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Freedom of speech by country
Book burning is the practice of destroying by fire, often ceremoniously, one or more copies of a book or other written material. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor The working conditions of Journalists in Algeria have evolved since the 1962 independence. Australia is a federation, and responsibility for censorship is divided between the states and the federal government Censorship in Belarus Freedom of press In 2007 Reporters Without Borders ranked Belarus 151st out of 168 countries in its global press freedom listing Censorship in Bhutan is comparable to its South Asian neighbours although not as focused or systematic as censorship in China. Censorship in Burma (or Myanmar refers to government policies in controlling and regulating certain information particularly on religious, ethnic, political In Canada the principles of Community standards and Public interests are the primary adjudicants of what may be published or broadcast by the media. Censorship in the People's Republic of China is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing dissemination and viewing of certain information in the People's Republic of China Censorship in Cuba has been reported on extensively and resulted in European Union sanctions as well as statements of protest from groups governments and noted individuals As with many Soviet-allied countries prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall the government of the former German Democratic Republic (German Deutsche Demokratische Republik) applied In standard conditions France does not have Censorship laws being a Liberal democracy respectful of Freedom of press. Censorship in Germany has taken many forms during the history of the region. Censorship in India mainly targets religious issues It is justified by the government as necessary to maintain communal harmony peace and tranquillity given the history of communal tension Censorship in Iran is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing dissemination and viewing of certain information in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Although Ireland does not currently exercise much censorship in practice the state has wide-ranging laws which allow censorship and has specific laws covering Films, Israel has media censorship laws based on British emergency regulations from 1945 that apply to domestic media foreign newspapers and wire service transmissions from In Japan, Article 21 of the Japanese Constitution guarantees freedom of expression and prohibits formal censorship Censorship is a growing concern for Malaysia as it attempts to adapt to a modern knowledge-based economy The Government of Pakistan censors all Internet traffic by means of Routing all connections through a central exchange which is administered by the Censorship has been a fundamental element of Portuguese national culture throughout the country's history. The United States Department of State Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Samoa states that "The law provides for freedom of speech and of the Censorship in Saudi Arabia is prevalent in the press and with internet access Censorship in Singapore mainly targets sexual political racial and religious issues as defined by an ever-shifting panoply of out-of-bounds markers. Censorship in South Asia can apply to books movies the Internet and other media North Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) has a high degree of censorship and no Freedom of the press. Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced Sweden strongly protects freedom of speech and was a pioneer in officially abolishing Censorship. Censorship in the Republic of China ( Taiwan) was eliminated in 1987 Freedom of speech in Thailand was guaranteed in the articles 39 40 41 in the 1997 Constitution. Censorship in Tunisia has been an issue since the country gained independence in 1956. Freedom of expression in Turkey is regulated by domestic and international legislation which Censorship in the United Kingdom has a long history with variously stringent and lax laws in place at different times although a much more liberal approach has been taken in recent years According to the Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index the United States is currently ranked 48th in the world in terms of press freedom Freedom of speech is the concept of the inherent human right to voice one's opinion publicly without fear of Censorship or Punishment Advertising regulation refers to the Laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region Editing of anime in American distribution describes the process of altering Anime to prepare it to be distributed in the United States and forms part of the process Many societies have banned certain Books This is a partial list of books that have been banned. For nearly the entire History of film production certain films have been either Boycotted by political and religious groups or literally banned by a Regime A re-edited film is a Film that has been edited from the original theatrical release Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. Censorship of Music, the practice of censoring Music from the public may take the form of partial or total censorship with the latter banning the music entirely Similar to other forms of media Video games have been the subject of debate and Censorship. Censorship on MTV has been the subject of debate for years MTV the first and most popular Music Television network in the U A bleep censor (or " bleeping " is the replacement of verbal Profanity with a beep sound (usually a) in television or radio Content-control software, also known as censorware or web filtering software, is a term for software designed and optimized for controlling what content Expurgation is a form of Censorship by way of purging anything noxious offensive sinful or erroneous usually from an artistic work Pixelization is a video- and image-editing technique where an image or part of it is blurred by displaying part or all of it at a markedly lower resolution Postal censorship is the Inspection or examination of Mail, most often by Governments that can include opening reading or marking of covers, Prior restraint is a Legal term referring to a Government 's actions that prevent materials from being published Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own work ( Blog, Book (s Film (s or other means of expression out To Whitewash is to gloss over or cover up vices crimes or to exonerate by means of a perfunctory investigation or through biased presentation of data A gag order (or suppression order) is an order sometimes a legal order by a court or government other times a private order by an employer or other institution restricting Corporate censorship is Censorship by Corporations the sanctioning of speech by spokespersons employees and business associates by threat of monetary loss loss Censorship in Italy under Fascism Censorship in Italy was not created with Fascism, nor did it end with it but it had heavy influence in the life of Italians Political censorship exists when a Government attempts to conceal distort or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news Censorship by religion is a form of Censorship where Freedom of expression is controlled or limited using Religious authority or on the basis of the teachings A ceremony is an activity infused with Ritual significance performed on a special occasion In modern times, other forms of media, such as phonograph records, video tapes, and CDs have also been ceremoniously burned, torched, or shredded. A gramophone Video is the technology of electronically capturing, Recording, processing storing transmitting and reconstructing a sequence of Still images A Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an Optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio The practice, usually carried out in public, is generally motivated by moral, religious, or political objections to the material. Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions
Some particular cases of book burning are long and traumatically remembered - because the books destroyed were irreplaceable and their loss constituted a severe damage to cultural heritage, and/or because this instance of book burning has become emblematic of a harsh and oppressive regime. Such were the destruction of the Library of Alexandria, the burning of books and burying of scholars under China's Qin Dynasty, the destruction of Mayan codices by Spanish Conquistadors and priests, and in more recent times, Nazi book burnings. The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the ancient world Burning of the books and burial of the scholars ( is a phrase that refers to a policy and a sequence of events in the Qin Dynasty of China, between the period of Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China Maya codices (singular Codex) are folding Books stemming from the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization, written in Maya hieroglyphic The Nazi book burnings were a campaign conducted by the authorities of Nazi Germany to ceremonially burn all books in Germany which did not correspond with
From China's 3rd century BC Qin Dynasty to the present day, the burning of books has a long history as a tool wielded by authorities both secular and religious, in efforts to suppress dissenting or heretical views that are perceived as posing a threat to the prevailing order. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China Civil authority is that apparatus of the State other than its Military units that enforces law and order. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or Opposition to an Idea (eg Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief
When books are ordered collected by the authorities and disposed of in private, it may not be book burning, strictly speaking — but the destruction of cultural and intellectual heritage is the same.
According to scholar Elaine Pagels, "In AD 367, Athanasius, the zealous bishop of Alexandria… issued an Easter letter in which he demanded that Egyptian monks destroy all such unacceptable writings, except for those he specifically listed as 'acceptable' even 'canonical' — a list that constitutes the present 'New Testament'". Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey (born February 13, 1943) is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια History of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Apostolic foundation Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the Although Pagels cites Athanasius's Paschal letter (letter 39) for 367 AD, there is no order for monks to destroy heretical works contained in that letter. 
Thus, heretical texts do not turn up as palimpsests, washed clean and overwritten, as pagan ones do; many early Christian texts have been as thoroughly "lost" as if they had been publicly burnt. A palimpsest is a Manuscript page whether from scroll or Book that has been written on scraped off and used again Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
“Where they burn books, so too will they in the end burn human beings. Christian Johann Heinrich Heine ( December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a Journalist, Essayist and one of the A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain ” (“Dort, wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man auch am Ende Menschen. ”)
One century later, Heine's books were among the thousands of volumes that were torched by the Nazis in Berlin's Opernplatz in an outburst that did, in fact, foreshadow the blazing ovens of the Holocaust. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. The Bebelplatz (formerly Opernplatz) is a public square in Berlin, the capital of Germany. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as
Anthony Comstock's New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, founded in 1873, inscribed book burning on its seal, as a worthy goal to be achieved (see illustration at right). Anthony Comstock ( March 7 1844 &ndash September 21 1915) was a former United States Postal Inspector and politician dedicated The New York Society for the Suppression of Vice (NYSSV or SSV was founded in 1873 by Anthony Comstock and his supporters in the Young Men's Christian Association Comstock's total accomplishment in a long and influential career is estimated to have been the destruction of some 15 tons of books, 284,000 pounds of plates for printing such 'objectionable' books, and nearly 4,000,000 pictures. All of this material was defined as "lewd" by Comstock's very broad definition of the term — which he and his associates successfully lobbied the United States Congress to incorporate in the Comstock Law. In general use lascivious is synonymous with Lustful ' or lewd. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Comstock Act, (ch 258 enacted March 3, 1873) is a United States federal law which made it illegal to send any "obscene lewd and/or lascivious"
The Ray Bradbury novel Fahrenheit 451 is about a fictional future society that has institutionalized book burning. Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22 1920 is an American mainstream, Fantasy, horror, Science fiction and mystery Fahrenheit 451 is a Dystopian Soft science fiction Novel authored by Ray Bradbury and first published in 1953 In Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, the euphemistically-called "memory hole" is used to burn any book or written text which is inconvenient to the regime, and there is mention of "the total destruction of all books published before 1960". Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel The memory hole, as in the phrase " Going down the memory hole " refers to a small chute leading to a large Incinerator used for Censorship
The advent of the digital age has resulted in an immense collection of written work being catalogued exclusively or primarily in digital form. The intentional deletion or removal of these works has been often referred to as a new form of book burning.
This reference is more closely related to the relationship between book burning and censorship than the systematic and categorical elimination of a particular body of literary work. In general, book burning does not refer to individual censorship, but rather to an act of mass censorship, and the term is applied appropriately only when these types of digital cases are suspected to be epidemic or widespread and systemic.
