|Comune di Bologna|
Municipal coat of arms
Location of Bologna in Italy
|Elevation||54 m (177 ft)|
|Area||140. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Bologna. In Italy, a Province (in Italian provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between Municipality ( Comune The Province of Bologna ( Provincia di Bologna) is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Sergio Cofferati (born 30 January 1948 in Sesto ed Uniti, Cremona) is an Italian politician and mayor of Bologna as of 73 km² (54 sq mi)|
|Population (as of 2007-05-31)|
|- Density||2,652/km² (6,869/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET, UTC+1|
|Frazioni||Frabazza, Paderno, Rigosa, Monte Donato|
|- Day||October 4|
Bologna (pronounced [boˈloɲa], from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Emiliano dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Po Valley (Pianura Padana in Italian), between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+1 is used in the following locations Central European Time West Africa Time Western European Summer Time A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Here are a list of area codes in Italy. All numbers here begin with the country code (0039 A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a Comune; for other Administrative Saint Petronius ( Italian: San Petronio) (died ca 450 AD was Bishop of Bologna during the fifth century Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Emiliano-Romagnolo (also known as Emilian-Romagnolo) is a Romance language mostly spoken in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Bologna. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering The Reno is a river of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. It is the tenth longest river in Italy (the sixth longest of those which flow directly into the sea and the Home of the oldest university in the Western world, "Alma Mater Studiorum", founded in 1088, Bologna is one of the most developed cities in Italy. Bologna ranks often as one of the top cities related to quality of life in Italy.  This is due to its strong industrial tradition and physical position--located at the crossing of the most important highways and railways in the country--as well as its wide range of highly-developed social services.
Bologna was founded by the Etruscans with the name Felsina (c.534 BCE) in an area previously inhabited by the Villanovians, a people of farmers and shepherds. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy Circa (often abbreviated c, ca, ca or cca and sometimes Italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" Events and trends 539 BC — Babylon is conquered by Cyrus, defeating Nabonidus; noted in such documents as that of Africanus The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly The Etruscan city grew around a sanctuary built on a hill, and was surrounded by a necropolis.
In the 4th century BC, the city was conquered by the Boii, a Gallic tribe, from which came the ancient name Bononia of the Roman colony founded in c. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. 189 BC. The settlers included three thousand Latin families led by the consuls Lucius Valerius Flaccus, Marcus Atilius Seranus, and Lucius Valerius Tappo. The building of the Via Aemilia in 187 BC made Bologna a road hub, connected to Arezzo through the Via Flaminia minor and to Aquileia through the Via Aemilia Altinate. Via Aemilia (It Via Emilia) was a trunk Roman road in the north Italian plain running from Ariminum ( Rimini) on the Adriatic coast to Arezzo ( Latin Arretium) is a city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in Aquileia (also called Aquilegia, Friulian Acuilee/Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in what is
In 88 BC, the city became a municipium: it had a rectilinear street plan with six cardi and eight decumani (intersecting streets) which are still discernible today. During the Roman era, its population varied between c. 12,000 to c. 30,000. At its peak, it was the second city of Italy, and one of the most important of all the Empire, with various temples and baths, a theatre, and an arena. Pomponius Mela included Bononia among the five opulentissimae ("richest") cities of Italy. Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman Geographer. Although fire damaged the city during the reign of Claudius, the Roman Emperor Nero rebuilt it in the first century AD. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus or Claudius I ( August 1, 10 BC &ndash October 13, AD 54 ( Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called
After a long decline, Bologna was reborn in the fifth century under bishop Petronius, who traditionally built the church of S. Saint Petronius ( Italian: San Petronio) (died ca 450 AD was Bishop of Bologna during the fifth century Stefano. After the fall of Rome, Bologna was a frontier stronghold of the Exarchate of Ravenna in the Po plain, and was defended by a line of walls which however did not enclose most of the ancient ruined Roman city. The Decline of the Roman Empire, leading to the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, was the end of the Western Roman Empire. The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a centre of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the In 728, the city was captured by the Lombard king Liutprand, becoming part of the Lombard Kingdom. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Liutprand was the king of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728 and his long reign which brought him into a series The Germanic conquerors formed a district called "addizione longobarda" near the complex of S. Stefano, where Charlemagne stayed in 786. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his
In the 11th century, Bologna began to grow again as a free commune, joining the Lombard League against Frederick Barbarossa in 1164. Communes in Europe in the Middle Ages were sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms among community members of a town or city The Lombard League was an alliance formed around 1167, which at its apex included most of the cities of Northern Italy (although its membership changed in Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 &ndash 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned In 1088, the Studio was founded, now the oldest university in Europe, which could boast notable scholars of the Middle Ages like Irnerius, and, among its students, Dante, Boccaccio and Petrarca. The University of Bologna (Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna UNIBO) is one of the oldest continually operating degree-granting universities in the world Irnerius (c 1050 &ndash after 1125 sometimes referred to as lucerna juris ("lantern of the law" was an Italian Jurist, and founder of the Francesco Petrarca ( July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374) known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar In the twelfth century, the expanding city needed a new line of walls, and another was completed in the fourteenth century.
