|This article contains Indic text. The Brahmic family is a family of syllabaries (writing systems used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and parts of Central Asia and East Asia, |
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. Mojibake is the happenstance of incorrect unreadable characters (garbage characters shown when Computer software fails to render a text correctly according to its associated
Part of a series on
Brahman (nominative brahma ब्रह्म) is a concept of Hinduism. The nominative case is a Grammatical case for a Noun, which generally marks the subject of a Verb, as opposed to its object or other Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Brahman is the unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe. Infinity (symbolically represented with ∞) comes from the Latin infinitas or "unboundedness Immanence, derived from the Latin in manere "to remain within" refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of the divine as existing and acting within the mind In Religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses physical existence and in one form is also independent of it Reality, in everyday usage means "the state of things as they actually exist" Matter is commonly defined as being anything that has mass and that takes up space. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός For other uses see Time (disambiguation Time is a component of a measuring system used to sequence events to compare the durations of Space is the extent within which Matter is physically extended and objects and Events have positions relative to one another Disambiguation For the Wigwam album see Being (album, for spiritual or religious beingness, see Ego (spirituality The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy The nature of Brahman is described as transpersonal, personal and impersonal by different philosophical schools. The term Transpersonal is often used to refer to psychological categories that transcend the normal features of ordinary ego-functioning Monism is the metaphysical and Theological view that all is one that all reality is subsumed under the most fundamental category of being or existence In the Rig Veda, Brahman gives rise to the primordial being Hiranyagarbha that is equated with the creator God Brahmā. The Rigveda ( Sanskrit sa ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise verse" and veda "knowledge" Hiranyagarbha, meaning the "golden fetus" or "golden womb" in one hymn of the Rigveda ( RV 10. Brahma is the Hindu god ( deva) of creation and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. The trimurti can thus be considered a personification of hiranyagarbha as the active principle behind the phenomena of the universe. The Trimurti ( English: ‘three forms’ Sanskrit: trimūrti) is a concept in Hinduism "in which the cosmic functions of creation The seers who inspired the composition of the Upanisads asserted that the liberated soul (jivanmukta) has realized his identity with Brahman as his true self (see Atman (Hinduism)). The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings Jivanmukta (from the Sanskrit words Jiva and Mukti) is someone who in the Advaita philosophy of Hinduism, The Ātman ( IAST: Ātman Sanskrit: आत्मन् is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the Soul
The word "Brahman" is derived from the verb brh (Sanskrit:to grow), and connotes greatness. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The Mundaka Upanishad says:
Om- That supreme Brahman is infinite, and this conditioned Brahman is infinite. The Muṇḍaka Upanishad is one of the older "primary" ( Mukhya) Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. The infinite proceeds from infinite. Then through knowledge, realizing the infinitude of the infinite, it remains as infinite alone.
The Supreme Cosmic Spirit or Absolute Reality called Brahman (not to be confused with the Knowledge god Brahmā) is said to be eternal, genderless, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, and ultimately indescribable in human language. Absolute may mean Philosophy Absolute (philosophy, a concept in philosophy Moral absolutes, the belief that there are absolute Brahma is the Hindu god ( deva) of creation and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. The sage-seers of the Upanishads had fully realised Brahman as the reality behind their own being and of everything else in this universe. The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings They were thus Brahmins in the true sense of the word. Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. These rishis described Brahman as infinite Being, infinite Consciousness and infinite Bliss (satcitananda). A rishi (ṛṣi denotes a Vedic poet by whom Vedic hymns were composed or according to post-Vedic tradition a "sage" to whom they were "originally revealed" (Ṛṣis Saccidānanda or Sat-cit-ānanda (Sanskrit सच्चिदानंद is a compound of three Sanskrit words Sat (सत् Cit (चित् Brahman is regarded as the source and essence of the material universe. In its purest reality it is unmanifest (Nirguna Brahman) and thus beyond being and non-being. Nirguna Brahman, (literally the attributeless Brahman, Devanagari: निर्गुण ब्रह्म refers to Supreme Reality which pervades through the The Rig Veda records that in its initial manifestation (Saguna Brahman) as pure primordial Being Brahman is Hiranyagarbha (lit. Saguna Brahman (lit "The Absolute with qualities") came from the Sanskrit saguṇa (sa सगुण "with qualities" golden womb), a fertile substrate (which Radhakrishnan calls the 'world-soul') out of which all worlds, organisms and even Gods and other divine beings (devas) arise:
"Great indeed are the devas who have sprung out of Brahman. Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, OM ( Telugu:సర్వేపల్లి రాధాకృష్ణ Tamil:சர்வேபள்ளி Deva (देव in Devanagari script pronounced as /'d̪evə/ is the Sanskrit word for "god Deity " Deva (देव in Devanagari script pronounced as /'d̪evə/ is the Sanskrit word for "god Deity " " — Atharva Veda
Nirguna Brahman corresponds to the concept of 'Godhead' and Saguna Brahman to God as the Primordial Being. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity.