Some supporters have celebrated book burning cases in art and other media. Such is the bas-relief by Giovanni Battista Maini of The Burning of Heretical Books over a side door on the façade of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, which depicts the burning of 'heretical' books as a triumph of righteousness. Giovanni Battista Maini (February 6 1690 – July 29 1752 was an Italian sculptor of the Late- Baroque period active mainly in Rome The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (its Italian name known in English also as St Mary Major, is an ancient Catholic Basilica of Rome 
Headings indicate the books or libraries burned, with perpetrator and/or location in parentheses.
Following the advice of minister Li Si, Emperor Qin Shi Huang ordered the burning of all philosophy books and history books from states other than Qin — beginning in 213 BC. Burning of the books and burial of the scholars ( is a phrase that refers to a policy and a sequence of events in the Qin Dynasty of China, between the period of Li Si ( (ca 280 BC - September or October 208 BC was the influential Prime Minister (or Chancellor of the feudal state and later of the dynasty of Qin, between Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the Qín or Ch'in ( Wade-Giles) (秦 ( 778 BC - 207 BC) was a State during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods This was followed by the live burial of a large number of intellectuals who did not comply with the state dogma.
The damage to Chinese culture was compounded during the revolts which ended the short rule of Qin Er Shi, Qin Shi Huang's son. Qin Er Shi (229 BC - beginning October 207 BC literally Second Emperor of Qin Dynasty, personal name Huhai, was emperor of the Qin The imperial palace and state archives were burned, destroying many of the remaining written records that had been spared by the father. A palace is a grand residence especially the home of a Head of state or some other high-ranking Public figure. An archive refers to a collection of historical records and also refers to the location in which these records are kept
According to the Torah in the fourth year of the reign of King Jehoiakim of Judah the prophet Jeremiah dictated the words of the Lord to Baruch, who wrote them in ink upon a roll of a book. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Jehoiakim (יהוֹיָקִים "he whom Jehovah has set up" also sometimes spelled Jehoikim) was king of Judah and the second son of king Jeremiah ( jirmɛ'jahu; Septuagint Greek: Ἰερεμίας was one of the 'greater prophets ' of the Hebrew Bible. The following year three or four leaves were read in the presence of the king and princes, whereupon Jehoiakim cut the roll with a knife and ‘cast it into the fire that was on the hearth’ (Jeremiah 36:1–26).
Far more destructive was the Seleucid monarch Antiochus IV, who in 168 BC ordered Jewish ‘books of the law’ found in Jerusalem to be ‘rent in pieces’ and burned (1 Maccabees 1:56). The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i Another Antiochus IV Epiphanes was king in Commagene under Caligula and Claudius. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The Maccabees ( Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim or Maqabim; Greek Μακκαβαῖοι, /makav'εï/ were
The senator Aulus Cremutius Cordus’ History was burned by the aediles in 25 AD. Aulus Cremutius Cordus (d 25 AD was a Roman historian. There are very few remaining fragments of his work that covered the civil war and the reign of Augustus Aedile ( Aedilis, from aedes aedis "temple" "building" was an office of the Roman Republic.
According to the New Testament book of Acts, early converts to Christianity in Ephesus who had previously practiced sorcery burned their scrolls: "A number who had practised sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publicly. The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Ephesus ( Hittite Apasa; Ancient Greek; Turkish Efes) was a city of ancient Anatolia. When they calculated the value of the scrolls, the total came to fifty thousand drachmas. " (Acts 19:19, NIV) 
The Egyptian alchemical books of Alexandria were burnt by the emperor Diocletian in 292. The New International Version is an English Translation of the Christian Bible. Geography The greater part of Paphlagonia is a rugged mountainous country but it contains fertile valleys and produces a great abundance of hazelnuts and fruit – particularly plums Lucian of Samosata (Λουκιανός ὁ Σαμοσατεύς Lucianus c Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate
Christian books by a decree of emperor Diocletian in 303, calling for an increased persecution of Christians. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate The persecution of Christians refers to the Religious persecution of Christians both historically and in the current era
The books of Arius and his followers, after the first Council of Nicaea (325), for heresy. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief
The Sibylline Books were burnt by Flavius Stilicho (died 408). The Sibylline Books or Libri Sibyllini were a collection of oracular utterances set out in Greek Hexameters purchased from a Sibyl Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca 359 &ndash August 22, 408) was a high-ranking general ( Magister militum
According to Elaine Pagels, in 367, Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria called in all non-conforming texts from the Christian monasteries of Egypt during his Paschal letter for that year. Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey (born February 13, 1943) is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. No such order is found in that work.
In 383, the theologian Priscillian of Ávila became the first Christian to be executed by fellow-Christians as a heretic. Priscillian, Bishop of Ávila (died 385 a theologian from Roman Gallaecia (in the Iberian Peninsula) was the first person in the This article is about the Spanish city For other uses see Avila Ávila de los Caballeros ( Latin: Abila and Óbila Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief Some (though not all) of his writings were condemned as heretical and burned. For many centuries they were considered irreversibly lost - but surviving copies were discovered in the 19th century.
