|Lefatshe la Botswana|
Republic of Botswana
|Anthem: Fatshe leno la rona|
Blessed Be This Noble Land
(and largest city)
|Official languages||English, Setswana (national)|
|-||President||Seretse Khama Ian Khama|
|Independence||from the United Kingdom|
|-||Date||30 September 1966|
|-||Total||600,370 km² (46st)|
224,606 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||2. The national flag of Botswana was adopted on September 30, 1966. The Coat of Arms of Botswana was adopted on January 25, 1966. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Fatshe leno la rona (Blessed Be This Noble Land is the National anthem of Botswana. Botswana, like many nations in southern Africa, suffers from a high AIDS infection rates estimated in a 2002 UN report to be 38 Gaborone (pronunciation /ˌɡæbəˈroʊni/ estimated population 208411 ( 1 January 2005) is the Capital An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Tswana ( Setswana) is a Bantu language written in the Latin Alphabet. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government List of Heads of State of Botswana (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Affiliations- Lieutenant General Seretse Khama Ian Khama (or Ian a Sêrêtsê; born February 27 1953) is the President of Botswana Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 5|
|-||2006 estimate||1,639,833 (147th)|
|-||Density||3. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 0/km² (220th)|
7. List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² 8/sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$25. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 676 billion (104th)|
|-||Per capita||$16,450(IMF) (49th)|
|Gini (1993)||63 (high)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 654 (medium) (124th)|
|Time zone||CAT (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+2)|
The Republic of Botswana (Tswana: Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked nation in Southern Africa. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The pula is the Currency of Botswana. It has the ISO 4217 code BWP and is subdivided into 100 thebe. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Central Africa Time, or CAT, is a time zone used in central and southern Africa. Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E Tswana ( Setswana) is a Bantu language written in the Latin Alphabet. A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land Southern Africa is the Southernmost Region of the African Continent, variably defined by Geography or Geopolitics. Citizens of Botswana are Batswana (singular: Motswana), regardless of ethnicity. Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect The Bechuanaland Protectorate (BP was a protectorate established on March 31, 1885, by the United Kingdom in Southern Africa. Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west, Zambia to the north, and Zimbabwe to the northeast. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election The economy, closely tied to South Africa's, is dominated by mining (especially diamonds), tourism, and cattle.
In the 19th century, hostilities broke out between the Tswana inhabitants of Botswana and Ndebele tribes who were migrating into the territory from the Kalahari Desert. The Batswana (plural of "Motswana" a term also used to denote all citizens of Botswana, refers to the country's major ethnic group (called the "Tswana" Tswana ( Motswana, plural Batswana) is the name of a Southern African people The Ndebele people are three Tribes or Nations of people living in South Africa and Zimbabwe; there are three main groups of Ndebele Tensions also escalated with the Boer settlers from the Transvaal. Boer (ˈbuːr in Dutch ˈbʊɚ/ /boʊɚ or /ˈbɔr/ in English is the Dutch word for Farmer which came to denote the descendants of the proto Afrikaans For the Russian theme park see Transvaal Park. The Transvaal (Afrikaans lit After appeals by the Batswana leaders Khama III, Bathoen and Sebele for assistance, the British Government on 31 March 1885 put "Bechuanaland" under its protection. Khama III (1837?-1923 also known as Khama the Good, was the kgosi (meaning chief or king of the Bamangwato people of Bechuanaland (now Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1885 ( MDCCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The northern territory remained under direct administration as the Bechuanaland Protectorate and is today's Botswana, while the southern territory became part of the Cape Colony and is now part of the northwest province of South Africa; the majority of Setswana-speaking people today live in South Africa. The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 with the founding of Cape Town. Tswana ( Setswana) is a Bantu language written in the Latin Alphabet.
When the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910 out of the main British colonies in the region, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Basutoland (now Lesotho), and Swaziland (the "High Commission Territories") were not included, but provision was made for their later incorporation. Lesotho (lɪˈsuːtuː &mdash had been populated by Khoi Khoi (Qhuaique for possibly as long as 40000 years Lesotho (lɪˈsuːtuː) officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is a Landlocked country and Enclave — entirely surrounded by the Republic of South The Kingdom of Swaziland is a country located in Southern Africa centred at approximately 26o49'S 31o38'E However, a vague undertaking was given to consult their inhabitants, and although successive South African governments sought to have the territories transferred, Britain kept delaying, and it never occurred. The election of the National Party government in 1948, which instituted apartheid, and South Africa's withdrawal from the Commonwealth in 1961, ended any prospect of incorporation of the territories into South Africa.
