The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia which bordered a free state and aligned with the Union during the American Civil War. A slave state was a US state in which Slavery of African Americans was legal Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by The free states of the United States existed in opposition to the Slave states prior to the American Civil War. During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South All but Delaware share borders with states that joined the Confederacy. The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 In Kentucky and Missouri there were both pro-Confederate and pro-Union government factions. Though every slave state (except South Carolina) contributed some troops to the Union side, the split was most severe in these border states, with men from the same family often fighting on opposite sides.
West Virginia was formed in 1863 from the northwestern counties of Virginia that had seceded from Virginia after Virginia seceded from the Union. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio is the act of withdrawing from an organization union or especially a political entity In the cases of Kentucky and Missouri, the states had two state governments during the Civil War, one supporting the Confederacy and one supporting the Union.
In addition, two territories not yet states—the Indian Territory (now the state of Oklahoma), and the New Mexico Territory (now the states of Arizona and New Mexico)—also permitted slavery. The Indian Territory, also known as The Indian Country, The Indian territory or the Indian territories, was land set aside within the United States Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. The Territory of New Mexico became an Organized territory of the United States on September 9, 1850, and it existed until New Mexico The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Yet very few slaves could actually be found in these territories, despite the institution's legal status there. During the war, the major Indian tribes in Oklahoma signed an alliance with the Confederacy and participated in its military efforts. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Residents of New Mexico Territory were of divided loyalties; the region was split between the Union and Confederacy at the 34th Parallel. Oklahoma is often cited as a "border state" today, but Arizona and New Mexico are rarely, if ever, so characterized.
With geographic, social, political, and economic connections to both the North and the South, the border states were critical to the outcome of the war and still delineate the cultural border that separates the North from the South. After Reconstruction, most of the border states adopted Jim Crow laws resembling those enacted in the South, but in recent decades some of them (most notably Delaware and Maryland) have become more Northern in their political, economic, and social orientation, while others (particularly Kentucky and West Virginia) have adopted a Southern way of life. The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965  Telsur Southern Dialect Regional Map
Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, designed as a war-measures act, applied only to territories not already under Union control, so it did not apply to the border states. The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia each changed their state constitution to prohibit slavery. Slavery in Kentucky and Delaware (as well as remnants of slavery in West Virginia and New Jersey) was not ended until the 1865 ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit Slavery, and with limited exceptions such as those
Both houses of Delaware's General Assembly rejected secession overwhelmingly, the House of Representatives unanimously. The Delaware General Assembly is the legislature of the US state of Delaware.
The Maryland Legislature rejected secession in 1861, Governor Hicks voted against it. See also American Civil War, Origins of the American Civil War, Heart of the Civil War Heritage Area Maryland, a Slave state, was As a result of the Union Army's heavy presence in the state and the suspension of habeas corpus by Abraham Lincoln, several Maryland state legislators, as well as the mayor and police chief of Baltimore, who supported the secession, were arrested and imprisoned by Union authorities. The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. Habeas corpus (ˈheɪbiəs ˈkɔɹpəs ( Latin: command that you have the body is the name of a legal action or Writ, through which a person can seek relief Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government (Notice that with Virginia having seceded, Union troops had to go through Maryland to reach the national capital at Washington DC) Had Maryland also joined the Confederacy, Washington DC would have been totally surrounded. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Maryland contributed troops to both the Union (60,000) and the Confederate (25,000) armies.
Maryland was not covered by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation. The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. Maryland adopted a new state constitution in 1864, which prohibited slavery and thus emancipated all slaves in the state.
Kentucky was strategic to Union victory in the Civil War. Kentucky was a border state of key importance in the American Civil War. Lincoln once said, "I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game. Kentucky gone, we cannot hold Missouri, nor Maryland. These all against us, and the job on our hands is too large for us. We would as well consent to separation at once, including the surrender of this capital" (Washington, which was surrounded by slave states: Confederate Virginia and Union-controlled Maryland). He is further reported to have said that he hoped to have God on his side, but he had to have Kentucky.
