|Booker T. Washington|
|Born||April 5, 1856|
Hale's Ford, Virginia, U.S.
|Died||November 14, 1915 (aged 59)|
Tuskegee, Alabama, U.S.
|Occupation||Educator, Author, and African American Civil Rights Leader|
|Part of a series on|
|Period and context|
Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Hale's Ford was a small Unincorporated community located in the northeastern corner of Franklin County, Virginia about 25 miles from Roanoke. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of Debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime and The issue of religion and slavery is an area of historical research into the relationship between the world's major Religions and the practice of Slavery. The Bible contains several references to slavery. The Hebrew Bible does not promote Slavery, but neither does it condemn it Christianity does not have a clear position regarding slavery, in favour or against The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of Slavery. Judaism has been influenced by the experience of slavery of the Hebrews in the land of Egypt, as narrated in the biblical story of The Exodus The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World This article discusses systems of slavery within Africa the history and effects of the slavery trade upon Africa The Arab Slave trade was the practice of Slavery in West Asia, North Africa, East Africa, and certain parts of Europe (such The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history Human trafficking is the recruitment transportation harbouring or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery forced labor (including bonded labor or debt bondage and servitude Sexual slavery refers to the organised coercion of persons into various different sexual practices forced Prostitution single-owner sexual slavery Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Involuntary servitude is a United States legal and Constitutional term for a person laboring against that person's will to benefit another under some form The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations especially in modern or early modern history in which people are employed against their will Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services In Law legal status refers to the concept of individuals having a particular place in society relative to the law as it determines the laws which affect them Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The United States of America —commonly referred to as the African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa He was freed from slavery as a child, gained an education, and as a young man was appointed to lead a teachers' college for blacks. From this position of leadership he rose into a nationally prominent role as spokesman for African Americans.
Washington was born into slavery to a white father, about whom he knew little, and a black slave mother on a rural farm in southwest Virginia. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Franklin County is a county located in the US state &mdash officially " Commonwealth " &mdash of Virginia. This made him mixed race as are many African Americans, to one degree or another (as a result of the chattel legacy), yet the so-called "one drop rule" ensured that he grew up in the social category of Negro. The terms multiracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestries come from different races. The one-drop rule is a historical colloquial term in the United States that holds that a person with any trace of African ancestry is considered black unless Negro is a term referring to people of Black African ancestry He was freed in 1865 at the end of the Civil War by the Thirteenth Amendment. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit Slavery, and with limited exceptions such as those After working in salt furnaces and coal mines in West Virginia for several years, he made his way east to a school which became Hampton University. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by Hampton University is a historically black university located in Hampton Virginia, United States. There, he worked his way through, later attending Wayland Seminary to return as an instructor. Wayland Seminary was the Washington DC branch of the National Theological Institute In 1881, he was recommended by Hampton president Samuel C. Armstrong to become the first leader of the new normal school (teachers' college) which became Tuskegee University in Alabama, where he served the rest of his life. Samuel Chapman Armstrong ( January 30, 1839 &ndash May 11, 1893) was an American Educator and a Commissioned normal school was a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America.
Washington was the dominant figure in the African American community in the United States from 1890 to 1915, especially after he achieved prominence for his Atlanta Address of 1895. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition Speech was an address on the topic of Race relations given by black leader Booker T To many politicians and the public in general, he was seen as a popular spokesperson for African American citizens. Representing the last generation of black leaders born into slavery, he was generally perceived as a credible proponent of educational improvements for those freedmen who had remained in the post-Reconstruction, Jim Crow South. The term black people usually refers to a racial group of Humans with dark Skin color, but the term has also been used to categorise a number of diverse A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 Throughout the final 20 years of his life, he maintained this standing through a nationwide network of core supporters in many communities, including black educators, ministers, editors and businessmen, especially those who were liberal-thinking on social and educational issues. He gained access to top national leaders in politics, philanthropy and education, and was awarded honorary degrees. Critics called his network of supporters the "Tuskegee Machine. "
Late in his career, Washington was criticized by the leaders of the NAACP, which was formed in 1909, especially W.E.B. Du Bois, who demanded a harder line on civil rights protests. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (duːˈbɔɪz ( February 23, 1868 August 27, 1963) was an American Civil rights activist After being labeled "The Great Accommodator" by Du Bois, Washington replied that confrontation would lead to disaster for the outnumbered blacks, and that cooperation with supportive whites was the only way to overcome pervasive racism in the long run. Although he did some aggressive civil rights work secretively, such as funding court cases, he seemed to truly believe in skillful accommodation to many of the social realities of the age of segregation.  While apparently resigned to many undesirable social conditions in the short term, he also clearly had his eyes on a better future for blacks. Through his own personal experience, Washington knew that good education was a major and powerful tool for individuals to collectively accomplish that better future.