An expansion of British central authority and the evolution of tribal government resulted in the 1920 establishment of two advisory councils representing Africans and Europeans. Proclamations in 1934 regularized tribal rule and powers. A European-African advisory council was formed in 1951, and the 1961 constitution established a consultative legislative council.
In June 1964, Britain accepted proposals for democratic self-government in Botswana. The seat of government was moved from Mafikeng in South Africa, to newly established Gaborone in 1965. Gaborone (pronunciation /ˌɡæbəˈroʊni/ estimated population 208411 ( 1 January 2005) is the Capital The 1965 constitution led to the first general elections and to independence on 30 September 1966. Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Seretse Khama, a leader in the independence movement and the legitimate claimant to the Ngwato chiefship, was elected as the first president, re-elected twice, and died in office in 1980. Sir Seretse Khama KBE ( July 1 1921 July 13 1980) was the first President of Botswana. The Bamangwato (more correctly BagammaNgwato people are one of the eight principal Tribes of Botswana. The presidency passed to the sitting vice president, Quett Masire, who was elected in his own right in 1984 and re-elected in 1989 and 1994. Sir Quett Ketumile Joni Masire, GCMG (born 23 July, 1925 in Kanye Botswana) was the second President of Botswana Masire retired from office in 1998. The presidency passed to the sitting vice president, Festus Mogae, who was elected in his own right in 1999 and re-elected in 2004. Festus Gontebanye Mogae (born 21 August 1939) was President of Botswana from 1998 to 2008 The next president is Lieutenant General Seretse Khama Ian Khama from 2008 and ahead of the elections in 2009. Lieutenant General Seretse Khama Ian Khama (or Ian a Sêrêtsê; born February 27 1953) is the President of Botswana He is the son of the first president of Botswana and he is also the former leader of the Botswana army (BDF).
Botswana is predominantly flat, tending toward gently rolling tableland. Botswana is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa, north of South Africa. The Kalahari Desert is located in the southwest of the country. The Limpopo River Basin is the major landform of all of southern Africa, including Botswana.
At 231,788 mi² (600,370 km²), Botswana is the world's 45th-largest country (after Ukraine). The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. It is comparable in size to Madagascar, and is slightly smaller than the state of Texas in the Southern United States. Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive
Botswana is dominated by the Kalahari Desert, which covers up to 70% of the land surface of the country. The Okavango Delta, the world's largest inland delta, is in the northwest. The Okavango Delta (or Okavango Swamp) in Botswana, is the world's largest inland delta. A delta is a Landform where the mouth of a River flows into an Ocean, Sea, Estuary, Lake or another river The Makgadikgadi Pan, a large salt pan lies in the north. The Makgadikgadi Pan is a large salt pan in Northern Botswana, the largest salt flat complex in the world
Botswana has diverse areas of wildlife habitat, including the Okavango Delta, the Kalahari Desert, grasslands and savannas, the latter where Blue Wildebeest and many antelopes as well as other mammals and birds are found. Grasslands (also called greenswards) are areas where the Vegetation is dominated by Grasses ( Poaceae) and other Herbaceous (non-woody A savanna or savannah is a Tropical or Subtropical Grassland or Woodland Ecosystem. The Blue Wildebeest ( Connochaetes taurinus) is a large Ungulate mammal of the Bovid family and one of two species of Wildebeest. Antelope are Ruminant hoofed Mammals of the family Bovidae in the order of Even-toed ungulates. Northern Botswana has one of the few remaining large populations of the endangered African Wild Dog. The African wild dog ( Lycaon pictus) is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family found only in Africa, especially in scrub Savanna
Research from the University of Botswana has found that the common practice of overstocking cattle to cope with drought losses actually depletes scarce biomass, making ecosystems more vulnerable. The study of the Kgatleng district of Botswana predicts that by 2050 the cycle of mild drought is likely to become shorter for the region—18 months instead of two years—due to climate change. 