The library of the Serapeum in Alexandria was trashed, burned and looted, 392, at the decree of Theophilus of Alexandria, who was ordered so by Theodosius I. The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the ancient world A Serapeum is a Temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Hellenistic - Egyptian god Serapis, who combined aspects Theophilus of Alexandria (died 412 was Patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt from 385 to 412 Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ Around the same time, Hypatia was murdered. Hypatia of Alexandria (haɪˈpeɪʃə ( Greek:; born between AD 350 and 370 – 415 was a Greek scholar from Alexandria in Egypt, considered One of the largest destruction of books occurred at the Library of Alexandria, traditionally held to be in 640; however, the precise years are unknown as are whether the fires were intentional or accidental. The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the ancient world 
Etrusca Disciplina, the Etruscan books of cult and divination, collected and burned in the 5th century. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy
The books of Nestorius, after an edict of Theodosius II, for heresy (435). Nestorius (in Greek: Νεστόριος; c 386&ndash c 451 was Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 Flavius Theodosius ( 10 April, 401 – July 28, 450) called the Calligrapher, known in English as Theodosius II, was Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief
Uthman ibn ‘Affan, the third Caliph of Islam after Muhammad, who is credited with overseeing the creation of the authoritative written version of the Qur'an, also ordered the destruction of competing versions, circa 650. The study of the origins and development of the Qur’an can be said to fall into two major schools of thought the first being a Traditionalist Muslim view and Uthman (a=عثمان|t=Othman Osman Usman Ozman is a male Arabic given name meaning "the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people" "honest" The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Although the Qur'an had mainly been propagated through oral transmission, it also had already been recorded in at least three codices, most importantly the codex of Abdullah ibn Mas'ud in Kufa, and the codex of Ubayy ibn Ka'b in Syria. A codex ( Latin for block of wood, Book; plural codices) is a book in the format used for modern books with separate pages normally Kufa ( Arabic, ar الكوفة) is a city in modern Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Sometime between 650 and 656, a committee appointed by Uthman is believed to have produced a singular version in seven copies, and Uthman is said to have "sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other Qur'anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt. "
After the conquest of Toledo, Spain (1085) by the king of Castile, it was being disputed on whether Iberian Christians should follow the foreign Roman rite or the traditional Mozarabic rite. Toledo Spain locationpng|thumb|right|200px|Location of Toledo in Spain The liturgical rite of the Church of Rome is called the Roman Rite. The Mozarabic, Visigothic, or Hispanic Rite is a form of Catholic Worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and in the After other ordeals, it was submitted to the trial by fire: One book for each rite was thrown into a fire. The Toledan book was little damaged after the Roman one was consumed. Henry Jenner comments in the Catholic Encyclopedia: "No one who has seen a Mozarabic manuscript with its extraordinarily solid vellum, will adopt any hypothesis of Divine Interposition here. Henry Jenner FSA (1848-1934 was a Celtic scholar Cornish cultural activist and the chief originator of the Cornish language revival The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language Encyclopedia published by The Encyclopedia Vellum (from the Old French Vélin for "calfskin" is mammal skin prepared for writing or printing on single pages scrolls codices or books "
The provincial synod held at Soissons (in France) in 1121 condemned the teachings of the famous theologian Peter Abelard as heresy; he was forced to burn his own book before being shut up inside the convent of St. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application Soissons is a commune in the Aisne department in Picardie in northern France, located on the Aisne River, about 100 Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief A convent is a community of Priests religious brothers religious sisters or Nuns or the building used by the community particularly in the Roman Catholic Church Medard at Soissons.
The Royal Library of the Samanid Dynasty was burned at the turn of the 11th century during the Turkic invasion from the east. The Samanids (819–999 ( Sāmāniyān) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and Greater Khorasan, named after its founder Saman Avicenna was said to have tried to save the precious manuscripts from the fire as the flames engulfed the collection. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born
During the 13th century, the Catholic Church waged a brutal campaign against the Cathars of Languedoc (smaller numbers also lived elsewhere in Europe), culminating in the Albigensian Crusade. Languedoc ( in French Lengadòc in Occitan) is a former Province of France, now continued in the modern-day ''régions'' of Languedoc-Roussillon The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209&ndash1229 was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the Cathar Nearly every Cathar text that could be found was destroyed, in an effort to completely extirpate their heretical beliefs; only a few are known to have survived.
In 1233 Maimonides' "Guide for the Perplexed" was burnt at Montpellier, Southern France (see #Medieval burning of Jewish Literature). Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and This page refers to the 12th century book by Maimonides For the 1977 book by E Montpellier ( Occitan Montpelhièr) is a City in the south of France.