Washington's philosophy and tireless work on education issues helped him enlist both the moral and substantial financial support of many philanthropists. Philanthropy is the act of donating money goods services time and/or effort to support a socially beneficial cause with a defined objective and with no financial or material He became friends with such self-made men from modest beginnings as Standard Oil magnate Henry Huttleston Rogers and Sears, Roebuck and Company President Julius Rosenwald. Standard Oil was a predominant American integrated oil producing transporting refining and marketing company Henry Huttleston Rogers ( January 29 1840 &ndash May 19 1909) was a United States capitalist, Businessman Sears Roebuck and Company, commonly known as Sears, is an American mid-range chain of International Department stores founded by Richard Julius Rosenwald ( August 12 1862 &ndash January 6, 1932) was a U These individuals and many other wealthy men and women funded his causes, such as supporting the institutions of higher education at Hampton and Tuskegee. Hampton University is a historically black university located in Hampton Virginia, United States. Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. Each school was originally founded to produce teachers. However, graduates had often gone back to their local communities only to find precious few schools and educational resources to work with in the largely impoverished South. To address those needs, through provision of millions of dollars and innovative matching funds programs, Washington and his philanthropic network stimulated local community contributions to build small community schools. Matching funds is a term used to describe the requirement or condition that a generally minimal amount of money or services-in-kind originate from the beneficiaries of financial amounts Together, these efforts eventually established and operated over 5,000 schools and supporting resources for the betterment of blacks throughout the South in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The local schools were a source of much community pride and were of priceless value to African-American families during those troubled times in public education. This work was a major part of his legacy and was continued (and expanded through the Rosenwald Fund and others) for many years after Washington's death in 1915. The Rosenwald Fund (also known as the Rosenwald Foundation, the Julius Rosenwald Fund, and the Julius Rosenwald Foundation) was established in 1917 by 
Washington did much to improve the overall friendship and working relationship between the races in the United States. His autobiography, Up From Slavery, first published in 1901, is still widely read today. Up From Slavery is the 1901 Autobiography of Booker T Washington detailing his slow and steady rise from a slave child during the Civil War,
Booker T. Washington was born on April 5, 1856 on the Burroughs farm at the community of Hale's Ford, Virginia. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Hale's Ford was a small Unincorporated community located in the northeastern corner of Franklin County, Virginia about 25 miles from Roanoke. His mother Jane was a black slave who worked as a cook and his father was an unknown white plantation owner. Under the laws of the time, his mother's status also made young Booker a slave. The "T" in his name stood for Taliaferro (pronounced TAH-li-ver), his owner's name. Taliaferro, Tolliver, or Toliver (all ˈtɒlɪvɚ TOL-ih-ver) is a prominent family in the United States commonwealth of Virginia He recalled Emancipation in early 1865: [Up from Slavery 19-21]
As the great day drew nearer, there was more singing in the slave quarters than usual. It was bolder, had more ring, and lasted later into the night. Most of the verses of the plantation songs had some reference to freedom. . . . Some man who seemed to be a stranger (a United States officer, I presume) made a little speech and then read a rather long paper -- the Emancipation Proclamation, I think. The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After the reading we were told that we were all free, and could go when and where we pleased. My mother, who was standing by my side, leaned over and kissed her children, while tears of joy ran down her cheeks. She explained to us what it all meant, that this was the day for which she had been so long praying, but fearing that she would never live to see.