The politics of Botswana takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Botswana is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Politics of Botswana takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Botswana A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its List of Heads of State of Botswana (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Affiliations- Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State A multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition Executive power is exercised by the government. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Botswana. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The Parliament of Botswana consists of two chambers The House of Chiefs ( Upper Chamber) The National Assembly Since independence the party system has been dominated by the Botswana Democratic Party. The Botswana Democratic Party is the governing conservative party in Botswana, led by president Ian Khama. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State
At the time of independence Botswana had no armed forces. The Botswana Defence Force (BDF is the Army of Botswana. It was formed in 1977 and has approximately 12000 members It was only after attacks from the Rhodesian and South African armies that Botswana formed a Botswana Defence Force (BDF) in self-defence in 1977. Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The Botswana Defence Force (BDF is the Army of Botswana. It was formed in 1977 and has approximately 12000 members The president is commander in chief and a defence council is appointed by the president. The BDF now has approximately 12,000 members.
The BDF is a capable and well-disciplined military force. Following positive political changes in South Africa and the region, the BDF's missions have increasingly focused on anti-poaching activities, disaster-preparedness, and foreign peacekeeping. The United States has been the largest single foreign contributor to the development of the BDF, and a large segment of its officer corps has received U. S. training. It is considered an apolitical and professional institution.
Botswana puts a premium on economic and political integration in Southern Africa. Botswana has put a premium on economic and political integration in southern Africa It seeks to make SADC a working vehicle for economic development, and promotes efforts to make the region self-policing in terms of preventative diplomacy, conflict resolution, and good governance. The Southern African Development Community ( SADC) is an Inter-governmental organization. It has welcomed post-apartheid South Africa as a partner in these efforts. Botswana joins the African consensus on most major international matters and is a member of international organisations such as the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and the African Union (AU). Consensus has two common meanings One is a general agreement among the members of a given group or Community, each of which exercises some discretion in The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African Botswana is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the U. The International Criminal Court ( ICC or ICCt) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for Genocide, crimes against S. military (as covered under Article 98). The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the Treaty
The northern boundary between the Caprivi Strip of Namibia and Botswana was the subject of an International Court of Justice dispute over Kasikili or Sedudu island in the Chobe River, which arose over the imprecise description of the border defined by Germany and Britain in the Helgoland-Zanzibar Treaty. Caprivi, sometimes called the Caprivi Strip (in German Caprivizipfel) or the Okavango Strip and formally known as Itenge, is a narrow protrusion See also International Commission of Jurists The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; Cour Kasikili Island, or Sedudu Island, is an island in the Chobe River on the border between Namibia and Botswana, near the Botswanan town of The Cuando River (sometimes spelled Kwando) is a river in south-central Africa, also called the Linyanti River and the Chobe River in its lower Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty (Helgoland-Sansibar-Vertrag was an 1890 agreement between the United Kingdom and the German Empire - hence also Anglo-German
Botswana is divided into nine districts:
1. |||} Botswana is divided into 9 Districts Central District Ghanzi District Kgalagadi District Kgatleng District The districts of Botswana are subdivided into 28 sub-districts |||} Botswana is divided into 9 Districts Central District Ghanzi District Kgalagadi District Kgatleng District Central
6. Kweneng is one of the Districts of Botswana and is the recent historical homeland of the Bakwena people the first group in Botswana converted to North-East
These districts are subdivided into a total twenty-eight subdistricts. Southern is one of the Districts of Botswana. In the south Southern borders the North West Province of South Africa. Subdistrict is a low level Administrative division of a country
Towns and villages
Since independence, Botswana has had one of the fastest growth rates in per capita income in the world. Since independence Botswana has had the highest average economic growth rate in the world averaging about 9% per year from 1966 to 1999 Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country  Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $16,450 in 2007.  Economic growth averaged over 9% per year from 1966 to 1999. Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time The government has maintained a sound fiscal policy, despite consecutive budget deficits in 2002 and 2003, and a negligible level of foreign debt. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Fiscal policy, taking the scope of Budgetary policy, refers to government policy that attempts to influence the direction of the economy through changes in government taxes A budget deficit occurs when an Entity (often a Government) spends more Money than it takes in External debt (or foreign debt) is that part of the total debt in a country that is owed to Creditors outside the country It earned the highest sovereign credit rating in Africa and has stockpiled foreign exchange reserves (over $7 billion in 2005/2006) amounting to almost two and a half years of current imports. A credit rating assesses the Credit worthiness of an individual Corporation, or even a country Botswana's impressive economic record has been built on the foundation of wisely using revenue generated from diamond mining to fuel economic development through prudent fiscal policies and a cautious foreign policy. In Mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American Magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P Debswana, the largest diamond mining company operating in Botswana, is 50% owned by the government and generates about half of all government revenues. Debswana Diamond Company Ltd, or simply Debswana, is a giant Mining company located in Botswana, and is the world's leading producer of Diamonds "Diamond mine" redirects here For the game from PopCap Games also known as Diamond Mine see Bejeweled. In 2007, significant quantities of Uranium were discovered, and mining is projected to begin by 2010. Several international mining corporations have prospected in Botswana for diamonds, gold, uranium, copper, and even oil, many coming back with positive results.