In 1242, The French crown burned all Talmud copies in Paris, after the book was "charged" and "found guilty" in the Paris trial sometimes called "the Paris debate") (see #Medieval burning of Jewish Literature). The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history
the House of Wisdom was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Baghdad in 1258, along with all other libraries in Baghdad. The House of Wisdom ( Arabic: بيت الحكمة; Bait al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid -era Baghdad, The Battle of Baghdad in 1258 was a victory for the Mongol leader Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous It was said that the waters of the Tigris ran black for six months with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river. The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern
In 1410 John Wycliffe's books were burnt by the illiterate Prague archbishop Zbynek Zajic z Házmburka in the court of his palace in Lesser Town of Prague to hinder the spread of Jan Hus's teaching. John Wycliffe (ˈwɪklɪf also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, or Wickliffe) (mid-1320s – 31 December Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Malá Strana (Prager Kleinseite both meaning in English literally "Little Side", though more frequently referred to as "Lesser Town", "Lesser Jan Hus ( (ˈjan ˈɦus alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c
In the 1480s Tomas Torquemada promoted the burning of non-Catholic literature, especially Jewish Talmuds and, after the final defeat of the Moors at Granada in 1492, Arabic books also. Tomás de Torquemada (1420 – September 16, 1498) was a fifteenth century Spanish Dominican, first Inquisitor General of Spain and Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain.
In 1497, followers of the Italian priest Girolamo Savonarola collected and publicly burned pornography, lewd pictures, pagan books, gaming tables, cosmetics, copies of Boccaccio's Decameron, and all the works of Ovid which could be found in Florence. Bonfire of the Vanities (Falò delle vanità refers to the burning of objects that are deemed to be occasions of sin. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Girolamo Savonarola ( September 21, 1452 &ndash May 23, 1498) was an Italian Dominican priest and leader of Florence from Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world The Decameron (subtitle Prencipe Galeotto) is a collection of 100 Novellas by Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio, probably begun in Publius Ovidius Naso ( March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD was a Roman poet known to the English -speaking world as Ovid who wrote on many topics including Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany
In 1490 a number of Hebrew Bibles and other Jewish books were burned at the behest of the Spanish Inquisition. In 1499 about 5000 Arabic manuscripts were consumed by flames in the public square at Granada on the orders of Ximénez de Cisneros, Archbishop of Toledo . Many of the poetic works were allegedly destroyed on account of their symbolized homoeroticism. Homoeroticism refers to the representation of same-sex love and desire most especially as it is depicted or manifested in the Visual arts and Literature.  The German Romantic poet Heinrich Heine wrote about this, stating "Dort, wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen" - "Where they burn books, they will also, in the end, burn humans" - a quote written on the monument for the Nazi Book Burnings today. Christian Johann Heinrich Heine ( December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a Journalist, Essayist and one of the
In October 1526 William Tyndale's English translation of the New Testament was burned in London by Cuthbert Tunstal, Bishop of London. Tyndale redirects here For the English family see Tyndall. For other uses see Tyndale (disambiguation. Cuthbert Tunstall (or Tonstall) (1474&ndash November 18, 1559) was an English church leader twice Bishop of Durham during the reigns
In 1553, Servetus was burned as an heretic at the order of the city council of Geneva on a remark in his translation of Ptolemy's Geography. Michael Servetus (also Miguel Servet or Miguel Serveto; 29 September, 1511 &ndash 27 October, 1553) was a Spanish Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena "Around his waist were tied a large bundle of manuscript and a thick octavo printed book", his Christianismi Restitutio, three copies of which have survived. 
1562 Fray Diego de Landa, acting bishop of the Yucatan, threw into the fires the sacred books of the Maya. The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican Civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the Pre-Columbian Americas 
The burnings of Hebrew books were initiated by Pope Gregory IX. He persuaded French King Louis IX to burn some 12,000 copies of the Talmud in Paris in 1243. He was followed by subsequent Popes. The Church and Christian states viewed the Talmud as a book hateful and insulting toward Christ and Gentiles. The most ferocious haters of Judaism and Jewish books among them were Innocent IV (1243–1254), Clement IV (1256–1268), John XXII (1316–1334), Paul IV (1555–1559), Pius V (1566–1572) and Clement VIII (1592–1605). They almost succeeded in stamping out Jewish books entirely. Yet Jews continued to pen their holy books without cease, and once the printing press was invented, the Church found it impossible to destroy entire printed editions of the Talmud and other sacred books. Johann Gutenberg, the German who invented the printing press around 1450, certainly helped stamp out the effectiveness of further book burnings. The tolerant (for its time) policies of Venice made it a center for the printing of Jewish books (as of books in general), yet the Talmud was publicly burned in 1553 and there was a lesser known burning of Hebrew book in 1568. 
Martin Luther's German translation of the Bible was burned in Germany in 1624 by order of the Pope. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin
60 identified printed books, pamphlets and broadsheets, and 3 newsbooks were ordered to be burned during this period. 