Kentucky did not secede, but a faction known as the Russellville Convention formed a Confederate government of Kentucky which was recognized by the Confederate States of America as a member state. The Confederate government of Kentucky was a Shadow government established for the Commonwealth of Kentucky by a self-constituted group of Southern The Confederate government of Kentucky was a Shadow government established for the Commonwealth of Kentucky by a self-constituted group of Southern Kentucky was represented by the central star on the Confederate battle flag. The Confederate States of America used several Flags during its existence from 1861 to 1865 
Kentucky Governor Beriah Magoffin proposed that slave states like Kentucky should conform to the US Constitution and remain in the Union. Beriah Magoffin ( April 18, 1815 February 28, 1885) was the Governor of Kentucky from 1859 to 1862 The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. When Lincoln requested 75,000 men to serve in the Union, however; Magoffin, a Southern sympathizer, countered that Kentucky would "furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister Southern states. "
Kentucky tried to remain neutral, even issuing a proclamation May 20, 1861, asking both sides to keep out. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The neutrality was broken when Confederate General Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, Kentucky, in the summer of 1861, though the Union had been openly enlisting troops in the state before this. Leonidas Polk ( April 10, 1806 &ndash June 14, 1864) was a Confederate general who was once a planter in Maury County Tennessee Columbus is a city in Hickman County, Kentucky, United States. In response, the Kentucky Legislature passed a resolution directing the governor to demand the evacuation of Confederate forces from Kentucky soil. Magoffin vetoed the proclamation, but the legislature overrode his veto. A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. The legislature further decided to back General Ulysses S. Grant and his Union troops stationed in Paducah, Kentucky, on the grounds that the Confederacy voided the original pledge by entering Kentucky first. Ulysses S Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27 1822 &ndash July 23 1885 was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States Paducah is the largest city in Kentucky 's Jackson Purchase Region and the County seat of McCracken County, Kentucky, United States
Southern sympathizers were outraged at the legislature's decisions, citing that Polk's troops in Kentucky were only in route to countering Grant's forces. Later legislative resolutions—such as inviting Union General Robert Anderson to enroll volunteers to expel the Confederate forces, requesting the governor to call out the militia, and appointing Union General Thomas L. Crittenden in command of Kentucky forces—only incensed the Southerners further. Robert Anderson is the name of a number of people in various fields Arts and entertainment Robert Anderson (author (1750&ndash1830 Scottish literary Thomas Leonidas Crittenden ( May 15, 1819 &ndash October 23, 1893) was a lawyer politician and Union general during the American (Magoffin vetoed the resolutions but all were overridden. ) In 1862, the legislature passed an act to disfranchise citizens who enlisted in the Confederate States Army. The War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an act on February 21, 1861. Thus Kentucky's neutral status evolved into backing the Union. Most of those who originally sought neutrality, turned to the Union cause.
When Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston occupied Bowling Green, Kentucky in the summer of 1861, the pro-Confederates in western and central Kentucky moved to establish a Confederate state government. Bowling Green is the fourth-most populous City in the US state of Kentucky after Louisville, Lexington and Owensboro The Russellville Convention met in Logan County on November 18, 1861. The Confederate government of Kentucky was a Shadow government established for the Commonwealth of Kentucky by a self-constituted group of Southern Logan County is a County located in the southwest area of the U Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common One hundred sixteen delegates from 68 counties elected to depose the current government and create a provisional government loyal to Kentucky's new unofficial Confederate Governor George W. Johnson. A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime George Washington Johnson (May 27 1811 April 8 1862 was the first Confederate governor of Kentucky. On December 10, 1861, Kentucky became the 13th state admitted to the Confederacy. Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Kentucky, along with Missouri, was a state with representatives in both Congresses and with regiments in both Union and Confederate armies.
Magoffin, still functioning as official governor in Frankfort, would not recognize the Kentucky Confederates nor their attempts to establish a government in his state. Frankfort is a city in the US commonwealth of Kentucky that serves as the state Capital and the County seat of Franklin County. He continued to declare Kentucky's official status in the war was as a neutral state—even though the legislature backed the Union. Magoffin, fed up with the party divisions within the population and legislature, announced a special session of the legislature and then resigned his office in 1862.