However, economic development spending was cut by 10% in 2002-2003 as a result of recurring budget deficits and rising expenditure on healthcare services. Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing Botswana has been hit very hard by the AIDS epidemic; the average life expectancy in Botswana at birth, 1990: 64 years, 2005: 34 years. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age This is barely half the 59-year average for low-income countries, and Botswana residents, along with those of Swaziland, have the shortest average lifespan in the world. __FORCETOC__This is a list of countries by Life expectancy at birth the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year if mortality at each age remains Approximately one in six Batswana has HIV, giving Botswana the second highest HIV infection rate in the world after Swaziland. Tswana ( Motswana, plural Batswana) is the name of a Southern African people  The government recognizes that HIV/AIDS will affect the economy and is trying to combat the epidemic, including free Anti-retroviral drug treatment and a nation-wide Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission program. Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome In Epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people is a classification of a disease that appears as new cases in a
Some of Botswana's budget deficits can be traced to relatively high military expenditures (about 4% of GDP in 2004, according to the CIA World Factbook), which some critics contend is unnecessary given the low likelihood of international conflict (though the Botswana government also makes use of these troops for multilateral operations and assistance efforts).
Botswana is part of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) with South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Namibia. Southern African Customs Union ( SACU) is a Customs union among five countries of Southern Africa. The World Bank reports that in 2001 (the most recent year for which World Bank data are available), the SACU had a weighted average common external tariff rate of 3. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e 6 percent. According to the U. S. Department of Commerce, "There are very few tariff or non-tariff barriers to trade with Botswana, apart from restrictions on licensing for some business operations, which are reserved for [Botswana] companies. " Based on the revised trade factor methodology, Botswana's trade policy score is unchanged.  The main export of Botswana is diamonds. Jwaneng, in Botswana, is the world's largest and richest diamond mine thus the demand of diamonds from Botswana is fairly high. Jwaneng is a town located in southern Botswana. The town was formed around a Diamond mine that is considered the richest in the world the richest in terms of its The mine was discovered when termites looking for water brought grains of diamond to the surface. If the great demand of diamonds were to go into rapid decline, then the economy of Botswana would suffer greatly as they are highly dependent on this export. The diamond mine in Jwaneng provides many jobs for the unemployed in Botswana as people are needed to physically extract the diamonds, and to build the roads needed for their transport, for example. A source of foreign exchange is also introduced to the economy and it offers a potential basis for industrial development, and thus stimulates improvements within Botswana's infrastructure.
Botswana seeks to further diversify its economy away from minerals, which account for a third of GDP, down from nearly half of GDP in the early 1990s. Kasane is a town in Botswana, close to Africa's 'Four Corners' where four countries meet Botswana Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Foreign investment and management are welcomed in Botswana. Botswana abolished foreign exchange controls in 1999, has a low corporate tax rate (15%), no prohibitions on foreign ownership of companies, and a moderate inflation rate (7. 6% November 2004). The Government of Botswana is currently considering additional policies to enhance competitiveness, including a new Foreign Direct Investment Strategy, Competition Policy, Privatisation Master Plan, and National Export Development Strategy.