It is said that Brahman cannot be known by material means, that we cannot be made conscious of it, because Brahman is our very consciousness. Brahman is also not restricted to the usual dimensional perspectives of being, and thus enlightenment, moksha, yoga, samadhi, nirvana, etc. In Indian religions, Moksha ( Sanskrit: sa मोक्ष mokṣa) or Mukti ( Sanskrit: sa मुक्ति literally "release" Yoga ( Sanskrit: योग, IAST: yóga, joːgə refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India, to the Samadhi ( Sanskrit: sa समाधि is a Hindu and Buddhist technical term that usually denotes higher levels of concentrated meditation or In sramanic philosophy Nirvana (निर्वाण| Nirvāṇa; निब्बान Nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण do not merely mean to know Brahman, but to realise one's 'brahman-hood', to actually realise that one is and always was of Brahman nature (similar or identical with the Mahayana concept of Buddha Nature). Luminous mind in the Nikayas There is a clear reference in the Anguttara Nikaya to a " Luminous mind " present within all people be they corrupt or pure whether Indeed, closely related to the Self concept of Brahman is the idea that it is synonymous with jiva-atma, or individual souls, our atman (or soul) being readily identifiable with the greater soul (paramatma) of Brahman. The Ātman ( IAST: Ātman Sanskrit: आत्मन् is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the Soul
Generally, Vedanta rejects the notion of an evolving Brahman since Brahman contains within it the potentiality and archetypes behind all possible manifest phenomenal forms. The Vedas, though they are in some respects historically conditioned are considered by Hindus to convey a knowledge eternal, timeless and always contemporaneous with Brahman. "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. This knowledge is considered to have been handed down by realised yogins to students many generations before the vedas were committed to writing. A yogi ( Sanskrit, feminine root Yogini) is a term for a male practitioner of various forms of the path of Yoga, maintaining Written texts of the Vedas are a relatively recent phenomenon.
Connected with the ritual of pre-Vedantic Hinduism, Brahman signified the power to grow, the expansive and self-altering process of ritual and sacrifice, often visually realised in the sputtering of flames as they received the all important ghee (clarified butter) and rose in concert with the mantras of the Vedas. A ritual is a set of actions often thought to have Symbolic value the performance of which is usually prescribed by a Religion or by the Traditions Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning "to make sacred" from Old French, from Latin sacrificium: sacr, "sacred" Ghee ( Hindi घी ghī, Urdu گھی ghī, Punjabi ਘਿਉ/گھیو ghiu, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو A mantra ( Devanāgarī मन्त्र (or mantram is a religious or mystical syllable or poem typically from the Sanskrit language "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. Brahmin came to refer to the highest of the four castes, the Brahmins, who by virtue of their purity and priesthood are held to have such powers. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism.