Bowling Green remained occupied by the Confederates until February 1862 when General Grant moved from Missouri through Kentucky along the Tennessee line. Confederate Governor Johnson fled Bowling Green with the Confederate state records, headed south, and joined Confederate forces in Tennessee. After Johnson was killed fighting in the Battle of Shiloh, Richard Hawes was named Confederate governor. Background and opposing forces After the losses of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in February 1862 Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston withdrew Richard Hawes (February 6 1797 – May 25 1877 was a United States Representative from Kentucky and the second Confederate Governor of Kentucky. Shortly afterwards, the Provisional Confederate Congress was adjourned on February 17, 1862, on the eve of inauguration of a permanent Congress. The Provisional Confederate Congress, for a time the legislative branch of the Confederate States of America, was the body which drafted the Confederate Constitution Events 1500 - Battle of Hemmingstedt. 1600 - Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday However, as Union occupation henceforth dominated the state, the Kentucky Confederate government, as of 1863, existed only on paper, and its representation in the permanent congress was minimal. It was dissolved when the Civil War ended in the spring of 1865.
After the secession of Southern states began, the newly elected governor of Missouri called upon the legislature to authorize a state constitutional convention on secession. Missouri in the Civil War was a border state that sent men generals and supplies to both opposing sides had its star on both flags had state governments A special election approved of the convention and delegates to it. This Missouri Constitutional Convention voted to remain within the Union, but rejected coercion of the Southern States by the United States. The Missouri Constitutional Convention (1861-63 was a constitutional convention in the American Civil War that decided that Missouri stay in the Union Pro-Southern Governor Claiborne F. Jackson was disappointed with the outcome. Claiborne Fox Jackson ( April 4, 1806 December 6, 1862) was a lawyer soldier politician He called up the state militia to their districts for annual training. Jackson had plans on the St. Louis Arsenal and had been in secret correspondence with Confederate President Jefferson Davis to obtain artillery for the militia in St. Louis. The St Louis Arsenal is a large complex of military weapons and ammunition storage buildings owned by the United States Army in St Jefferson Finis Davis ( June 3, 1808 &ndash December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as President of the Aware of these developments, Union Captain Nathaniel Lyon struck first, encircling the camp and forcing the state militia to surrender. Nathaniel Lyon ( July 14, 1818 &ndash August 10, 1861) was the first Union general to be killed in the American While marching the prisoners to the arsenal, a deadly riot erupted (the Camp Jackson Affair. The Camp Jackson Affair was an incident of Civil unrest in the American Civil War on May 10, 1861, when Union military forces )
These events caused greater Confederate support within the state. The already pro-Southern legislature passed the governor's military bill creating the Missouri State Guard. The Missouri State Guard (MSG was a state Militia organized in the state of Missouri during the early days of the American Civil War. Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Price, who had been president of the convention, as major general of this reformed and expanded militia. Sterling Price ( September 20, 1809 September 29, 1867) was a lawyer politician and Militia General from the Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries Price and Union district commander Harney came to an agreement known as the Price-Harney Truce that calmed tensions in the state for several weeks. The Price-Harney Truce was a document signed on May 21, 1861 between United States Army General William S After Harney was removed and Lyon placed in charge, a meeting was held in St. Louis at the Planters' House between Lyon, his political ally Francis P. Blair, Jr., Price, and Jackson. Francis Preston Blair Jr ( February 19, 1821 &ndash July 9, 1875) was an American politician and Union Army general during The negotiations went nowhere and after a few fruitless hours Lyon made his famous declaration, "this means war!" Price and Jackson rapidly departed for the capital.