Botswana is known to have vast coal deposits making it possibly one of the most coal rich countries in the world. Large coal mines, massive coal fired power plants, as well as a coals to liquid plant (through the fischer-troppes process) to produce synthetic automotive fuel have been planned.
With its proven record of good economic governance, Botswana was ranked as Africa's least corrupt country by Transparency International in 2004, ahead of many European and Asian countries. Transparency International ( TI) is a leading international Non-governmental organization addressing corruption The World Economic Forum rates Botswana as one of the two most economically competitive nations in Africa. In 2004 Botswana was once again assigned "A" grade credit ratings by Moody's and Standard & Poor's. Moody's Corporation ( is the holding company for Moody's Investors Service which performs financial research and analysis on commercial and government entities Standard & Poor's ( S&P) is a division of McGraw-Hill that publishes financial research and analysison Stocks and bonds. This ranks Botswana as by far the best credit risk in Africa and puts it on par with or above many countries in central Europe, East Asia, and Latin America.
U. S. investment in Botswana remains at relatively low levels, but continues to grow. Major U. S. corporations, such as H.J. Heinz and AON Corporation, are present through direct investments, while others, such as Kentucky Fried Chicken and Remax, are present via franchise. Kentucky Fried Chicken, usually known as KFC, is a chain of Fast food restaurants based in Louisville Kentucky. RE/MAX International is an international Real estate company It was founded in 1973 by David and Gail Liniger in Denver Colorado The sovereign credit ratings by Moody's and Standard & Poor's clearly indicate that, despite continued challenges such as small market size, landlocked location, and cumbersome bureaucratic processes, Botswana remains one of the best investment opportunities in the developing world. Botswana has a 90-member American Business Council that accepts membership from American-affiliated companies.
Due to its history and geography, Botswana has long had deep ties to the economy of South Africa. The Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU), comprising Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, and South Africa, dates from 1910, and is the world’s oldest customs union. Southern African Customs Union ( SACU) is a Customs union among five countries of Southern Africa. Lesotho (lɪˈsuːtuː) officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is a Landlocked country and Enclave — entirely surrounded by the Republic of South Namibia joined in 1990. Under this arrangement, South Africa has collected levies from customs, sales, and excise duties for all five members, sharing out proceeds based on each country's portion of imports. The exact formula for sharing revenues and the decision-making authority over duties—held exclusively by the Government of South Africa—became increasingly controversial, and the members renegotiated the arrangement in 2001. The new structure has now been formally ratified and a SACU Secretariat has been established in Windhoek, Namibia. Following South Africa's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), Botswana also joined; many of the SACU duties are thus declining, making products from outside the area more competitive in Botswana. Currently the SACU countries and the U. S. are negotiating a free trade agreement. Botswana is currently also negotiating a free trade agreement with Mercosur and an Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union as part of SADC. Role and potential Some South Americans see Mercosur as giving the capability to combine resources to balance the activities of other global economic powers especially the North The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
Botswana's currency, the pula, is fully convertible and is valued against a basket of currencies heavily weighted toward the South African Rand. The Okavango Delta (or Okavango Swamp) in Botswana, is the world's largest inland delta. The pula is the Currency of Botswana. It has the ISO 4217 code BWP and is subdivided into 100 thebe. The rand ( sign: R; code: ZAR) is the Currency of South Africa. Profits and direct investment can be repatriated without restriction from Botswana. The Botswana Government eliminated all exchange controls in 1999. The Central Bank devalued the Pula by 7. 5% in February 2004 in a bid to maintain export competitiveness against the real appreciation of the Pula. There was a further 12% devaluation in May 2005 and the policy of a "crawling peg" was adopted.
