The Bosporus or Bosphorus, also known as the Istanbul Strait, (Turkish: İstanbul Boğazı) (Greek: Βόσπορος) is a strait that forms the boundary between the European part (Rumelia) of Turkey and its Asian part (Anatolia). Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A strait is a narrow navigable Channel of water that connects two larger navigable bodies of water Rumelia or Rumeli ( Turkish: Rumeli ("Land of the Romans" from Rum: "Greek" "Roman" and El Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The world's narrowest strait used for international navigation, it connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara (which is connected by the Dardanelles to the Aegean Sea, and thereby to the Mediterranean Sea). International waterways Several international treaties have established freedom of navigation on semi-enclosed seas The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian See also [[Hellespont]] The Dardanelles ( Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı Greek: Δαρδανέλλια Dardanellia) formerly Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. It is approximately 30 km long, with a maximum width of 3,700 metres at the northern entrance, and a minimum width of 700 metres between Kandilli and Aşiyan; and 750 metres between Anadoluhisarı and Rumelihisarı. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The depth varies from 36 to 124 metres in midstream. The shores of the strait are heavily populated as the city of Istanbul (with a metropolitan area in excess of 11 million inhabitants) straddles it. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey
Two bridges cross the Bosporus. A bridge is a Structure built to span a Gorge, Valley, Road, railroad track, River, Body of water The first, the Bosphorus Bridge, is 1074 metres long and was completed in 1973. The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge ( Turkish: Boğaziçi Köprüsü or 1 Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. The second, Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Bosphorus II) Bridge, is 1090 metres long, and was completed in 1988 about five kilometres north of the first bridge. The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge (in Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet Köprüsü, F Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Plans for a third road bridge, which will allow transit traffic to by-pass the city traffic, have been approved by the Ministry of Transportation. The bridge will be part of the so called "Northern Marmara Motorway", which will be further integrated with the existing Black Sea Coastal Highway. The location will be somewhere north of the existing two bridges, but the exact path is kept secret to avoid an early boom in land prices.
Another crossing, Marmaray, is a 13. Marmaray is an undersea Rail tunnel being constructed to link the European and Asian halves of Istanbul, running under the Bosphorus strait 7 kilometre-long undersea railway tunnel currently under construction and is expected to be completed in 2012. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon 2012 ( MMXII) will be a Leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Approximately 1,400 metres of the tunnel will run under the strait, at a depth of about 55 metres.
The name comes from the Greek word Bosporos (Βόσπορος). The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge ( Turkish: Boğaziçi Köprüsü or 1 The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge (in Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet Köprüsü, F Rumelihisarı is a Fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey, on a hill at the European side of the Bosporus just north of the The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in Ottoman: طوبكابي بالاذيis a palace in Istanbul, Turkey, which was the official and Bebek is one of the wealthiest neighbourhoods of Istanbul. It is located on the European shores of the Bosphorus and is surrounded by other wealthy districts such A yalı ( Turkish: yalı, from Greek yiáli γιαλή (mod γιαλός) literally "seashore beach" Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Paşa ( Mehmed Emin Pasha the Cypriot)born 1813 died 1881 was an Ottoman statesman of Turkish Cypriot origin who served at Turkish Cypriots ( Turkish: Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler Greek: Τουρκοκύπριοι are the ethnically Turkish inhabitants of the A yalı ( Turkish: yalı, from Greek yiáli γιαλή (mod γιαλός) literally "seashore beach" Arnavutköy (meaning "Albanian village" in Turkish) is a historic neighborhood in Istanbul, Turkey, famous for its wooden Ottoman mansions Rumelihisarı is a Fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey, on a hill at the European side of the Bosporus just north of the Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly  Its etymology is from bous (βοῦς: ox) and poros (πόρος: means of passing a river, ford, ferry) (the similar Ancient Greek word for passage, strait is porthmos (πορθμός)), thus meaning "oxen passage", which could reflect the older history of the region. Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time The Greeks analysed it as "ox-ford" or "shallow sea ox passage" and associated it with the myth of Io's travels after Zeus turned her into an heifer for her protection. A ford is a place in a Watercourse (most commonly a stream or River) that is shallow enough to be crossed by wading on Horseback or in a wheeled Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance In Greek mythology, Io (ˈaɪoʊ or /ˈiːoʊ/ World Book «EYE oh», in Ancient Greek Ἰώ) was a priestess of Hera in Argos  It has also been thought to be a Thracian form of Phôsphoros (Φωσφόρος), 'light-bearing', an epithet of the goddess Hecate. Hecate ( Greek: Ἑκάτη, "far-shooting") Hekate ( Hekátê
It is also said in myth that floating rocks known as the Symplegades or Clashing Rocks once crushed any ship that attempted passage of the Bosporus until the hero Jason obtained passage, whereupon the rocks became fixed, and Greek access to the Black Sea was opened. In Greek mythology, the Symplegades (pronounced /sɪmˈplɛgəˌdiz/ also known as the Cyanean Rocks or Clashing Rocks, were a pair of rocks at the Jason ( Greek: Ἰάσων, Etruscan: Easun, Laz: Yason) was a late ancient Greek mythological
The exact cause for the formation of the Bosporus remains the subject of vigorous debate among geologists. The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized Prehistoric Flood that occurred when the Black Sea filled rapidly Thousands of years ago, the Black Sea became disconnected from the Aegean Sea. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. One recent theory (published in 1997 by William Ryan and Walter Pitman from Columbia University) contends that the Bosporus was formed about 5600 BCE when the rising waters of the Mediterranean/Sea of Marmara breached through to the Black Sea, which at the time (according to the theory) was a low-lying body of fresh water. Walter Clarkson Pitman III is a Geophysicist and a Professor emeritus at Columbia University. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey
Some have argued that the resulting massive flooding of the inhabited and probably farmed northern shores of the Black Sea is thought to be the historic basis for the flood stories found in the Epic of Gilgamesh and in the Bible in Book of Genesis, Chapters 6-9. The story of a Great Flood (also known as the Deluge) sent by a Deity or deities to destroy Civilization as an act of Divine retribution is a The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin On the other hand, there is also evidence for a flood of water going in the opposite direction, from the Black Sea into the Sea of Marmara around 7000 or 8000 BCE. The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian
St. Jerome's Vulgate translates the Hebrew besepharad in Obadiah, 1-20 as "Bosforus", but other translations give it as "Sepharad" (probably Sardis, but later identified with Spain). Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος The Vulgate is an early Fifth Century version of the Bible in Latin, and largely the result of the labours of Jerome, who was commissioned by Sepharad is a Biblical placename of uncertain location Persian inscriptions refer to two places called "Saparda" one in Media and the other in Sardis, also Sardes ( Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda) modern Sart in 
As the only passage between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Bosporus has always been of great commercial and strategic importance. The Greek city-state of Athens in the 5th century BC, which was dependent on grain imports from Scythia, therefore maintained critical alliances with cities which controlled the straits, such as the Megarian colony Byzantium. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th Megara ( Greek:, "Big Houses" is an ancient city (pop This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM
The strategic significance of the strait was one of the factors in the decision of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great to found there in 330 AD his new capital, Constantinople, which came to be known as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine Events By Place Roman Empire May 11 — Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS On May 29, 1453 it was conquered by the emerging Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish In fact, as the Ottoman Turks closed in on Constantinople, they constructed a fortification on each side of the strait, Anadoluhisarı (1393) and Rumelihisarı (1451). Anadoluhisarı is a Fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian ( Asian side of the Bosporus, which also gives Rumelihisarı is a Fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey, on a hill at the European side of the Bosporus just north of the They later renamed the city Istanbul. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey
The strategic importance of the Bosporus remains high, and control over it has been an objective of a number of hostilities in modern history, notably the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878, as well as of the attack of the Allied Powers on the Dardanelles in 1915 in the course of the First World War. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered The Entente Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. See also [[Hellespont]] The Dardanelles ( Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı Greek: Δαρδανέλλια Dardanellia) formerly Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Several international treaties have governed vessels using the waters, including the Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits, signed in 1936. The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits was a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus Straits and the Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In the conferences during World War II, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin openly requested the concession of Soviet military bases on the Turkish Straits, even though Turkey was not involved in the war. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party The term Turkish Straits (Türk Boğazları in northwestern Turkey refers to the two narrow Straits that connect the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean This incident, coupled with Stalin's demands for the restitution of the Turkish provinces of Kars, Artvin and Ardahan to the Soviet Union (which were lost by Turkey with the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) but were regained with the Treaty of Kars in 1921) was one of the main reasons why Turkey decided to give up its principle of neutrality in foreign affairs and join NATO in 1952. Kars may refer to Kars Turkey Kars Province, Turkey Kars Oblast, Russian Empire Kars Province Artvin is a city in northeastern Turkey on the Çoruh River near the Georgian border Ardahan (Արդահան Ардаган არტაანი is a city in northeastern Turkey on the Georgian border The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered The Treaty of Kars (Kars Antlaşması Карсский договор / Karskiy dogovor) was a friendship treaty between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey The North Atlantic Treaty  In more recent years, the Turkish Straits have become particularly important for the oil industry. Russian oil, from ports such as Novorossyisk, is exported by tankers to western Europe and the U. History In antiquity the shores of the Tsemess Bay were the site of Bata, an ancient Greek colony that specialized in the Grain trade S. via the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles straits. See also [[Hellespont]] The Dardanelles ( Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı Greek: Δαρδανέλλια Dardanellia) formerly
A cheap way to explore the Bosporus is offered by the public ferries that traverse the Bosporus from Eminönü on the historic peninsula of Istanbul to Anadolu Kavağı near the Black Sea, zigzagging between the Rumelian and Anatolian sides of the city. Eminönü is a district of Istanbul in Turkey. This is the heart of the walled city of Constantine, the focus of a history of incredible richness 
It is also possible to experience Bosphorus by taking a regular ride in one of the public ferries that travel in every 45 minutes between the European and the Asian sides. It is also possible to travel by the privately owned ferries available between Üsküdar and Beşiktaş. Üsküdar is a large and densely populated suburb of Istanbul, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus right opposite the heart of the great city next This article is about a District in İstanbul For the sports club see Beşiktaş J
There are also touristic rides available in various places along the coasts of Bosphorus. The prices vary according to the type of the ride, and some feature loud popular music for the duration of the trip.