|Books of Ketuvim|
|Three Poetic Books|
|2. Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included||Proverbs|
|3. The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh, and thus also one of the books of the Old Testament.||Job|
|4. The Book of Job ( איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. For other uses of the word "Megillah" see Megillah (disambiguation.||Song of Songs|
|7. The Book of Lamentations (אֵיכָה Eikha, ʾēḫā(h is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh.||Ecclesiastes|
|8. Ecclesiastes (often abbreviated Ecc) (קֹהֶלֶת Kohelet, variously transliterated as Qoheleth, Göhalath, Koheles, Koheleth||Esther|
|9. The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh ( Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament.||Daniel|
|10. The Book of Daniel (דניאל, originally written in Hebrew and Aramaic, is a Book in both the Hebrew Bible ( Tanakh) and the Christian||Ezra-Nehemiah|
|11. The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, historically regarded as a continuation of the Book of Ezra, and is sometimes called the second book||Chronicles|
The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות; Sephardic, Israeli Hebrew: [məgi'lat rut]; Ashkenazi Hebrew: [mə'gɪləs rus]; "the Scroll of Ruth") is one of the books of the Ketuvim ("Writings") of the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and of the Writings of the Old Testament. The Book of Ruth ( 1988) is a novel by Jane Hamilton. It won the Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award for a best first novel in 1988 and was the Sephardi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice Ashkenazi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים "writings" is the third and final section of the Tanakh ( Hebrew Bible) after Torah and Nevi'im See also Old testament, Septuagint, Targum, Peshitta The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ (taˈnax or; also Tenakh or Tenak is The term Hebrew Bible is a generic reference to those books of the Bible originally written in Biblical Hebrew (and the related Biblical Aramaic Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים "writings" is the third and final section of the Tanakh ( Hebrew Bible) after Torah and Nevi'im In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. It is one of the shortest books in both Jewish and Christian scripture, consisting of only four chapters. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
During the time of the Judges when there was a famine, an Israelite family from Bethlehem - Elimelech, his wife Naomi, and their sons Mahlon and Chilion - emigrate to the nearby country of Moab. Book of Judges ( Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. Bethlehem ( بيت لحم,, lit "House of Meat" Βηθλεέμ Bethleém בית לחם Beit Lehem, lit "House of Bread" is a Naomi ( נָעֳמִי "Pleasantagreeable" Standard Hebrew Naʿomi, Tiberian Hebrew Noʿŏmî) is Ruth 's mother-in-law Moab (; Greek Μωάβ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Mu'aba, Ma'ba, Ma'ab; Egyptian Elimelech dies, and the sons marry two Moabite women: Mahlon marries Ruth and Chilion marries Orpah. Then Mahlon and Chilion also die.
Naomi decides to return to Bethlehem. She tells her daughters-in-law to return to their own mothers, and remarry. Orpah reluctantly leaves; however, Ruth says, "Don't urge me to leave you or to turn back from you. Where you go I will go, and where you stay I will stay. Your people will be my people and your God my God. Where you die I will die, and there I will be buried. May the LORD deal with me, be it ever so severely, if anything but death separates you and me. " (Ruth 1:16-17 NIV)
The two women return to Bethlehem. It is the time of the barley harvest, and in order to support her mother-in-law and herself, Ruth goes to the fields to glean. The field she goes to belongs to a man named Boaz, who is kind to her because he has heard of her loyalty to her mother-in-law. Boaz ( Heb בועז) is a major figure in The Book of Ruth in the Bible. Ruth tells her mother-in-law of Boaz's kindness, and she gleans in his field through the remainder of the harvest season.