Most (70%) of Botswana's electricity is imported from South Africa's Eskom. This article is about the South African electricity utility For the similarly-named German computer company see Escom. 80% of domestic production is concentrated in one plant, Morupule Power Station near Palapye. Morupule Power Station is a Coal fired Power station near Palapye, Botswana. Palapye is a large town in Botswana, situated about halfway between Francistown and Gaborone.  In early 2008, the entire southern African region was hit hard by massive shortages in power, since the region works to share its power resources through the Southern African Power Pool, with most of the capacity coming from South Africa. Botswana has in turn put in place plans through governmental expansion of the Morupule power station, as well as encouraging private investment in the form of a 4,000 megawatt power station by the Canadian Greenfield company CIC Energy to become a net exporter of power to the regional pool.
Gaborone is host to the headquarters of the fourteen-nation Southern African Development Community (SADC), a successor to the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC, established in 1980), which focused its efforts on freeing regional economic development from dependence on apartheid South Africa. The Southern African Development Community ( SADC) is an Inter-governmental organization. The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC which was the forerunner of the Southern African Development Community (SADC was formed in Lusaka SADC embraced the newly democratic South Africa as a member in 1994 and has a broad mandate to encourage growth, development, and economic integration in Southern Africa. SADC's Trade Protocol, which was launched on 1 September 2000, calls for the elimination of all tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade by 2008 among the 11 signatory countries. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. If successful, it will give Botswana companies free access to the far larger regional market. SADC's failure to distance itself from the Mugabe government in Zimbabwe has diminished the number of opportunities for cooperation between the U. S. and SADC.
Botswana is in the process or formulating an Action Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, which is expected to be adopted in the period 2006-2007.
Tourism plays a large role in the Botswana economy. A number of national parks and game reserves, with their abundant wildlife and wetlands, are major tourist attractions. The wildlife, including lions, brown hyenas, cheetahs, leopards, wild dogs and antelope, were described in great detail in the best-selling book "Cry of the Kalahari" by Mark and Delia Owens.
The main safari destinations for tourism are Moremi Game Reserve in the Okavango Delta, and Chobe National Park. SAFARI was an attempt by the French government under the presidency of Georges Pompidou, to create a centralized database of personal data Moremi Game Reserve is a National Park in Botswana. It rests on the western side of the Okavango Delta and was named after Chief Moremi of the The Okavango Delta (or Okavango Swamp) in Botswana, is the world's largest inland delta. Chobe National Park, in northwest Botswana, has one of the largest game concentration in Africa continent Botswana is also participating in community based natural resource management projects by trying to involve villagers in tourism. One example is the village of Khwai and its Khwai Development Trust. Khwai a small village of approximately 400 BaBukakhwe or River Bushmen located just outside of Moremi Game Reserve in Northern Botswana.
Botswana was the location for the 1980 movie The Gods Must Be Crazy. The Gods Must Be Crazy is a Film released in 1980 written and directed by Jamie Uys. The seventh season of the Amazing Race visited Botswana. The Amazing Race, sometimes referred to as TAR, is a Reality television Game show in which teams of two people (with one exception
The most popular sport in Botswana is football, while other popular sports include cricket, rugby union, softball, volleyball and athletics. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short Softball is a team Sport popular especially in the United States. Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet . Botswana is an associate member of International Cricket Council. The International Cricket Council (ICC is the international governing body of Cricket.
Another popular game is the mind sport of Bridge. Bridge was first played in Botswana thirty years ago, but it was the 1980’s when the game really took off with many British expatriate school teachers teaching bridge in Botswana’s Secondary Schools. They were not qualified “bridge teachers”; simply enthusiasts who wanted to pass on their own passion to another and younger generation. The result was the foundation of the Botswana Bridge Federation (BBF) in 1988 and so the official organiser of tournaments for the pupils to play in. Since then bridge has continued to be popular in the country and is a fixture of many people’s lives, for example the BBF can currently boast over 800 members. At its peak there could be as many as 600 children playing bridge – something which is unique in Africa. . This interest in bridge has developed even further in 2008 when the BBF invited the English Bridge Union to host a bridge teaching programme over a week in May 2008. The English Bridge Union, commonly known as the EBU, is a membership-funded organisation which promotes and organises the game of Duplicate bridge in England 
The main tribal language and one of the two official languages of Botswana is Setswana. Note Besides referring to the language of the dominant people groups in Botswana, Setswana is the adjective used to describe the rich cultural traditions In Setswana prefixes are more important than they are in many other languages. Some of those prefixes are "Bo" which refers to the country, "Ba" which refers to the people, "Mo" which is one person, "Se" which is the language. For example, the main tribe of Botswana is the Tswana people, hence the name Botswana for its country. The people as a whole are Batswana, one person is a Motswana, and the language they speak is Setswana. Lesotho, located in the middle of South Africa, is considered a sister country. It was inhabited by a cousin tribe called the Sotho, who speak a similar language. That language is called Sesotho and can be understood by anyone speaking Setswana. The country is called Lesotho because "Le" is a prefix that means "other," holding lower rank. In Botswana, foreigners, particularly white people, are called "lekoa". Africans from other countries are not referred to as Lekoa.