In 1683 several books by Thomas Hobbes and other authors were burnt in Oxford University. Thomas Hobbes (born 5 April 1588died 4 December 1679 was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation
The 1760 tract by Simeon Uriel Freudenberger from Luzern, arguing that Wilhelm Tell was a myth and the acts attributed to him had not happened in reality, was publicly burnt in Altdorf, capital of the Swiss canton of Uri - where, according to the legend, William Tell shot the apple from his son's head. Lucerne ( Italian Lucerna) is a city in Switzerland. It is the capital of the Canton of Lucerne William Tell (;) Altdorf ( German for "old village" is the Capital of the Swiss canton of Uri. The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the states of the Federal state of Switzerland. Uri (German) is one of the 26 Cantons of Switzerland. It is located in Central Switzerland. William Tell (;)
In 1787, an attempt by the Catholic authorities at Mainz to introduce vernacular hymn books encountered strong resistance from conservative Catholics, who refused to abandon the old Latin books and who seized and burned copies of the new German-language books. Mainz (ˈmaɪ̯nʦ (Mayence is a City in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Vernacular refers to the Native language of a country or a locality 
In 1793 Robespierre ordered the destruction by fire of religious libraries, as well as the burning of those books defending or glorifying royalism or the French Kings. Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (maksimiljɛ̃ fʁɑ̃swa maʁi izidɔʁ də ʁɔbɛspjɛʁ ( 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The books were considered "inimical towards reformed France".
In 1842, officials at the school for the blind in Paris France, were ordered by its new director, Armand Dufau, to burn books written in the new braille code. The Braille system is a method that is widely used by blind people to read and write After every braille book at the institute that could be found was burned, supporters of the code's inventor, Louis Braille, rebelled against Dufau by continuing to use the code, and braille was eventually restored at the school. Louis Braille ( in English in French January 4, 1809 &ndash January 6, 1852) was the inventor of Braille, a world-wide system
In 1918 the Valley of the Squinting Windows in Delvin, Ireland. Valley of the Squinting Windows is a Novel by Brinsley MacNamara, set in the fictional village of "Garradrimna" County Westmeath, Delvin ( Irish: Dealbhna or Dealbhna Mhór) is a small town in north County Westmeath, Ireland located on the N52 Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The book criticised the village's inhabitants for being overly concerned with their image towards neighbours.
The works of Jewish authors and other so-called "degenerate" books were burnt by the Nazis in the 1930s and 1940s. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Richard Euringer, director of the libraries in Essen, identified 18,000 works deemed not to correspond with Nazi ideology, which were publicly burned. Richard Euringer ( April 4, 1891 – August 29, 1953) was a German Writer. Essen (ˈɛsən is a City in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
On May 10, 1933 on the Opernplatz in Berlin, S.A. and Nazi youth groups burned around 20,000 books from the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft and the Humboldt University; including works by Heinrich Heine, Thomas Mann, Karl Marx, Erich Maria Remarque, and H.G. Wells. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Bebelplatz (formerly Opernplatz) is a public square in Berlin, the capital of Germany. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. The, abbreviated SA, ( German for "Assault detachment" or "Assault section" usually translated as " stormtroop(ers The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early private Sexology research institute in Germany from 1919 to 1933 For other universities in Berlin see List of Universities in Berlin. Christian Johann Heinrich Heine ( December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a Journalist, Essayist and one of the Paul Thomas Mann ( June Erich Maria Remarque (Erich Paul Remark 22 June 1898 &ndash 25 September 1970) was a German author. Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political Student groups throughout Germany also carried out their own book burnings on that day and in the following weeks. Erich Kästner wrote an ironic account (published only after the fall of Nazism) of having witnessed the burning of his own books on that occasion. Erich Kästner (ˈʔeːʁɪç ˈkʰɛstnɐ ( February 23, 1899 &ndash July 29, 1974) was one of the most famous German authors,
Trustees of Warsaw, Indiana ordered the burning of all the library's works by Theodore Dreiser. Warsaw is a city in Indiana and the County seat of Kosciusko County, Indiana, United States Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser ( August 27 1871 &ndash December 28 1945) was an American novelist and journalist 
In 1937 the dictatorial regime of Getulio Vargas in Brazil ordered the public burning of the novels O País do Carnaval, Cacau and Mar Morto by the noted author Jorge Amado, at the time an active member of the Brazilian Communist Party. Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (ʒeˈtulju doɾˈnɛlis vaɾgɐs April 19, 1882 – August 24, 1954) served as president of |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld O País do Carnaval is a Brazilian Modernist Novel. It was written by Jorge Amado in 1931 Cacau ( Cacao) is a Brazilian Modernist Novel. It was written by Jorge Amado in 1933 Mar Morto ( Sea of Death) is a Brazilian Modernist novel. It was written by Jorge Amado in 1936 Jorge Amado de Faria ( August 10, 1912 &ndash August 6, 2001) was a Brazilian Writer of the Modernist school Brazilian Communist Party (in Portuguese, Partido Comunista Brasileiro) was a political party in Brazil, founded in 1922
In 1939, shortly after the surrendering of Barcelona, Franco's fascists troupes burned the entire library of Pompeu Fabra, the main author of the normative reform of contemporary Catalan language, while shouting "¡Abajo la inteligencia!" (Down with the intelligence!). Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia Pompeu Fabra i Poch, ( Barcelona 1868 - Prada de Conflent 1948 was a Catalan Grammarian, the main author of the normative reform of contemporary Catalan Catalan ˈkætəˌlæn ( català kətəˈla or) is a Romance language, the national and official language of Andorra, and a co-official De la destrucció de la biblioteca de Pompeu Fabra. .