Boaz is a close relative of Naomi's husband's family. He is therefore obliged by the levirate law to marry Mahlon's widow, Ruth, in order to carry on his family line. Levirate marriage is a type of marriage in which a woman marries one of her husband's brothers after her husband's death if there were no children in order to continue the Naomi sends Ruth to the threshing floor at night and tells her to "uncover the feet" of the sleeping Boaz. Ruth does so, Boaz awakes, and Ruth reminds him that he is "the one with the right to redeem. " Boaz is willing to "redeem" Ruth, but there is a closer relative with a stronger right to do so. The next morning, Boaz discusses the issue with this man before the town elders. The other relative is unwilling to jeopardise the inheritance of his own estate by marrying Ruth, and so Boaz is free to do so. Boaz and Ruth get married and have a son named Obed (who by levirate customs is also considered a son or heir to Mahlon, and thus Naomi's grandson). In the genealogy which concludes the story, it is pointed out that Obed is the descendant of Perez the son of Judah, and the grandfather of David. David, Arabic: داوود or داود dawud, "beloved" was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible
Many of the books of the Old Testament do not identify their authors, and the Book of Ruth is one of these. There is, however, a historical tradition that alludes to a possibility. The Talmud refers to Samuel as the author, but scholars do not accept this tradition. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Samuel ( Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Šəmuʼel Tiberian Šəmûʼēl) is an important Samuel died before David became king, and the way in which the author writes the genealogy in Ruth 4:18-22 supposes that the lineage is well known. Genealogy (from Greek: el γενεά el-Latn genea, "descent" and el λόγος el-Latn logos, "knowledge" is the study of Even the reference in Ruth 1:1 to the "days when the judges ruled. . . " indicates that the era had ended and that the audience was somewhat removed from the time. Furthermore, Ruth 4:7 states that the legal custom of taking off a shoe to seal the agreement is no longer in use. Only a generation exists between Samuel and Boaz; therefore, it is unlikely that the time span would require this explanation.
Some scholars suggest that the author of the text is a woman.  Two observations point in the direction of a woman author. First, the story centers on the life journey of two women in desperate straits in a male-dominated society and appears to be from the viewpoint of a woman. Second, Naomi and Ruth’s ingenuity and assertiveness propels the story line. However, female authorship is conjecture, supported by only circumstantial evidence. Circumstantial evidence is a collection of Facts that when considered together can be used to infer a conclusion about something unknown
The full title in Hebrew is מגילת רות, Megillat Ruth, or "the scroll of Ruth", which places the book as one of the Five Megillot. For other uses of the word "Megillah" see Megillah (disambiguation. Goswell argues that while Naomi is the central character of the book, Ruth is the main character, and so the book "can be considered aptly named. Naomi ( נָעֳמִי "Pleasantagreeable" Standard Hebrew Naʿomi, Tiberian Hebrew Noʿŏmî) is Ruth 's mother-in-law "
The Book of Ruth, according to many scholars, was originally part of the Book of Judges, but it was later separated from that book and made independent. The opening verses explicitly place the Book of Ruth in the time of the Judges and it concludes with the Davidic lineage. Therefore, it is likely that the author wrote the story after the time of King David, though it is unknown how long after. One possibility is around 900 BC, shortly after David's reign. Scholars who choose this date link it to the importance of David’s lineage recorded at the end of Ruth. In Ruth 4:12 the author states that Ruth and Boaz’ child is named Obed and that Obed “…became the father of Jesse, the father of David. See also Obed River. In the Tanakh, Obed ( was a son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 421 22 the father of Jesse Jesse or Yishai ( meaning "God's gift" is the father of the Biblical David mentioned in the Books of Samuel of the Hebrew Bible. ” The final verses trace the family line.
On the other hand, the message of the book shows acceptance of the Israelites marrying converts to Judaism, and this has been used to suggest that the book was written during the postexilic period, perhaps around 500 BC. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut The Babylonian captivity, Babylonian exile, is the name typically given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Ezra (10:2ff) and Nehemiah (13:23ff) record the problem that arose from the Israelites marrying foreign women. The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, historically regarded as a continuation of the Book of Ezra, and is sometimes called the second book Instead of the wives converting to Judaism the Israelites began to follow their wives' gods. As a result, God’s people fell out of relationship with YHWH. See also Yahweh Tetragrammaton (from the Greek, meaning ' of four letters' (tetra "four" + gramma (gen For this reason, Ezra condemned intermarriages and forced the Israelites to abandon their non-Jewish wives. Ezra ( was a Jewish Priestly Scribe who led about 5000 Israelite exiles living in Babylon to their home city of Jerusalem According to this theory, the book was written in response to Ezra's reform and in defense of a marriage to a foreign wife when the wife converts to Judaism. Acceptance of marriages to foreigners who convert to Judaism is further enforced by making the connection to the Davidic line since David is commonly seen as Israel's greatest king. Scholars who prefer the 500 B. C. date do so in reference to this dilemma, and such writers contend that the Book of Ruth demonstrates the belief that a marriage to a foreigner is acceptable to God when the foreigner follows God.