Jackson, Price, and the state legislature were forced to flee the state capital of Jefferson City on June 14, 1861, in the face of Lyon's rapid advance against the state government. Events 1276 - While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common In the absence of the now exiled state government, the Missouri Constitutional Convention reconvened in late July. The Missouri Constitutional Convention (1861-63 was a constitutional convention in the American Civil War that decided that Missouri stay in the Union On July 30 the convention declared the state offices vacant and appointed a new provisional government with Hamilton Gamble as governor. Events 1419 - First Defenestration of Prague. 1502 - Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off Hamilton Rowan Gamble ( November 26, 1798 January 31, 1864) was the Chief justice of the Missouri Supreme Court who issued President Lincoln's Administration immediately recognized Gamble's government as the legal government, which provided both pro-Union militia forces for service within the state and volunteer regiments for the Union Army.
Fighting ensued between Union forces and a combined army of General Price's Missouri State Guard and Confederate troops from Arkansas and Texas under General Ben McCulloch. Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Benjamin McCulloch (November 11 1811&ndashMarch 7 1862 was a soldier in the Texas Revolution, a Texas Ranger, a U After winning victories at the battle of Wilson's Creek and the siege of Lexington, Missouri, the secessionist forces had little choice but to retreat again to Southwest Missouri as Union reinforcements arrived. Background At the beginning of the war Missouri declared that it would be an " Armed neutral " in the conflict and not send materials or men to The First Battle of Lexington also known as the Battle of the Hemp Bales was an engagement of the American Civil War, occurring from September 13 There, on October 30, 1861 in the town of Neosho, Jackson called the exiled state legislature into session where they enacted a secession ordinance. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Neosho is a city in and the County seat of Newton County, Missouri, United States. The Missouri Secession controversy refers to the disputed status of the state of Missouri during the American Civil War. It was recognized by the Confederate congress, and Missouri was admitted into the Confederacy on November 28. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events
The exiled state government was forced to withdraw into Arkansas in the face of a largely reinforced Union Army. Though regular Confederate troops staged several large-scale raids into Missouri, the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted mainly of guerrilla warfare. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc The guerrillas were primarily southern partisans including William Quantrill, Frank and Jesse James, the Younger brothers, and William T. Anderson. William Clarke Quantrill ( July 31 1837 &ndash June 6 1865) was a Confederate guerrilla leader during the American Alexander Franklin James ( January 10, 1843 &ndash February 18, 1915) was an American Outlaw and older brother of Jesse Woodson James (September 5 1847—April 3 1882 was an American Outlaw in the border state of Missouri and the most famous member of the The James-Younger Gang was a legendary 19th century Gang of American Outlaws that included Jesse James. William T Anderson aka " Bloody Bill " (1839&ndashOctober 26 1864 was a pro- Confederate guerrilla leader in the American Civil War Such small unit tactics pioneered by the Missouri Partisan Rangers were seen in other occupied portions of the Confederacy during the Civil War. The James' brothers outlawry after the war has been seen as a continuation of guerrilla warfare.
Governor Thomas C. Fletcher ended slavery in Missouri on January 11, 1865, by executive proclamation. Thomas Clement Fletcher ( January 21, 1827 March 25, 1899) was the Governor of Missouri during the latter stages of the American Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
The serious divisions between the western and eastern sections of Virginia did not begin in the winter of 1860-1861. West Virginia was formed and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War (see History of West Virginia) West Virginia historian C. H. Ambler wrote that “there are few years during the period from 1830 to 1850 which did not bring forth schemes for the dismemberment of the commonwealth. ” The western part of the state during this time was “the growing and aggressive section” while the east was “the declining and conservative one. ” The west centered its grievances on the east’s disproportionate (based on population) legislative representation and share of state revenues. The east justified this dominance because of its dependence on slaves, “the possession of which could be guaranteed and secured only by giving to masters a voice in the government adequate to the protection of their interests. ” In 1851 the Virginia Reform Convention, forced to recognize that the white population of the western part of the state outnumbered the east, made significant changes. Universal white suffrage was granted and the governor was to be determined by the direct vote of the people. The lower house of the legislature was apportioned strictly based on population, although the upper house still used a combination of population and property in determining its electoral districts. 