In 1948, at Binghamton, New York children - overseen by priests, teachers, and parents - publicly burned several hundred comic books. Binghamton, known as The Parlor City is a City located in the Southern Tier of New York in the United States. A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative 
As part of Joseph Stalin's efforts to stamp out Jewish culture in the Soviet Union in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the Judaica collection in the library of Birobidzhan, capital of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast on the Chinese border, was burned. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Birobidzhan (Биробиджа́н) is a town and the administrative center of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia. Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia
In 1953 United States Senator Joseph McCarthy recited before his subcommittee and the press a list of supposedly pro-communist authors whose works his aide Roy Cohn found in the State Department libraries in Europe. Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14 1908 – May 2 1957 was an American politician who served as a Republican U Roy Marcus Cohn ( February 20, 1927 &ndash August 2, 1986) was an American conservative Lawyer of Jewish The Eisenhower State Department bowed to McCarthy and ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelers, etc. In some political contexts the term fellow traveler refers to a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization but does not belong to that organization " Some libraries burned the newly-forbidden books. President Eisenhower agreed that the State Department should dispose of books advocating communism: "I see no reason for the Federal government to be supporting something that advocated its own destruction. That seems to be the acme of silliness. "
At Dartmouth College in June 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower urged Americans concerning libraries: "Don't join the book burners. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general Don't be afraid to go in your library and read every book . . . . "
Noted psychiatrist Wilhelm Reich was prosecuted in 1954, following an investigation by the U. Wilhelm Reich ( March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian-American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. A psychiatrist (also archaically called an alienist) is a Physician who specializes in Psychiatry and is certified in treating Mental disorders S. Food and Drug Administration in connection with his use of orgone accumulators. Orgone energy is a hypothetical and largely disputed extrapolation of the Freudian concept of Libido first proposed and promoted in the 1930's by Psychoanalyst Reich refused to defend himself, and a Federal judge ordered all of his orgone energy equipment and publications to be seized and destroyed. In June 1956, Federal agents burned many of the books at Reich's estate near Rangeley, Maine. Rangeley is a town in Franklin County, Maine, United States The population was 1052 at the 2000 census Later that year, and in March 1960, an additional 6 tons of Reich's books, journals and papers were burned in a public incinerator in New York. Incineration is a waste treatment technology that involves the Combustion of organic materials and/or substances Reich died of heart failure while in Federal prison in November 1957.
Following the late-1960's establishment of Suharto's New Order in Indonesia, the left-wing writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer was imprisoned. Indonesia's transition to the " New Order " in the mid-1960s ousted the country's first president Sukarno after 22 years in the position The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Pramoedya Ananta Toer (6 February 1925 – 30 April 2006 was an Indonesian author of novels short stories essays polemics and histories of his homeland and its people His entire library was burned, including extensive materials which he had collected in preparatory research for a new book. Toer nevertheless composed the book, This Earth of Mankind, from memory while imprisoned: deprived of so much as a pencil, he narrated his text orally to fellow prisoners. This Earth of Mankind is the first book in Pramoedya Ananta Toer 's epic quartet called Buru Quartet, first published by Hasta Mitra in 1980. (By 2005 the book had been published and translated into 33 languages).
In May 1981 a mob composed of thugs and plainclothes police officers went on a rampage in minority Tamil-dominated northern Jaffna, Sri Lanka, and burned down the Jaffna Public Library. The burning of the Jaffna library was an important event in the ongoing Sri Lankan civil war. Sri Lankan Tamil people ( or Ceylon Tamils, are an Ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka who predominantly speak Jaffna or Yazhpanam (யாழ்ப்பாணம் in Tamil meaning யாழ்= Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island At least 95,000 volumes — the second largest library collection in South Asia — were destroyed, including a very rare collection of ancient palm leaf volumes. 
In February 1987 the Chilean Interior Ministry admitted that 15,000 copies of the Spanish edition of Clandestine in Chile:The Adventures of Miguel Littin were impounded and burned on November 28, 1986, in Valparaiso following direct orders from Augusto Pinochet. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Clandestine in Chile The Adventures of Miguel Littin is a report written by Gabriel García Márquez, about the Chilean filmmaker Miguel Littin For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) Valparaíso (literally in Spanish: Valle Paraíso (Paradise Valley and also called "Valpo" locally is a major city in Chile Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (November
The 1988 publication of the novel The Satanic Verses, by Salman Rushdie, provoked angry demonstrations and riots around the world by foollowers of Political Islam, some of whom considered it blasphemous. The Satanic Verses is Salman Rushdie 's fourth Novel, first published in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad. Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie Kt (born 19 June 1947 is an Indian - British novelist and essayist The Satanic Verses is Salman Rushdie 's fourth Novel, first published in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad. See also Modern Islamic philosophy, Islamism, Islamic terrorism Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Quran, the Sunna Blasphemy is the disrespectful use of the name of one or more gods. In the United Kingdom, bookburnings were staged in the cities of Bolton and Bradford. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Bolton ( is a large town in Greater Manchester, in the North West region of England. Bradford ( lies at the heart of the City of Bradford, a Metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England. In addition, five U. K. bookstores selling the novel were the target of bombings, and two bookstores in Berkeley, California were firebombed. Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States.