It is the first instance of monism in organized religion. Monism is the metaphysical and Theological view that all is one that all reality is subsumed under the most fundamental category of being or existence A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Hinduism remains the only religion with this concept. To call this concept 'God' would be imprecise. The closest interpretation of the term can be found in the Taittariya Upanishad (II. The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings 1) where Brahman is described in the following manner: satyam jnanam anantam brahman - "Brahman is of the nature of truth, knowledge and infinity". Thus, Brahman is the origin and end of all things, material or otherwise. Brahman is the root source and Divine Ground of everything that exists, and does not exist in Hinduism. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. It is defined as unknowable and Satchitananda (Truth-Consciousness-Bliss). Saccidānanda or Sat-cit-ānanda (Sanskrit सच्चिदानंद is a compound of three Sanskrit words Sat (सत् Cit (चित् Since it is eternal and infinite, it comprises the only truth. While in the popular mind eternity often simply means existing for a limitless amount of Time, many have used it to refer to a timeless existence altogether outside of Infinity (symbolically represented with ∞) comes from the Latin infinitas or "unboundedness The meaning of the word truth extends from Honesty, Good faith, and Sincerity in general to agreement with Fact or Reality The goal of Hinduism, through the various yogas, is to realize that the soul (Atman) is actually nothing but Brahman. Yoga ( Sanskrit: योग, IAST: yóga, joːgə refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India, to the The Ātman ( IAST: Ātman Sanskrit: आत्मन् is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the Soul The Hindu pantheon of gods is said, in the Vedas and Upanishads, to be only higher manifestations of Brahman. "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings For this reason, "ekam sat" (all is one), and all is Brahman. This explains the Hindu view that "All paths lead to the one Brahman, though many sages [and religions] call him different things. "
Several mahā-vākyas, or great sayings, indicate what the principle of Brahman is:
|prajnānam brahma||"Brahman is knowledge"|
|ayam ātmā brahma||"The Self (or the Soul) is Brahman "|
|aham brahmāsmi||"I am Brahman"|
|tat tvam asi||"Thou are that"|
|sarvam khalv idam brahma||"All this that we see in the world is Brahman",|
|sachchidānanda brahma||"Brahman is existence, consciousness, and bliss". Tat Tvam Asi ( Sanskrit: तत् त्वम् असि or तत्त्वमसि a Sanskrit sentence translating variously to "Thou art that" "That|
Another way to describe Brahman, as mentioned in the Brihadaranyaka Upanisad, is to say, "Brahman is not this. . Brahman is not that. . " Until everything in the infinite universe has been eliminated and only Brahman remains -- implying that indeed Brahman in infinite set universes is the empty set. In Mathematics, and more specifically Set theory, the empty set is the unique set having no ( Zero) members This is often paraphrased as "everything is true of the elements of the empty set. " Thus all and none in one that is not but still is everywhere and nowhere in particular.
In terms of astronomical or quantum universes it is referred to as Vacuum -- ever present surrounding all, always within you as it is without you.
Sanskrit bráhman (an n-stem, nominative bráhmā) is from a root bṛh " to swell, grow, enlarge". The root is the primary lexical unit of a Word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents brahmán is a masculine derivation of bráhman, denoting a person associated with bráhman. Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. The further origin of bṛh is unclear. According to Pokorny's IE Etymological Lexicon IE root bhreu-, bhreu-d- denotes to swell, sprout (cf Slovenian brsteti - to sprout. )Bragi. Bragi is a Skaldic god in Norse mythology. Etymology Bragi is generally associated with bragr, the Norse word for Poetry Some, including Georges Dumézil, have said that the Latin word flāmen "priest" may also be cognate. Georges Dumézil ( March 4, 1898 – October 11, 1986) was a French comparative Philologist best known for his analysis of Sovereignty Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. A flamen was a name given to a Priest assigned to a state-supported god or goddess in Roman religion.
In Vedic Sanskrit:-
In later Sanskrit usage:-
One must not confuse these with:
Brahm is sometimes found as a variant form of Brahma or Brahman.