In addition, the later date of 500 B. C is preferred when explaining the use of language in Ruth; however, scholars also realize that the linguistic style of the book could reflect the work of editors following the 900 B. C. date. Essentially, the dating of Ruth is ambiguous, and scholars cannot date the Book of Ruth with any degree of certainty.
It is actually argued, in terms of language, that the book of Ruth is much more akin to an archaic style of Hebrew (J. M. Myers, The Linguistic and Literary Form of the Book of Ruth and Ronald M. Hals, The Theology of the Book of Ruth). It is much more likely that the author wrote in an "archaic" style of Hebrew because he lived in the time period when that form of Hebrew was normal, and that the Aramaic infiltrations in the book of Ruth were later inserted. This is much more easily argued than the other stance that the book was written later (i. e. circa 500 B. C. ) with archaic forms of Hebrew being inserted. Therefore, linguistically, it is believed that the Aramaic that is found in the book does not indicate that the book was written later, but that later editorship brought about certain linguistic changes, that, if not scrutinized, may be taken to be evidence for a late authorship. This has not held up well to most scholarship on the subject.
Scholars agree that Ruth is a narrative story, and they often use terms like 'novella' to describe it. A novella is a written, Fictional Prose Narrative longer than a Novelette but shorter than a Novel.  The plot of a novella is more central than historical data; however, that is not to say this style of writing ignores historical facts or for that matter theological precepts. This style of writing reflects the craftsmanship of the writer.
The mood of the story is fashioned from the start through the meanings hidden in the names of the participants. Elimelech, which means "my God is King," foreshadows the continuance of his line to King David, who is God’s anointed on earth. Naomi, which means "my gracious one," later asks to be called Mara, "the bitter one. " Naomi’s name change elicits the emotions that she is experiencing and the direction of the story. Even the names of the two sons, Mahlon ("sick") and Chilion ("weakening" or "pining") alerts the reader to their physical conditions. Orpah (meaning "nape" or "back of the neck") turns her back on Naomi and returns to her people; Ruth (meaning friend) pledges her loyalty to Naomi. Orpah is a woman mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. She was from Moab and was the daughter-in-law of Naomi and wife of Mahlon. Boaz ("strength is (in) him" or "he comes in strength") becomes the kinsman redeemer and Obed’s name appropriately means "servant. " Obed is the ancestor of King David, and Israel’s kings are servants of Yahweh. The use of names in the Book of Ruth deepens the story’s narrative strength and assists the reader in appreciating the text’s meaning.
Two major theological themes in the Book of Ruth are redemption and hesed. Note The Hebrew word 'chesed' חסד is also the root word upon which the name Hasidism is based Redemption was both a rich social and religious concept in the daily life of Israelites, and they were aware of their social responsibility to one another to protect the weak and unprotected. Redemption secures the life of the people as a community, not just as individuals.