In the northern part of Botswana, women in the villages of Etsha and Gumare are noted for their skill at crafting baskets from Mokola Palm and local dyes. Gumare or Gomare is a rural village located in the North-West District of Botswana, near the Okavango Delta. A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibres often made of Willow. A dye can generally be described as a Colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied The baskets are generally woven into three types: large, lidded baskets used for storage, large, open baskets for carrying objects on the head or for winnowing threshed grain, and smaller plates for winnowing pounded grain. The artistry of these baskets is being steadily enhanced through color use and improved designs as they are increasingly produced for commercial use.
Other notable artistic communities include Thamaga Pottery and Oodi Weavers, both located in the southeastern part of Botswana.
The oldest paintings from both Botswana and South Africa depict hunting, animal and human figures, and were made by the Khoisan (Kung San!/Bushmen) over twenty thousand years ago within the Kalahari desert. The Bushmen, San, Sho, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of southern Africa that spans most areas of South Africa
Bessie Head is a writer well-known in Southern Africa. Bessie Emery Head ( July 6, 1937 - April 17, 1986) is usually considered Botswana 's most important writer In 1964 she fled the apartheid regime in South Africa to live in and write about Botswana. She lived there from 1964 (when it was still the Bechuanaland Protectorate) until her death at the age of 49 in 1986. She lived in Serowe, and her most famous books, When Rain Clouds Gather, Maru, and A Question of Power are set there. Serowe (population approx 90 000 was famed as Botswana 's largest village
Botswana forms the setting for a series of popular mystery novels by Alexander McCall Smith. Alexander (RAA "Sandy" McCall Smith, CBE, FRSE, (born August 24 1948 is a Zimbabwean born British Writer and Their protagonist, Precious Ramotswe, lives in Gaborone. Precious Ramotswe is the fictional protagonist in The No 1 Ladies' Detective Agency series of novels by Scottish author Alexander McCall Smith The first novel in the series, The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency, appeared in 1998 in the UK (and 2001 in the US). The No 1 Ladies' Detective Agency is the first of The No 1 Ladies' Detective Agency series of novels by Alexander McCall Smith, set in Gaborone The light-hearted books are appreciated for their human interest and local colour. The film has now been shot in Kgalewood the filming location at the foot of Kgale Hill in Kgale view Gaborone Botswana.
Norman Rush, who served as a Peace Corps director in Botswana from 1978 to 1983, uses the country as the setting of all of his published books, which generally focus on the expatriate community. Norman Rush (born October 24, 1933) is an American Novelist whose introspective novels and short stories are set in Botswana in the The Peace Corps is an independent United States federal agency.
Unity Dow (born 1959) is a judge, human rights activist, and writer from Botswana. Unity Dow (born 1959 is a judge Human rights activist and writer from Botswana. She came from a rural background that tended toward traditional values of the African kind. Her mother could not read English, and in most cases decision-making was done by men. She went on to become a lawyer with much of her education being done in the West. Her Western education earned her a mixture of respect and suspicion.
As a lawyer she earned acclaim most for her stances on women's rights. She was the plaintiff in a case that allowed the children of women by foreign nationals to be considered Batswana. Tswana ( Motswana, plural Batswana) is the name of a Southern African people The tradition and law before this stated nationality only descended from the father. She later became Botswana's first female High Court judge.
As a novelist she has had three books. These books often concern the issues concerning the struggle between Western and traditional values. They also involve her interest in gender issues and her nation's poverty.