In the summer of 1865, at the age of nine, Booker and his brother John and his sister, Amanda, moved to Malden in Kanawha County, West Virginia with their mother to join his stepfather, whose last name was Washington. Malden, West Virginia is a city in Kanawha County. Kanawha county is one of fifty-five counties in West Virginia and is located in the Charleston metro area Kanawha County (pronounced ka-NAW-ah' is a County located in the U He worked with his mother and other free blacks as a salt-packer and in a coal mine. He even signed up briefly as a hired hand on a steamboat. However, soon he became employed as a houseboy for Viola Ruffner (née Knapp), the wife of General Lewis Ruffner, who owned the salt-furnace and coal mine. Viola Knapp Ruffner (b 1820-1904 was a schoolteacher and became the second wife of General Lewis Ruffner, a salt and coal mine owner and community leader in Lewis Ruffner ( October 1, 1797 -1883 was a salt manufacturer from Malden in Kanawha County in the area near what is now Charleston West Many other houseboys had failed to satisfy the demanding and methodical Mrs. Ruffner, but Booker's diligence and attention to detail met her standards. Encouraged to do so by Mrs. Ruffner, when he could, young Booker attended school and learned to read and to write. And soon, he sought even more education than was available in his community. .
Leaving Malden at sixteen, Washington enrolled at the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, in Hampton, Virginia. Hampton University is a historically black university located in Hampton Virginia, United States. Hampton is an Independent city in Virginia, and therefore not part of any Virginia county Students with little income such as Washington could get a place there by working to pay their way. The normal school (teachers college) at Hampton was founded for the purpose of training black teachers and had been largely funded by church groups and individuals such as William Jackson Palmer, a Quaker, among others. normal school was a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers William Jackson Palmer ( September 17, 1836 &ndash March 13, 1909) was an American Civil engineer, Soldier, Industrialist In many ways he was back where he had started, earning a living through menial tasks, but his time at Hampton led him away from a life of labor. From 1878 to 1879 he attended Wayland Seminary in Washington, D. Wayland Seminary was the Washington DC branch of the National Theological Institute C. , and returned to teach at Hampton. Soon, Hampton president Samuel C. Armstrong recommended him to become the first principal of a similar school being founded in Alabama. Samuel Chapman Armstrong ( January 30, 1839 &ndash May 11, 1893) was an American Educator and a Commissioned Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. .
Lewis Adams and other organizers of a new normal school in Tuskegee, Alabama found the energetic and visionary leader they sought in 25 year-old Booker T. Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. Lewis Adams (1842-1905 was an African American slave in Macon County Alabama who is best remembered for his work in helping found the Normal school Washington. Upon the strong recommendation of Hampton University founder Samuel C. Armstrong, Adams and Tuskegee's governing body hired Washington, even though such positions had always been held by whites up until that time. Samuel Chapman Armstrong ( January 30, 1839 &ndash May 11, 1893) was an American Educator and a Commissioned Washington thus became the first principal of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. The new school opened on July 4, 1881, initially using space rented from a local church. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Year 1881 ( MDCCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The next year, Washington purchased a former plantation, which became the permanent site of the campus. Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco The school later grew to become the present-day Tuskegee University. Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. 
Tuskegee provided an academic education and instruction for teachers, but placed more emphasis on providing young black boys with practical skills such as carpentry and masonry. The institute illustrates Washington's aspirations for his race. His theory was, that by providing these skills, African Americans would play their part in society and this would lead to acceptance by white Americans. He believed that African Americans would eventually gain full civil rights by showing themselves to be responsible, reliable American citizens. He was head of the school until his death in 1915. By then Tuskegee's endowment had grown to over $1. 5 million, compared to the initial $2,000 annual appropriation. 
Washington was married three times. In his autobiography Up From Slavery, he gave all three of his wives enormous credit for their work at Tuskegee and was emphatic that he would not have been successful without them. Up From Slavery is the 1901 Autobiography of Booker T Washington detailing his slow and steady rise from a slave child during the Civil War,
Fannie N. Smith was from Malden, West Virginia, the same Kanawha River Valley town located eight miles upriver from Charleston where Washington had lived from age nine to sixteen (and maintained ties throughout his later life). Malden, West Virginia is a city in Kanawha County. Kanawha county is one of fifty-five counties in West Virginia and is located in the Charleston metro area The Kanawha River (pronounced ka-NAW-ah or kuh-NAW and earlier kuh-NOIE) is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately 97 mi (156 km Charleston is the Capital of the US state of West Virginia. It is located at the confluence of the Elk and Washington and Smith were married in the summer of 1882. They had one child, Portia M. Washington. Fannie died in May 1884. .