By 1859 there were again strong sectional tensions at work within the state, although the west itself was split between the north and the south, with the south more satisfied with the changes made in 1851. Historian Daniel W. Crofts wrote, “Northwesterners complained that they had become ‘the complete vassals of Eastern Virginia,’ taxed ‘unmercifully and increasingly, at her instance and for her benefit. ’” Internal improvements important to the west, such as the James River and Kanawha Canal or railroads connecting the west to the east had been promised but not built. The James River and Kanawha Canal was a Canal in Virginia, which was built to facilitate shipments of passengers and freight by water between the western counties Slaves, for tax purposes, were not valued above $300 despite a top field hand being worth five times that amount.  The west had 135,000 more whites than the east, but the east controlled the state Senate. In the United States House of Representatives, because of the three-fifth rule, only five of Virginia’s thirteen representatives came from western districts. The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which  In the 1859 gubernatorial elections there was disenchantment with both parties in the west. Western grievances were ignored as “both parties engaged in a proslavery shouting match. ” Antislavery Whigs began to move towards the Republican Party; in the 1860 presidential election, Abraham Lincoln received 2,000 votes from the western panhandle. 
Crofts wrote that “no document better captures the mood of unconditional northwestern Virginia Unionists” than the following from a March 16, 1861 letter by Henry Dering of Morgantown to Waitman T. Willey:
Talk about Northern oppression, talk about our rights being stolen from us by the North – it’s all stuff, and dwindles into nothing when compared, to our situation in Western Virginia. Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Waitman Thomas Willey ( October 18, 1811 &ndash May 2, 1900) was an American lawyer and politician from Morgantown West The truth is the slavery oligarchy, are impudent boastful and tyrannical, it is the nature of the institution to make men so – and tho I am far, from being an abolitionist, yet if they persist, in their course, the day may come, when all Western Virginia will rise up, in her might and throw off the Shackles, which thro this very Divine institution, as they call it, has been pressing us down. 
By December 1860 secession was being publicly debated throughout Virginia. Leading eastern newspapers such as the Richmond Inquirer, Richmond Examiner, and Norfolk Argus were openly calling for secession.  The Wellsburg Herald on December 14 warned the east that the west would not be “legislated into treason or dragged into trouble to gratify the wishes of any set of men, or to subserve the interests of any section. Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people ” The Morgantown Star on January 12 said that their region was “unwilling that slavery in Virginia shall be used to oppress the people of our section of the state. Events 475 - Basiliscus becomes Byzantine Emperor, with a coronation ceremony in the Hebdomon palace in Constantinople . . . We people in Western Virginia have borne the burden just about as long as we can stand it. We have been ‘hewers of wood and drawers of water’ for Eastern Virginia long enough. ” In addition to traditional east- west differences, the specter of secession raised new issues for the northwest. This section shared a 450-mile (720 km) border with Ohio and Pennsylvania and, by virtue of the state’s failure to build roads, was isolated from the rest of the state. A leading unionist said, “We would be swept by the enemy from the face of the earth before the news of the attack could reach our Eastern friends. ” Another unionist, addressing the section’s close economic links with the North, asked, “Would you have us . . . act like madmen and cut our own throats merely to sustain you in a most unwarrantable rebellion. ”
Despite unionist opposition, a special session of the state legislature in early January called for the election of delegates to a state convention on February 4 to consider secession. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons A proposal by Waitman T. Willey to have the convention also consider reforms to taxation and representation went nowhere.  The convention first met on February 13 and voted for secession on April 17, 1861. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The decision was dependent on ratification by a statewide referendum.