In Hindi, one might find Brahma as being pronounced as /brəm hə/, and consequently BrāhmaNa as /brα:m həN/. Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is
Philosopher mystics of the Upanishads identify Brahman, the world soul, with Atman, the inner essence of the human being also known as "Micro-soul-spark" of Brahman. The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings The Ātman ( IAST: Ātman Sanskrit: आत्मन् is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the Soul The Ultimate Truth is expressed as Nirguna Brahman, or lord of all "Gods". Nirguna Brahman, (literally the attributeless Brahman, Devanagari: निर्गुण ब्रह्म refers to Supreme Reality which pervades through the Nirguna means "formless", "attributeless", mega-soul also known as. Nirguna Brahman, (literally the attributeless Brahman, Devanagari: निर्गुण ब्रह्म refers to Supreme Reality which pervades through the "spirit" only. While Advaita philosophy considers Brahman to be without any form, qualities, or attributes, Dvaita philosophy understands nir-guna as without material form or without bad qualities. Advaita Vedanta ( IAST Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit अद्वैत वेदान्त əd̪vait̪ə veːd̪ɑːnt̪ə is a sub-school of the The Sanskrit word guṇa has the basic meaning of "string" or "a single thread or strand of a cord or twine"
In Dvaita, Vishnu is Brahman since the followers stress a personal God. Dvaita ( Kannada: ದ್ವೈತ Devanagari:द्बैत is a dualist school of Vedanta Hindu philosophy. For other meanings see Vishnu (disambiguation. Vishnu ( IAST viṣṇu Devanagari विष्णु (honorific Advaita, on the other hand, considers all personal forms of God including Vishnu and Shiva as different aspects of God in personal form or God with attributes, Saguna Brahman. Shiva:(pronunciation; Sanskrit: शिव Śiva, lit "Auspicious one" One of the Trimurtis Shiva is the supreme God in the Shaiva Saguna Brahman (lit "The Absolute with qualities") came from the Sanskrit saguṇa (sa सगुण "with qualities"
According to some, God's energy is personified as Devi, the Divine Mother. Devi ( Devanagari: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for Goddess, used mostly in Hinduism. For Vaishnavites who follow Ramunjacharaya's philosophy, Devi is Lakshmi, who is the Mother of all and who pleads with Vishnu for mankind who is entrenched in sin. Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu or its associated avatars principally as Rama and Ramanuja ( traditionally 1017&ndash1137 also known as Ramanujacharya, was a Theologian, Philosopher, and Scriptural Exegete. Lakshmi or Mahalakshmi (pronunciation; Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी lakṣmī) is the Hindu Goddess of Wealth For Gaudiya Vaishnavas she is Radha. Gaudiya Vaishnavism (also known as Chaitanya Vaishnavism) is a Vaishnava religious movement founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534 in India For Radha the mother of Karna from Mahabharata see Radha (Mahabharata Radha (Devanagari राधा IAST Rādhā is the principal For Shaivites, Devi is Parvati. Shaivism, also spelled "Saivism" names the oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. Parvati ( Sanskrit: Pārvatī sa [[wiktपार्वती पार्वती]] sometimes spelled Parvathi or Parvathy, is a Hindu For Viswakarmas Devi is Gayatri or Vac or Saraswathy. For Shaktas, who worship Durga or Kali, Devi is the personal form of God to attain the impersonal Absolute, God. Shaktism ( Sanskrit: Śāktaṃ sa शाक्तं lit "doctrine of power" or "doctrine of the Goddess") is a denomination of For them, Shiva is personified as God without attributes. See this Hinduism Today article.