Washington next wed Olivia A. Davidson in 1885. Olivia America Davidson Washington, was a co-founder of the Tuskegee Institute and the wife of Booker T Davidson was born in Ohio, spent time teaching in Mississippi and Tennessee and received her education at Hampton Institute and the Massachusetts State Normal School at Framingham. Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads Framingham State College is located in Framingham, Massachusetts, USA, 20 miles from Boston Framingham is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. Washington met Davidson at Tuskegee, where she had come to teach. She later became the assistant principal there. They had two sons, Booker T. Washington Jr. and Ernest Davidson Washington, before she died in 1889.
Washington's third marriage took place in 1893 to Margaret James Murray. Margaret Murray Washington was the third wife of Booker T Washington and Lady Principal of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute now Tuskegee University She was from Mississippi and was a graduate of Fisk University. Fisk University is a historically-black university in Nashville, Tennessee, U They had no children together. Murray outlived Washington and died in 1925.
Washington's 1895 Atlanta Compromise address, given at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia, was widely welcomed in the African American community and among liberal whites North and South. The Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition Speech was an address on the topic of Race relations given by black leader Booker T The 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition was held at the current Piedmont Park in Atlanta Georgia. He was supported by W.E.B. Du Bois at the time but several years later the two had a falling out. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (duːˈbɔɪz ( February 23, 1868 August 27, 1963) was an American Civil rights activist Washington valued the "industrial" education oriented toward actual jobs available to the majority of African Americans at the time and Du Bois demanded a "classical" liberal arts education among an elite he called The Talented Tenth. The term liberal arts refers to a particular type of educational Curriculum broadly defined as a Classical education. The Talented Tenth was an influential article written by W E B Both sides sought to define the best means to improve the conditions of the post-Civil War African-American community. It should be noted, however, that despite not condemning Jim Crow laws and the inhumanity of lynching publicly, Washington privately contributed funds for legal challenges against segregation and disfranchisement, such as his support in the case of Giles v. Harris, which went before the United States Supreme Court in 1903. The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 Lynching is an Extrajudicial punishment meted out by a mob Lynching an enumerated Felony in some states in the United States, is defined by some Disenfranchisement or disfranchisement is the revocation of the right of Suffrage (the right to vote to a person or group of people or rendering a person's vote Giles v Harris, 189 US 475 (1903 was a turn-of-the-century United States Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld a state constitution's requirements .
Blacks were solidly Republican, but after 1890 many lost the vote in the deep South (but continued to vote in border and northern states). Washington emerged as their spokesman and was routinely consulted by Republican national leaders about the appointment of African Americans to political positions throughout the nation. He worked and socialized with many white politicians and notables. He argued that the surest way for blacks eventually to gain equal rights was to demonstrate patience, industry, thrift, and usefulness and said that these were the key to improved conditions for African Americans in the United States and that they could not expect too much, having only just been granted emancipation. .
Washington associated with the richest and most powerful businessmen and politicians of the era. He was seen as a spokesperson for African Americans and became a conduit for funding educational programs. His contacts included such diverse and well-known personages as Andrew Carnegie, William Howard Taft, John D. Rockefeller, Henry Huttleston Rogers, and Julius Rosenwald, to whom he made the need for better educational facilities well-known. Andrew Carnegie (properly kɑrˈneɪgi but commonly /ˈkɑrnɨgi/ or /kɑrˈnɛgi/ (25 November 1835 – 11 August 1919 was a Scottish -born American Industrialist William Howard Taft (September 15 1857 – March 8 1930 was an American politician, the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice John Davison Rockefeller ( July 8, 1839 &ndash May 23, 1937) was an American Industrialist and philanthropist Henry Huttleston Rogers ( January 29 1840 &ndash May 19 1909) was a United States capitalist, Businessman Julius Rosenwald ( August 12 1862 &ndash January 6, 1932) was a U As a result, countless small schools were established through his efforts, in programs that continued many years after his death.