British author and historian Susan Williams' book, Colour Bar: The Triumph of Seretse Khama and His Nation, tells the story of the marriage and struggles of Sir Seretse Khama and Lady Ruth Williams Khama. Sir Seretse Khama KBE ( July 1 1921 July 13 1980) was the first President of Botswana. Ruth Williams Lady Khama ( 1923 - 22 May 2002) was the wife of Botswana 's first president Sir Seretse Khama.
A collection of humorous true short stories, "Whatever You Do, Don't Run" (released in the United Kingdom and South Africa as "Don't Run, Whatever You Do"), contains many stories from Botswana written by a safari guide, Peter Allison.
|Date||English name||Local name|
|1 January||New Year's Day||Ngwaga o mosha|
|2 January||Public Holiday|
|varies||Good Friday||Labotlhano yo o molemo|
|1 July||Sir Seretse Khama Day|
|19 July||President's Day|
|20 July||Public Holiday|
|30 September||Independence Day||Boipuso|
|26 December/27 December||Boxing Day|
|The first Monday after Christmas is also a Public Holiday. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC New Year's Day is the first day of the Year. On the modern Gregorian calendar, it is celebrated on January 1, as it was also in ancient Rome (though Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday ("Pascha" Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a Holiday in some largely Christian cultures especially Roman Catholic The general and most common understanding of the Christian Doctrine of Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to Heaven in the presence "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Sir Seretse Khama KBE ( July 1 1921 July 13 1980) was the first President of Botswana. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Presidents' Day is a two-day holiday in Botswana in July. It appears to be the third Monday and Tuesday of the month Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Events 537 - The Hagia Sophia is completed 1512 - The Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos, governing the Boxing Day is a public holiday in the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Australia, as well as many other members of the Commonwealth|
Botswana has made great strides in educational development since independence in 1966. Primary education in Botswana is neither free nor compulsory At that time there were very few graduates in the country and only a very small percentage of the population attended secondary school.
With the discovery of diamonds and the increase in government revenue that this brought, there was a huge increase in educational provision in the country. All students were guaranteed ten years of basic education, leading to a Junior Certificate qualification. Approximately half of the school population attends a further two years of secondary schooling leading to the award of the Botswana General Certificate of Education (BGCSE). After leaving school, students can attend one of the six technical colleges in the country, or take vocational training courses in teaching or nursing. In Education, a teacher is one who helps Students or pupils often in a School, as well as in a Family, religious or Nursing is a Profession focused on assisting individuals families, and communities in attaining maintaining and recovering optimal Health The best students enter the University of Botswana in Gaborone, a modern, well-resourced campus with a student population of over ten thousand. The University of Botswana, or UB was established in 1982 as the first institution of Higher Education in Botswana.
The quantitative gains have not always been matched by qualitative ones. Primary schools in particular still lack resources, and the teachers are less well paid than their secondary school colleagues. The Government of Botswana hopes that by investing a large part of national income in education, the country will become less dependent on diamonds for its economic survival, and less dependent on expatriates for its skilled workers. Politics of Botswana takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Botswana
In January 2006, Botswana announced the reintroduction of school fees after two decades of free state education though the government still provides full scholarships with living expenses to any Botswana citizen in university, either at the University of Botswana or if the student wishes to pursue an education in any field not offered locally, such as medicine, they are provided with a full scholarship to study abroad.
Botswana's main ethnic groups are (in order) Tswana, Kalanga, Basarwa, Others. Botswana, like many nations in southern Africa, suffers from a high AIDS infection rates estimated in a 2002 UN report to be 38 Other groups of ethnicities in Botswana include whites and Indians both groups being equally small in number. Botswana's Indian population is made up of many Indian-Africans of several generations, from Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania, Mauritius, South Africa, etc. as well as first generation Indian immigrants. The white population being native Botswana or from other parts of Africa including Zimbabwe, Zambia and South Africa. The white population speaks either English or Afrikaans and makes up roughly 1% of the population.
Botswana, like many nations in southern Africa, suffers from a high AIDS infection rate, which was 38. 8% for adults in 2002. In 2003, the government began a comprehensive program involving free or cheap generic anti-retroviral drugs as well as an information campaign designed to stop the spread of the virus.