The phrase that is seen to be the only possible (and still thoroughly inadequate) description of Brahman that humans, with limited minds and being, can entertain is the Sanskrit word Sacchidānanda, which is combined from sat-chit-ānanda, meaning "being - consciousness - bliss". Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Sandhi ( Sanskrit saṃdhi sa संधि "joining" is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at Morpheme
सर्वं ह्येतद् ब्रह्मायमात्मा ब्रह्म सोयमात्मा चतुष्पात्
sarvam hyetad brahmāyamātmā brahma soyamātmā chatushpāt - Mandukya Upanishad, verse-2
sarvam (सर्वम्)- whole/all/everything; hi (हि)- really/surely/indeed; etad (एतद्)- this here/this; brahma (ब्रह्म)- Brahma/Brahman; ayam (अयम्)- this/here; ātmā(आत्मा)- atma/atman; sah(सः)- he; ayam (अयम्)- this/here; chatus(चतुस्)- four/quadruple; pāt(पात्)- step/foot/quarter
सर्वम् हि एतद् ब्रह्म अयम् आत्मा ब्रह्म सः अयम् आत्मा चतुस पात्
sarvam hi etad brahma ayam ātmā brahm sah ayam ātmā chatus paat
All indeed is this Brahman; He is Atman; He has four steps/quarters. Māndūkya Upanishad is the shortest Upanishads - the scriptures of Hindu Vedanta. The Ātman ( IAST: Ātman Sanskrit: आत्मन् is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the Soul Māndūkya Upanishad is the shortest Upanishads - the scriptures of Hindu Vedanta. Sandhi ( Sanskrit saṃdhi sa संधि "joining" is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at Morpheme
The importance of Brahma/Brahman to the Buddhism of Shakyamuni Buddha is evident in the Brahmavihara (Sanskrit: catvāri brahma-vihārāḥ). Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder The four Brahmavihāras are a series of virtues and Buddhist meditation practices designed to cultivate those virtues
It has been asserted by current secular Buddhism, that Buddhism knows only of the gods (Brahma) and nothing of the Godhead/Absolute/Agathon Brahman. In actuality there can be doubt that in the grammatically ambitious _expression Brahmabhu’to (attano) which describes the condition of those who are wholly liberated, that it is Brahman (the Absolute) and not Brahma (deva, or mere god) that is in the text and must be read; for it is by Brahman that one who is “wholly awake” has ”become. ”
The highest appellation in Buddhist Nikayan sutra is “Brahambhutena attano” [MN 1. 341] “The Soul is having become Brahman”; absolutely equivalent to ‘Tat tvam asi’ (That/Brahman, thou art). For the Buddha himself is = Brahmabhu’to (Become That, Brahman). For (1) the comparatively limited knowledge of a Brahma is repeatedly emphasized, and (2) Brahmas are accordingly the Buddhas pupils, not he theirs [S 1. 141-145; Mil 75-76], (3) The Buddha had already been in previous births a Brahma (god) and a Mahabrahma [AN 4. 88] hence it is meaningless and absurd in the equation to say Brahmabhu’to=Buddho [AN 5. 22; DN 3. 84; It 57 etc. ], to assume that Brahman= Brahma (god) and that (4) the Buddha is explicitly “much more than a Mahabrahma" [DhA 2. 60].
While Brahman lies behind the sum total of the objective universe, some human minds boggle at any attempt to explain it with only the tools provided by reason. Brahman is beyond the senses, beyond the mind, beyond intelligence, beyond imagination. Indeed, the highest idea is that Brahman is beyond both existence and non-existence, transcending and including time, causation and space, and thus can never be known in the same material sense as one traditionally 'understands' a given concept or object.
Imagine a person who is blind from birth and has not seen anything. Is it possible for us to explain to him what light is like? Is any amount of thinking or reasoning on his part ever going to make him understand the sensation of light? In a similar fashion the idea of Brahman cannot be explained or understood through material reasoning or any form of human communication. Brahman is like light; those who can sense it cannot explain or argue with those who have never sensed it.
Brahman is considered the all pervading consciousness which is the basis of all the animate and inanimate entities and material. (brahmano hi pratisthaham, Bhagavad Gita 14. 27)
The universe is not just conscious, but it is consciousness, and this consciousness is Brahman. Human consciousness has forgotten its identity, that of Brahman, as if a drop of water from a vast ocean thought itself separate, and that the only path to merge back into that Brahman or supreme consciousness is through the paths of devotion, moral living, following the eight-fold path of Ashtanga Yoga meditation, often expressed in various systems of spiritual practices known as yogas. Rāja Yoga ("royal Yoga " "royal union" also known as Classical Yoga or simply Yoga) is one of the six orthodox ( Astika) Meditation is a mental discipline by which one attempts to get beyond the conditioned "thinking" mind into a deeper state of relaxation or awareness Yoga ( Sanskrit: योग, IAST: yóga, joːgə refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India, to the
If one seeks Brahman via true knowledge, Atman seeks truth and accepts it no matter what it is. Atman accepts all truths of the self/ego, and thus is able to accept the fact that it is not separate from its surroundings. Then Atman is permanently absorbed into Brahman and become one and the same with it. This is how one forever escapes rebirth.
In Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is without attributes and strictly impersonal. It can be best described as infinite Being, infinite Consciousness and infinite Bliss. It is pure knowledge itself, similar to a source of infinite radiance. Since the Advaitins regard Brahman to be the Ultimate Truth, so in comparison to Brahman, every other thing, including the material world, its distinctness, the individuality of the living creatures and even Ishvara (the Supreme Lord) itself are all untrue. Brahman is the effulgent cause of everything that exists and can possibly exist. Since it is beyond human comprehension, it is without any attributes, for assigning attributes to it would be distorting the true nature of Brahman. Advaitins believe in the existence of both Saguna Brahman and Nirguna Brahman, however they consider Nirguna Brahman to be the absolute supreme truth.
When man tries to know the attributeless Brahman with his mind, under the influence of an illusionary power of Brahman called Maya, Brahman becomes God (Ishvara). Maya ( Sanskrit sa माया māyā) in Indian religions, has multiple meanings Ishvara ( Sanskrit: Īśvara sa ईश्वर Malay: Iswara, Thai: Phra Isuan) is a philosophical concept in Hinduism God is Brahman under Maya. The material world also appears as such due to Maya. God is Saguna Brahman, or Brahman with attributes. He is omniscient, omnipresent, incorporeal, independent, Creator of the world, its ruler and also destroyer. He is eternal and unchangeable. He is both immanent and transcedent, as well as full of love and justice. He may be even regarded to have a personality. He is the subject of worship. He is the basis of morality and giver of the fruits of one's Karma. Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" He rules the world with his Maya. However, while God is the Lord of Maya and she (ie, Maya) is always under his control, living beings (jīva, in the sense of humans) are the servants of Maya (in the form of ignorance). This ignorance is the cause of all material experiences in the mortal world. While God is Infinite Bliss, humans, under the influence of Maya consider themselves limited by the body and the material, observable world. This misperception of Brahman as the observed Universe results in human emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger and fear. The Ultimate reality remains Brahman and nothing else. The Advaita equation is simple. It is due to Maya that the one single Atman (the individual soul) appears to the people as many Atmans, each in a single body. Once the curtain of maya is lifted, the Atman is exactly equal to the Brahman. Thus, due to true knowledge, an individual loses the sense of ego (Aham-kara) and achieves liberation, or Moksha. In Indian religions, Moksha ( Sanskrit: sa मोक्ष mokṣa) or Mukti ( Sanskrit: sa मुक्ति literally "release" Also see Advaita Vedanta. Advaita Vedanta ( IAST Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit अद्वैत वेदान्त əd̪vait̪ə veːd̪ɑːnt̪ə is a sub-school of the
In Bhagavad Gita, the term Iswara is used to explain Nirguna Brahman, and the term Brahma for Saguna Brahman:
paramam aksharam brahma uchyathe [Bhagavad Gita, chapter 8, verse 3]
The great akshara is said to be Brahma.
yasmad ksharamatheethohaksharadapichothama: athohasmi loke vede cha pradhitha: purushothama: [Bhagavad Gita, chapter 15, verse 18]
I (Iswara) am beyond kshara (perishable world), and also greater than the akshara(Brahma). So in the world, I am denoted as purushothama in the Vedas.
brahmano hi prathishtahamamrithasyavyayasya cha sashwathasya cha dharmasya sukhasyaikanthikasya cha [Bhagavad Gita, chapter 14, verse 27]
I (Iswara) am the basis or seat of the imperishable Brahma, the everlasting dharma (course of right action), and definitely of all joy.
bahyasparsheshwasakthathma vindathyathmani yathsukham sa brahmayogayukthathma sukhamakshayamasnuthe [Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 5, verse 21]
Similar to a person who is not attached to outside pleasures but enjoys happiness in the Athma (Soul or God within), the person who perceives Brahma (the Cosmic Body) in and as every body or thing feels everlasting joy.