A representative case of an exceptional relationship was Washington's friendship with millionaire industrialist and financier Henry H. Rogers (1840-1909). Henry Huttleston Rogers ( January 29 1840 &ndash May 19 1909) was a United States capitalist, Businessman Henry Rogers was a self-made man, who had risen from a modest working-class family to become a principal of Standard Oil, and had become one of the richest men in the United States. Standard Oil was a predominant American integrated oil producing transporting refining and marketing company Around 1894, Rogers heard Washington speak at Madison Square Garden. Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, and known colloquially as The Garden, has been the name of four Arenas in New York City. The next day, he contacted Washington and requested a meeting, during which Washington later recounted that he was told that Rogers "was surprised that no one had 'passed the hat' after the speech. " The meeting began a close relationship that was to extend over a period of 15 years. Although he and the very-private Rogers openly became visible to the public as friends, and Washington was a frequent guest at Rogers' New York office, his Fairhaven, Massachusetts summer home, and aboard his steam yacht Kanawha, the true depth and scope of their relationship was not publicly revealed until after Roger's sudden death of an apoplectic stroke in May 1909. Fairhaven is a town in Bristol County, Massachusetts, United States. Kanawha was a 471-ton steam-powered luxury Yacht initially built in 1899 for millionaire industrialist and financier A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain
A few weeks later, Washington went on a previously planned speaking tour along the newly completed Virginian Railway, a $40 million dollar enterprise which had been built almost entirely from a substantial portion of Rogers' personal fortune. The Virginian Railway was a Class I railroad located in Virginia and West Virginia in the United States. As Washington rode in the late financier's private railroad car, "Dixie", he stopped and made speeches at many locations, where his companions later recounted that he had been warmly welcomed by both black and white citizens at each stop. A private railroad car, private railway coach, private car or private varnish is a railroad passenger car which was either originally built or
Washington revealed that Rogers had been quietly funding operations of 65 small country schools for African Americans, and had given substantial sums of money to support Tuskegee Institute and Hampton Institute. Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. Hampton University is a historically black university located in Hampton Virginia, United States. He also disclosed that Rogers had encouraged programs with matching funds requirements so the recipients would have a stake in knowing that they were helping themselves through their own hard work and sacrifice, and thereby enhance their self-esteem. Matching funds is a term used to describe the requirement or condition that a generally minimal amount of money or services-in-kind originate from the beneficiaries of financial amounts
$1,000,000 was entrusted to Washington by Anna T. Jeanes (1822-1907) of Philadelphia in 1907. Anna T Jeanes (1822 - 1907 was an American philanthropist. She was born in Philadelphia, the city where she gave Spring Garden Institute, Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə She hoped to construct some elementary schools for Negro children in the South. Negro is a term referring to people of Black African ancestry Her contributions and those of Henry Rogers and others funded schools in many communities where the white people were also very poor, and few funds were available for Negro schools.
Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932) was another self-made wealthy man with whom Washington found common ground. Julius Rosenwald ( August 12 1862 &ndash January 6, 1932) was a U By 1908, Rosenwald, son of an immigrant clothier, had become part-owner and president of Sears, Roebuck and Company in Chicago. Sears Roebuck and Company, commonly known as Sears, is an American mid-range chain of International Department stores founded by Richard Rosenwald was a philanthropist who was deeply concerned about the poor state of African American education, especially in the Southern states.
In 1912 Rosenwald was asked to serve on the Board of Directors of Tuskegee Institute, a position he held for the remainder of his life. Rosenwald endowed Tuskegee so that Washington could spend less time traveling to seek funding and devote more time towards management of the school. Later in 1912, Rosenwald provided funds for a pilot program involving six new small schools in rural Alabama, which were designed, constructed and opened in 1913 and 1914 and overseen by Tuskegee; the model proved successful. Rosenwald established the The Rosenwald Fund. The Rosenwald Fund (also known as the Rosenwald Foundation, the Julius Rosenwald Fund, and the Julius Rosenwald Foundation) was established in 1917 by The school building program was one of its largest programs. Using state-of-the-art architectural plans initially drawn by professors at Tuskegee Institute, the Rosenwald Fund spent over four million dollars to help build 4,977 schools, 217 teachers' homes, and 163 shop buildings in 883 counties in 15 states, from Maryland to Texas.  The Rosenwald Fund used a system of matching grants, and black communities raised more than $4. Matching funds is a term used to describe the requirement or condition that a generally minimal amount of money or services-in-kind originate from the beneficiaries of financial amounts 7 million to aid the construction.  These schools became known as Rosenwald Schools. A Rosenwald School was the name informally applied to over five thousand Schools shops and teachers' homes in the United States which were built primarily for the By 1932, the facilities could accommodate one third of all African American children in Southern U. S. schools.
