late pregnancy
Breast with inverted nipple
15th century torture instrument designed to rip off breasts
Diagrams of cross sections of breast implants, subglandular (left) and submuscular (right)
Silicone breast implants
Saline breast implants
Grade IV capsular contracture in breast implant patient
Maxi Mounds, adult entertainer with Polypropylene breast implants. CTA or Computed tomography angiography is an examination that uses X-rays to visualize blood flow in arterial and venous vessels throughout the body brassiere ( Brit /'bɹæzɪə(ɹ/ US /bɹə'ziɹ/ commonly referred to as a bra, /bɹɑ/ is an article of clothing that covers supports and elevates The Himba are an ethnic group of about 20000 to 50000 people living in northern Namibia, in the Kunene region (formerly Kaokoland) Although the implications of each may overlap in special circumstances generally exhibitionism is not to be confused with Indecent exposure. Pasties (sing 'pastie' are adhesive coverings applied to cover a person's Nipples They vary in size and are usually not much larger than the person's Areola. In its most general form a nipple is a Structure from which a fluid emanates Breast bondage is a technique used in BDSM play It differs from most bondage techniques in that it is not intended to restrict the mobility of the tied person directly Breastfeeding is the feeding of an Infant or young Child with Breast milk directly from human Breasts, not from a Baby bottle or other A breast pump is a mechanical device (powered manually or by electricity that extracts Milk from the Breasts of a female who is Lactating. Pregnancy ( Latin graviditas) is the carrying of one or more offspring known as a Fetus or Embryo, inside the Uterus of a Female An inverted nipple (occasionally invaginated nipple) is a Nipple that instead of pointing outward is retracted into the Breast. Maxi Mounds is an American Nude model, Stripper and Pornographic actress from Long Island, New York. Polypropylene breast implants, also known as string breast implants, are a form of Breast implant using Polypropylene developed by Dr These implants are banned in the United States and in the European Union. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
Breast self exam
Woman undergoing mammogram
Mammography pictures, normal (left) and cancerous (right)
Breast prostheses used by some mastectomy patients
Drawing of inflammatory breast cancer
Patient with advanced local-regional recurrence of breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
Excised human breast tissue, showing a stellate area of cancer 2cm in diameter. Mammography is the process of using low-dose X-rays (usually around 0 In Medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both Breasts partially or completely Breast prostheses are breast forms intended to simulate Breasts There are a number of materials and designs Inflammatory breast cancer is an especially aggressive type of Breast cancer that can occur in women of any age (and although extremely rarely in men Gross examination or "grossing" is the process by which Pathology specimens are inspected with the naked eye to obtain diagnostic information while being In Medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both Breasts partially or completely The lesion could be felt clinically as a hard mobile lump, not attached to skin or chest wall.
Benign granular cell tumor removed from a woman's breast. Granular cell tumors of the breast represent one of the few lesions that can impersonate an invasive breast cancer on gross examination.
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the Breast assayed with anti Mucin 1 antibody
Breast cancer (Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast) assayed with anti HER-2 (ErbB2) antibody
Metaplastic (sarcomatoid) carcinoma of the breast.
Histopathologic image from ductal cell carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of breast. Hematoxylin-eosin stain.
Histopathology of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast representing a scirrhous growth. Core needle biopsy. Hematoxylin and eosin stain.
Histopathology of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast representing a scirrhous growth. Core needle biopsy. HER-2/neu oncoprotein expression by Ventana immunostaining system.
Breast cancer (Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast) dyed with H&E
Histopathology of intraductal papilloma of the breast by excisional biopsy. Hematoxylin and eosin stain.
Histopathology of intraductal papilloma of the breast by excisional biopsy. Immunostaining for alpha-smooth muscle actin.
Histopathology of intraductal papilloma of the breast by excisional biopsy. Immunostaining for p63 protein.
Histopathologic image of breast fibroadenoma. Core needle biopsy. Hematoxylin & eosin stain.
Histopathologic image of breast fibroadenoma. Core needle biopsy. Hematoxylin & eosin stain.
Histopathology of intraductal papilloma of the breast by excisional biopsy. Hematoxylin and eosin stain.
Histopathology of intraductal papilloma of the breast by excisional biopsy. Immunostaining for alpha-smooth muscle actin.
Histopathology of intraductal papilloma of the breast by excisional biopsy. Immunostaining for p63 protein.