On April 22, 1861 John S. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Carlisle led a meeting of 1,200 people in Harrison County. The meeting approved the “Clarksburg Resolutions”, calling for the creation of a new state separate from Virginia. The resolutions were widely circulated and each county was asked to choose five “of their wisest, best, and distinguished men” as delegates.  Historian Allan Nevins wrote, “ The movement, spontaneous, full of extralegal irregularities, and varying from place to place, spread like the wind. Community after community held mass meetings. ”
Unionists in Virginia met at the Wheeling Convention from May 13 to May 15 to await the decision of the state referendum called to ratify the decision to secede. The 1861 Wheeling Convention was held at West Virginia Independence Hall in Wheeling. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the  In attendance were over four hundred delegates from twenty-seven counties. Most delegations were chosen by public meetings rather than elections and some attendees came strictly on their own. The editor of the Wheeling Western Star called it “almost a mass meeting of the people instead of a representative body. ”
Carlisle, in front of a banner proclaiming “New Virginia, now or never”, spoke for the immediate creation of a new state consisting of thirty-two counties. Speaking of the actions of the Virginia secession convention, he said, “Let us act; let us repudiate these monstrous usurpations; let us show our loyalty to Virginia and the Union at every hazard. It is useless to cry peace when there is no peace; and I for one will repeat what was said by one of Virginia’s noblest sons and greatest statesmen, ‘Give me liberty or give me death. ’
Speaking in opposition to action at this time, Willey argued that the convention had no authority to take such an action and referred to it as “triple treason”. Francis H. Pierpont supported Willey and helped to work out a compromise that secured the withdrawal of the Carlisle motion, declared the state’s Ordinance of Secession to be “unconstitutional, null, and void", and called for a second convention on June 11 if secession was ratified. Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes. 
Willey’s closing remarks to the convention set the stage for the June meeting:
Fellow citizens, the first thing we have got to fight is the Ordinance of Secession. Let us kill it on the 23rd of this month. Let us bury it deep within the hills of Northwestern Virginia. Let us pile up our glorious hills on it; bury it deep so that it will never make its appearance among us again. Let us go back home and vote, even if we are beaten upon the final result, for the benefit of the moral influence of that vote. If we give something like a decided . . . majority in the Northwest, that alone secures our rights. That alone, at least secures at independent State if we desire it. 
The statewide vote in favor of secession was 132,201 to 37,451. In the core Unionist enclave of northwestern Virginia the vote was 30,586 to 10,021 against secession, although the total vote in the counties that would become West Virginia was a closer 34,677 to 19,121 against. 
The Second Wheeling Convention opened on June 11 with more than 100 delegates from 32 western counties representing nearly one-third of Virginia’s total voting population. Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes. Members of the Virginia General Assembly were accepted as long as they were loyal to the Union "and still others were seemingly self-appointed. " The convention met “ in open defiance of the Richmond authorities” and efforts were made in many counties to restrict attendance. Delegates were required to take a loyalty oath to the United State Constitution “anything in the Ordinance of the Convention which assembled in Richmond, on 13 February last, to the contrary notwithstanding. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed ”. 
Arthur I. Boreman, the future governor of West Virginia, was chosen as president, but the main leaders were Carlisle and Frank Pierpont. Arthur Ingram Boreman ( July 24, 1823 &ndash April 19, 1896) was the first governor of the U While many still supported Carlisle’s original plan to create a new state, Article IV Section 3 of the Constitution presented a problem. This section guaranteed that “no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of ay their State . . . without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States Concerned as well as of Congress. ” The legal solution chosen by the convention is described by author W. Hunter Lesser::
A new Virginia government would be created. All state offices would be declared vacant, the traitors thrown out by proxy and Union men appointed in their place. Loyal Unionists would claim the political framework of a state already recognized by the Federal government – thereby courting favor with a Lincoln administration not anxious to deal with the Rebels. Lincoln himself held the constitutional authority to determine which of two competing parties was the lawful state government. An 1849 Supreme Court case in Rhode Island – Luther vs. Borden – had set the precedent. 
This restored Virginia government would then, under this theory, have the authority to the creation of a new state within the Old Dominion’s old borders.
On June 13 Carlisle presented his “Declaration of Rights of the People of Virginia” to the convention. Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for It accused the secessionists of “usurping” the rights of the people, creating an “illegal confederacy of rebellious states”, and declared it was now their duty “to abolish” the state government as it existed. The convention approved this declaration on June 17 by a 56 to 0 vote. Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat On June 14 “An Ordinance fo the Re-organization of the State Government” was presented which provided for the selection of a governor, lieutenant governor, and a five-member governor’s council by the convention, declared all state government offices vacant, and recognized a “rump legislature” composed of loyal members of the General Assembly who had been elected in the May 23 statewide voting. Events 1276 - While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne This ordinance was approved on June 19. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. 