The marriage of Boaz and Ruth was of a type known as a levirate marriage. Levirate marriage is a type of marriage in which a woman marries one of her husband's brothers after her husband's death if there were no children in order to continue the Redemption   is a feature of levirate marriage, and it is a duty taught in Deuteronomy (25:5-10). Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomion, Δευτερονόμιον "second law" is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible and of the Old Testament This custom required a close relative to marry the widow of the deceased (the kinsman) in order to continue his family line. Interestingly, Ruth is not Elimelech’s widow and Boaz is not his brother. Therefore, some scholars refer to Boaz’ duty as “levirate-like” or as a "kinsman-marriage. "
Moreover, the Israelites understanding of redemption included both that of people and of land. In Israel land had to stay in the family. The family could mortgage the land to ward off poverty; and the law of Leviticus 25:25ff required a kinsman to purchase it back into the family. The kinsman, who Boaz meets at the city gate, first says he will purchase the land, but upon hearing he must also take Ruth as his wife he withdraws his offer. His decision was primarily a financial decision since a child born to Ruth through the union would inherit Elimelech’s land, and he would not be reimbursed for the money he paid Naomi. Boaz becomes Ruth and Naomi’s "kinsman-redeemer. " 
The Israelites' understanding of redemption is woven into their understanding of Yahweh. God stands by the oppressed and needy. He extends his love and mercy offering a new freedom and hope. Mercy ( Middle English, from Anglo-French merci, from Medieval Latin merced-, merces, from Latin, "price God has a deep concern for the welfare of his people, materially, emotionally and spiritually. The redemption theme extends beyond this biblical book through the genealogy. First, in Ruth 4:13 God made her conceive. Second, through the genealogy it is shown that the son born to Naomi is more than just a gift from God to continue her lineage. The history of God’s rule through the David line connects the book’s theme in to the Bible’s main theme of redemptive history.
Hesed, sometimes translated as "loving kindness," also implies loyalty. The theme of hesed is woven throughout Ruth, beginning at 1:8 with Naomi blessing her two daughters-in-law as she urges them to return to their Moabite families. She says, “May the Lord deal kindly with you, as you have dealt with the dead and with me. ” Both Ruth and Boaz demonstrate hesed to their family members throughout the story. These are not acts of kindness with an expectation of measure for measure. Rather, they are acts of hesed that go beyond measure and demonstrate that a person can be required to go beyond the minimum expectations of the law and choose the unexpected. However, the importance of the law is evident within the Book of Ruth, and the story reflects a need to stay within legal boundaries. Boaz, in going beyond measure in acquiring the property (demonstrating hesed), redeems not only the land but both Naomi and Ruth as well. The two widows now have a secure and protected future.
In many ways, most of what Christians and Jews would draw from the text would be the same. The Book of Ruth has a unique significance to Jews. In particular, the figure of Ruth is celebrated as a convert to Judaism who understood Jewish principles and took them to heart. This book is also held in esteem by Jews who fall under the category of Jews-by-choice, as evident in the considerable presence of Boaz in rabbinic literature. A conversion to Judaism (גיור giyur) is a formal act undertaken by a non-Jewish person who wishes to be recognised as a full member of the Jewish community Boaz in Rabbinic literature. Conduct Boaz is identified by some ancient rabbis with the judge Ibzan of Bethlehem (Judges
For Christians the book has additional significance. The connection between Ruth and David is very important because Jesus of Nazareth was born of Mary and adopted by Joseph, both of the lineage of David (see Chapter 3 in Luke and Chapter 1 in Matthew, respectively). Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Nazareth (ˈnæzərəθ (נָצְרַת Hebrew Natz'rat or Natzeret, الناصرة an-Nāṣira or an-Naseriyye) is the capital and largest The Gospel of Luke (Gk Κατά Λουκάν Ευαγγέλιον) is a synoptic Gospel, and is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the The Gospel of Matthew (Gk Κατά Ματθαίον Ευαγγέλιον is one of the four Canonical gospels in the New Testament and is a Synoptic gospel Thus in Christian Biblical lineage, Ruth is the fore-mother of Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:5). The line can be traced as:
The genealogy of Jesus that we find at the beginning of the Gospel of Matthew is a male lineage. Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld ( March 26 1794 - May 24 1872) was a German painter. Only four women from the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) are included in this long lineage, one of whom is Ruth. The inclusion of these four particular women in a male lineage is noteworthy, indicating that these four women were especially significant.
Ruth's famous words, "For wherever you go, I will go . . . ," are used in Catholic and some Protestant marriage services, underscoring the similarity of marriage and religious conversion in their covenantal nature. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** Ruth is also commemorated as a matriarch in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod on July 16. The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by the Lutheran Church The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod (LCMS founded in 1847 in Missouri, is the eighth largest Protestant denomination in the United States and the second-largest Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and
Song of Songs
|Hebrew Bible||Followed by|
|Christian Old Testament||Followed by|