In an effort to inspire the "commercial, agricultural, educational, and industrial advancement" of African Americans, Washington founded the National Negro Business League (NNBL) in 1900. The National Negro Business League was an American organization founded in Boston, Massachusetts in 1900 by Booker T 
When Washington's autobiography, Up From Slavery, was published in 1901, it became a bestseller and had a major impact on the African American community, and its friends and allies. An autobiography, from the Greek αὐτός autos "self" βίος bios "life" and γράφειν graphein "to write" Up From Slavery is the 1901 Autobiography of Booker T Washington detailing his slow and steady rise from a slave child during the Civil War, Washington in 1901 was the first African-American ever invited to the White House as the guest of President Theodore Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T
Despite his travels and widespread work, Washington remained as principal of Tuskegee. Washington's health was deteriorating rapidly; he collapsed in New York City and was brought home to Tuskegee, where he died on November 14, 1915 at the age of 59. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The cause of death was unclear, probably from nervous exhaustion and arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis refers to a hardening of medium and large Arteries.  He was buried on the campus of Tuskegee University near the University Chapel.
His death was thought at the time to have been a result of congestive heart failure, aggravated by overwork. Heart failure is a Cardiac condition that occurs when a problem with the structure or function of the Heart impairs its ability to supply In March of 2006, with the permission of his descendants, examination of medical records indicated that he died of hypertension, with a blood pressure more than twice normal, confirming what had long been suspected. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated Blood pressure is also the title of a short story by Damon Runyan in Guys and Dolls and Other Stories
At his death Tuskegee's endowment exceeded US$1. 5 million. His greatest life's work, the work of education of blacks in the South, was well underway and expanding.
For his contributions to American society, Washington was granted an honorary master's degree from Harvard University in 1896 and an honorary doctorate from Dartmouth College in 1901. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement Dartmouth College ( is a private, Coeducational University located in Hanover, New Hampshire, U
Washington in 1901 was the first African-American ever invited to the White House as the guest of President Theodore Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T
In 1934, Robert Russa Moton, Washington's successor as president of Tuskegee University, arranged an air tour for two African Americans aviators, and afterward the plane was christened the Booker T. Robert Russa Moton ( August 26, 1867 - May 31, 1940) was an African American educator and author Washington.
On April 7, 1940, Washington became the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The first coin to feature an African American was the Booker T. Washington Memorial Half Dollar that was minted by the United States from 1946 to 1951. He was also depicted on a U. S. Half Dollar from 1951-1954. 
On April 5, 1956, the hundredth anniversary of Washington's birth, the house where he was born in Franklin County, Virginia was designated as the Booker T. Washington National Monument. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Franklin County is a county located in the US state &mdash officially " Commonwealth " &mdash of Virginia. Booker T Washington National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service located A state park in Chattanooga, Tennessee was named in his honor, as was a bridge spanning the Hampton River adjacent to his alma mater, Hampton University. The Hampton River is a short Tidal estuary which empties into Hampton Roads near its mouth
In 1984, Hampton University dedicated a Booker T. Washington Memorial on campus near the historic Emancipation Oak, establishing, in the words of the University, "a relationship between one of America's great educators and social activists, and the symbol of Black achievement in education. Emancipation Oak is a historic Tree located on the campus of Hampton University in what is now the City of Hampton Virginia. "
Numerous high schools and middle schools across the United States have been named after Booker T. Booker T Washington High School refers to several schools in the United States named after the African-American education pioneer Booker T Booker T Washington Middle School refers to several schools named after the African-American education pioneer Booker T Washington.
At the center of the campus at Tuskegee University, the Booker T. Washington Monument, called "Lifting the Veil," was dedicated in 1922. The inscription at its base reads:
|NAME||Washington, Booker T.|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Washington, Booker Taliaferro|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 5, 1856|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Hale's Ford, Franklin County, Virginia, United States of America|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 15, 1915|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Tuskegee, Alabama, United States of America|