Francis H. Peirpont was chosen as governor by the convention on June 20. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Historian Virgil Lewis said this process was carried out in an “irregular. . . unjustifiable mode. ” The next day Governor Peirpont notified President Lincoln of the convention’s decisions. Noting that there were “evil-minded persons” who were “making war on the loyal people of the state” and “pressing citizens against their consent into their military organization and seizing and appropriating their property to aid in the rebellion,” Peirpont requested aid “to suppress such rebellion and violence. ” Secretary of War Cameron, replying for Lincoln, wrote:
The President . . . never supposed that a brave and free people, though surprised and unarmed, could long be subjugated by a class of political adventurers always adverse to them, and the fact that they have already rallied, reorganized their government, and checked the march of these invaders demonstrates how justly he appreciated them. 
The Restored Government of Virginia granted permission for the formation of a new state on August 20, 1861. The Restored government of Virginia was the Unionist government of Virginia during the Civil War Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Lt. Governor of the Restored Government, Daniel Polsley, strongly objected to the ordinance for the new state, saying in a speech on August 16:
If they proceeded now to direct a division of the State before a free expression on the people could be had, they would do a more despotic act than any done by the Richmond Convention itself. Daniel Haymond Polsley ( November 28, 1803 &ndash October 14, 1877) was a nineteenth century politician lawyer judge and editor Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting . . They now proposed a division when it was impossible for one-fourth of even the counties included in the boundaries proposed to give even an expression upon the proposition. 
The October 24, 1861 popular vote on the new state drew only 19,000 voters (compared to the 54,000 who had voted in the original secession referendum), one hundred of whom, according to two individual observers, were Ohio soldiers
The Second Wheeling Convention had proposed that only 39 counties be included in the new state. Events 69 - Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus the commander of the Danube armies loyal to Vespasian, defeat Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This number included 24 clearly Unionist counties and 15 pro-Confederate counties which the new state would find “imperative” because of their geographic relationship with the rest of the new state. These 39 counties contained a white population of 272,759, 78% of whom had a Unionist orientation.  While there was overwhelming support at this convention for statehood, there was a “small, effective minority” that opposed this and they used “obstructionist tactics at every opportunity” in their efforts to defeat the majority. It was this group opposed to statehood that was largely responsible for the inclusion of additional counties beyond this core. 
When the constitutional convention was held in Wheeling on November 16, 1861, the obstructionists attempted to have 71 counties included in the new state, a move which would have created a white confederate sympathizer majority of 316,308. Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Eventually a compromise was worked out to include 50 counties.  Historian Richard O. Curry summed the results up this way:
In conclusion, then, twenty-five of fifty counties encompassed by West Virginia supported the Confederacy and opposed dismemberment. The Rebel minority ran as high as 40 per cent in a few Union counties but the reverse was also true. Therefore, because northwestern Union counties contained 60 percent of the total population and the Confederate counties 40 per cent, a 60-40 ration, the majority being Unionists, would appear to be a fair estimate of the division of sentiment among the inhabitants included in the state of West Virginia. 
Curry further concluded:
On the other hand – and this is important too – the West Virginia government did not coerce the unwilling counties of the Valley and the southwest; it made little or no attempt to exercise effective control over these Confederate counties until after the war. Never at any time during the war did the Pierpont government or the administration of Arthur I. Boreman, first governor of West Virginia, control more than half the counties in the state. 