In 1992, during the Bosnian Civil War, Serb nationalist forces attacked the Oriental Institute (Orijentalni institut) in Sarajevo with incendiary grenades. The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995 Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, TemplateInfobox City for more fields--> Sarajevo is the Capital city and largest urban center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are Bombs designed to start Fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as Napalm, Thermite The entire collection of books and manuscripts was burned in the largest single act of book-burning in modern history. A manuscript is any Document that is Written by hand as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way 
In the 1990s congregants of the Full Gospel Assembly in Grande Cache, Alberta, Canada burned books with ideas in them that they did not agree with, or that they deemed to contain ideas contrary to the teachings of God. Grande Cache is a town in west-central Alberta, Canada, located northwest of Hinton and west of Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905
Falun Dafa books were burned in 1999 by the government of the People's Republic of China. Falun Gong ( or Falun Dafa is a spiritual practice founded in China by Li Hongzhi （李洪志） in 1992 The books were teaching the principles of the Falun Dafa practice. Falun Gong ( or Falun Dafa is a spiritual practice founded in China by Li Hongzhi （李洪志） in 1992 According to the practice, they are Zhen-Shan-Ren, or Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance.  As part of its anti-Falun Gong campaign, the government repeatedly claimed the practice to be an "evil cult" which brought "instability to the country". 
In January 2001 the Egyptian Ministry of Culture burned 6,000 books of homoerotic poetry by Abu Nuwas, after pressure from Islamic fundamentalists . This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Homoeroticism refers to the representation of same-sex love and desire most especially as it is depicted or manifested in the Visual arts and Literature. Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami ( 750 &ndash 810) known as Abū-Nuwās ( Arabic: ابونواس) was one of the greatest of classical For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Fundamentalism refers to a "deep and totalistic commitment" to a belief in and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (often Religious in nature a reaction
There have been several incidents of Harry Potter books being burned, including those directed by churches at Alamogordo, New Mexico, Charleston, South Carolina, and Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Harry Potter is a series of seven Fantasy novels written by British author J Alamogordo is a city in Otero County, New Mexico, United States of America. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina. Cedar Rapids (ˌciːdɪrˈræpɨds is the second largest City in the U  See Controversy over Harry Potter.
Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Iraq's national library and the Islamic library in central Baghdad were burned and destroyed. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous The national library housed several rare volumes and documents from as far back as the 16th century, including entire royal court records and files from the period when Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The destroyed Islamic library of Baghdad included one of the oldest surviving copies of the Qoran. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran 
Piratbyrån, a group of Swedish anti-copyright activists, in 2005 published the anthology Copy Me with their own writings. Piratbyrån ("The Piracy Bureau" is a Swedish organization (or Think tank) established to support people opposed At Walpurgis Night the last of April 2007, as they declared that "the so-called file-sharing debate has served its time" they burnt the remaining books on the mountain Vårbergstoppen in South Stockholm, while reading a declaration motivating the ritual. Walpurgis Night is a traditional religious holiday (celebrated by Pagans Roman Catholics and Satanists ref> About the Church of Satan alike celebrated Söderort (sometimes translated to South Stockholm) is the southern suburban part of Stockholm Municipality, Sweden. A ritual is a set of actions often thought to have Symbolic value the performance of which is usually prescribed by a Religion or by the Traditions 
On May 27, 2007, Tom Wayne and W. Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. E. Leathem, the proprietor of Prospero's Books, a used book store in Kansas City, Mo., publicly burned a portion of his inventory to protest society's increasing indifference to the printed word. Kansas City Missouri only Items for the metro area Kansas City Kansas or North Kansas City MO should go on their respective pages Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee The protest was interrupted by the Kansas City Fire Department on the grounds that Wayne & Leathem had failed to obtain the required permits. 
In May 2008, a "fairly large" number of New Testaments were burned in Or-Yehuda, Israel. Conflicting accounts have the deputy mayor of Or-Yehuda, Uzi Aharon (of Haredi party Shas), claiming to have organized the burnings or to have stopped them. Haredi or Chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. Shas (ש״ס is a political party in Israel, primarily representing Haredi Sephardi and Mizrahi Judaism. He admitted involvement in collecting New Testaments and "Messianic propaganda" that had been distributed in the city. The burning apparently violated Israeli laws about destroying religious items. 
An example of ceremonial book burning with a completely different motive is that, in the Sikh religion, any copies of their sacred book Guru Granth Sahib which are too badly damaged to be used, and any printer's waste which has any of its text on, are cremated with a similar ceremony as cremating a deceased man. Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. The Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji (ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ gurū granth sāhib) or Guru Granth Sahib, is the eleventh and eternal Guru of the Such burning is called Agan Bhet.