"Satchidananda Brahma" underlines this concept, meaning pure, true happiness of mind is Brahma.
The concept of Brahman in VisishtAdvaita consists of an inseparable triad of Ishwara-Chit-Achit. Ishwara, the Supreme Self (ParamAtman)is the indwelling spirit (Antaryami) in all. Both the Chit (sentient objects) and Achit (insentient object) entities are pervaded and permeated by Ishwara.
The key identifier of Brahman in VisishtAdvaita is as the Antaryami (i. e. the In-dwelling spirit in all there is). The relationship between Ishwara-Chit-Achit is understood by two ideas.
1. The Sarira-Sariri Concept
Ishwara has the Chit (JIvAtman) and Achit (Prakriti, Jagat) entities for his body and being the Supreme Self, exercises complete control over it.
2. Substance-Attribute Concept
Ishwara is the substance and the Jiva and Prakriti are his modes (or) attributes. An attribute cannot have an existence independent of an underlying substance. The substance-attribute idea establishes an uninterrupted, non-reciprocal relationship between Ishwara and two modes
Vedanta Sutra 3. The Brahma sūtras, also known as Vedānta Sūtras, constitute the Nyāya prasthāna, the logical starting point of the Vedānta philosophy (Nyāya 2. 23 states, "The form of Brahman is unmanifest, so the scriptures say" (tat avyaktam aha). The next sutra adds, "But even the form of Brahman becomes directly visible to one who worships devoutly - so teach the scriptures" (api samradhane pratyaksa anumanabhyam). 
Dvaita schools argue against the Advaita idea that upon attaining liberation one realizes that God is formless since this idea is contradicted by Vedanta Sutra 3. 2. 16: "The scriptures declare that the form of the Supreme consists of the very essence of His Self" (aha ca tanmatram). And furthermore Vedanta Sutra 3. 3. 36 asserts that within the realm of Brahman the devotees see other divine manifestations which appear even as physical objects in a city (antara bhuta gramavat svatmanah). 
They identify the personal form of God indicated here as the transcendental form of Vishnu or Krishna (see Vaishnavism). Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu or its associated avatars principally as Rama and The brahma-pura (city within Brahman) is identified as the divine realm of Vishnu known as Vaikuntha. Vaikunta (Sanskrit वैकुण्ठम् or Paramapadham is the abode of Lord Vishnu. This conclusion is corroborated by the Bhagavata Purana, written by Vyasa as his own "natural commentary" on Vedanta-sutra. The Bhagavata Purana (also known as Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, or simply Bhāgavatam) is one of the Puranic texts of Hindu literature Vyāsa ( Devanāgarī: व्यास is a central and revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions The first verse of Bhagavata Purana begins with the phrase "I offer my respectful obeisances to Bhagavan Vasudeva, the source of everything" (om namo bhagavate vasudevaya janmadyasya yatah). Vyasa employs the words "janmadyasya yatah", which comprise the second sutra of the Vedanta Sutra, in the first verse of the Bhagavata Purana to establish that Krishna is Brahman, the Absolute Truth. This is clear testimony of the author's own conclusion about the ultimate goal of all Vedic knowledge.
According to modern spiritual teachers like Sri Aurobindo, Brahman is both the unmanifest and the manifest; the One and the Many; the Being and the Becoming. It is actually more than their sum, but their combination and their integration. All (and more) is then Brahman. And yet Brahman cannot be known by Mind. One most move to the highest point of spiritualized mind, even above Intuition to have the vision of the integral oneness of the Unmanifest and Manifest that is Brahman. When we move to the soul, our minds move to the supra-mental heights where we perceive the integral view of Brahman, which is the ultimate perception of the Reality, the Absolute. Thus, in life everything is an expression of Brahman, even that which is unevolved and is in the process of evolving.