While the above political events were unfolding, in the late spring of 1861 Union troops from Ohio moved into western Virginia with the primary strategic goal of protecting the B & O Railroad. General George B. McClellan in June 3 at Philippi, July 11 at Rich Mountain, and September 10 at Carnifex Ferry “completely destroyed Confederate defenses in western Virginia. George Brinton McClellan ( December 3 1826 October 29 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. ” However after these victories most Federal troops were sent out of the new state to support McClellan elsewhere, leading Governor Boreman to write from Parkersburg "The whole country South and East of us is abandoned to the Southern Confederacy. " In central, southern and eastern West Virginia a guerrilla war ensued that lasted until 1865.  Raids and recruitment by the Confederacy took place throughout the war. Estimates of Union and Confederate soldiers from West Virginia have varied widely, but some recent studies indicate that the numbers were about equal, from 22-25,000 each.  Historian Richard Nelson Current places the number of West Virginians fighting for the Union at approximately 29,000. 
The new state constitution was passed by the Unionist counties in the spring of 1862 and this was approved by the restored Virginia government in May of 1862. The statehood bill for West Virginia was passed by Congress in December and signed by President Lincoln on December 31, 1862. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday  As a condition for statehood the US Congress required that a policy of gradual emancipation be granted to the slaves of the new state, called the Willey Amendment, which was amended to the state constitution on March 26, 1863. Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Conventions at Mesilla, New Mexico, on March 18, 1861, and Tucson, Arizona, on March 23 adopted an ordinance of secession. Mesilla is also a spider genus ( Anyphaenidae) Mesilla is a town in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States Events 37 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius ' will and proclaims Caligula emperor Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Tucson (ˈtuːsɒn is the seat of Pima County Arizona, United States, located 118 miles (188 km) southeast Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. The conventions established a pro-Southern government for the southern portions of the territory and called for the election of representatives to petition the Confederacy for admission and relief.  Lewis Owings of Mesilla was elected the territory's first provisional governor, and Granville Henderson Oury of Tucson presented the territory's petition for admission into the Confederacy. Dr Lewis S Owings was a medical doctor and politician in the New Mexico and Arizona territories Granville Henderson Oury ( March 12, 1825 &ndash January 11, 1891) was a nineteenth century politician lawyer judge and miner  In July 1861, Confederate forces from Texas, under Lieutenant Colonel John Baylor, entered Mesilla, described as "a strongly pro-Confederate community. John Robert Baylor ( July 27, 1822 &ndash February 8, 1894) was a politician in Texas and a military officer of the Confederate " The following day, Union Major Isaac Lynde approached Mesilla to engage Baylor's forces. Baylor's men, accompanied by militia out of Mesilla, attacked and defeated Lynde at the Battle of Mesilla on July 27. The Battle of Mesilla was a Confederate victory at Mesilla New Mexico (the Confederate States of America's Arizona Territory) on July 25 Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. On August 1, Baylor proclaimed that the Confederate territory of Arizona would extend to the 34th parallel and named himself the new territorial governor. Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman The Arizona Territory of the Confederate States of America was an Organized territory of the Confederacy that existed between 1861 and 1865  The territory was home to several subsequent engagements and skirmishes between the western armies of the Union and the Confederacy during the war. The Confederate loss at the Battle of Glorieta Pass, in March 1862, drove them back to Texas and ended involvement of New Mexico in the Civil War. The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on 26-28 March 1862 in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive Battle of the New Mexico Campaign during 
Though Tennessee had officially seceded, East Tennessee was pro-Union and had mostly voted against secession. East Tennessee is a name given to approximately the eastern third of the state of Tennessee, one of Attempts to secede from Tennessee were suppressed by the Confederacy. Jefferson Davis arrested over 3,000 men suspected of being loyal to the Union and held them without trial.  Tennessee came under control of Union forces in 1862 and was omitted from the Emancipation Proclamation. The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After the war, Tennessee was the first state to have its elected members readmitted to the US Congress.
Winston County, Alabama, issued a resolution of secession from the state of Alabama. Winston County is a County of the US state of Alabama, formerly known as Hancock County before 1858 Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America.
President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation was designed with the interests of border states in mind. The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. The Proclamation did not free slaves within current Union-controlled territory because the presidential war power did not extend there. Lincoln maintained that under the Constitution, ending slavery in a state not in active rebellion against the Union could only be done legally by action of that state, or by amendment to the Constitution.