In 1256, Bologna promulgated the Legge del Paradiso ("Paradise Law"), which abolished feudal serfdom and freed the slaves using public money. At that time the city centre was full of towers (perhaps 180), built by the leading families, notable public edifices, churches, and abbeys. In the 1270s Bolognese politics was dominated by the lettered Luchetto Gattilusio who served as podestà. Luchetto Gattilusio (fl 1248 &ndash 1307 was a Genoese statesman diplomat and man of letters For information on the phantom island of the same name see Podesta (island. Like most Italian cities of that age, Bologna was torn by internal struggles related to the Guelph and Ghibelline factions, which led to the expulsion of the Ghibelline family of the Lambertazzi in 1274. The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting respectively the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy
In 1294, Bologna was perhaps the fifth or sixth largest city in Europe, after Cordoba, Paris, Venice, Florence, and, probably, Milan, with 60,000 to 70,000 inhabitants. ||-||-||} Córdoba ( Cordova in English is a City in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. After being crushed in the Battle of Zappolino by the Modenese in 1325, Bologna began to decay and asked the protection of the Pope at the beginning of the fourteenth century. The Battle of Zappolino (also known as the War of the Oaken Bucket) was fought in 1325 between the towns of Bologna and Modena. Modena (ˈmɔːdena Mòdna in Modenese dialect is a city and a Comune ( Municipality) on the south side of the Po valley, in the In 1348, during the Black Plague, about 30,000 inhabitants died.
After the happy years of the rule of Taddeo Pepoli (1337-1347), Bologna fell to the Visconti of Milan, but returned to the Papal orbit with Cardinal Gil de Albornoz in 1360. Visconti was the family name of two important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz ( Italian: Egidio Albornoz; 1310 - August 23 1367) was a Spanish cardinal and The following years saw an alternation of Republican governments like that of 1377, which was responsible for the building of the Basilica di San Petronio and the Loggia dei Mercanti, and Papal or Visconti restorations, while the city's families engaged in continual internecine fighting. The Basilica of San Petronio is the main church of Bologna, the old città d'arte in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy; however it is In the middle of the fifteenth century, the Bentivoglio family gained the rule of Bologna, reigning with Sante (1445-1462) and Giovanni II (1462-1506). Bentivoglio (in Latin, rendered as Bentivoius) was an Italian family of princely rank long supreme in Bologna and responsible for giving the Giovanni II Bentivoglio ( February 12, 1443 - February 15, 1508) was an Italian nobleman who ruled as Tyrant of Bologna This period was a flourishing one for the city, with the presence of notable architects and painters who made Bologna a true city of art. During the Renaissance, Bologna was the only Italian city that allowed women to excel in any profession. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Women there had much more freedom than in other Italian cities; some even had the opportunity to earn a degree at the university.
Giovanni's reign ended in 1506 when the Papal troops of Julius II besieged Bologna and sacked the artistic treasures of his palace. Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513 From that point on, until the eighteenth century, Bologna was part of the Papal States, ruled by a cardinal legato and by a Senate which every two months elected a gonfaloniere (judge), assisted by eight elder consuls. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system In 1530, in front of Saint Petronio Church, Charles V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII. Charles V may refer to Charles V of France Charles V Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Duke of Lorraine For the Antipope (1378&ndash1394 see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII ( May 26, 1478 &ndash September
The city's prosperity continued, although a plague at the end of the sixteenth century reduced the population from 72,000 to 59,000, and another in 1630 to 47,000. The population later recovered to a stable 60,000-65,000. In 1564, the Piazza del Nettuno and the Palazzo dei Banchi were built, along with the Archiginnasio, the seat of the University. The period of Papal rule saw the construction of many churches and other religious establishments, and the renovation of older ones. Bologna had ninety-six convents, more than any other Italian city. Artists working in this age in Bologna established the Bolognese School that includes Annibale Carracci, Domenichino, Guercino and others of European fame. The Bolognese School or the School of Bologna of Painting flourished in Bologna, the capital of Emilia Romagna between the 16th and 17th centuries in Annibale Carracci ( November 3, 1560 - July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter. Domenico Zampieri (or Domenichino) ( October 21, 1581 &ndash April 15, 1641) was a prominent Italian Baroque Giovanni Francesco Barbieri ( February 8, 1591 — December 9, 1666) best known as Guercino or Il Guercino, was an
With the rise of Napoleon, Bologna became the capital of the Repubblica Cispadana and, later, the second most important centre after Milan of the Repubblica Cisalpina and the Italian Kingdom. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The Cispadane Republic ( Repubblica Cispadana) was a short-lived republic located in Northern Italy, founded in 1796 with the protection of the Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. The Cisalpine Republic ( Repubblica Cisalpina) was a French client republic in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802. The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia, but also Regno Italico; 17 March 1805 – 11 April After the fall of Napoleon, Bologna suffered the Papal restoration, rebelling in 1831 and again 1849, when it temporarily expelled the Austrian garrisons which commanded the city until 1860. Year 1831 ( MDCCCXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Year 1860 ( MDCCLX) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year starting After a visit by Pope Pius IX in 1857, the city voted for annexation to the Kingdom of Sardinia on June 12, 1859, becoming part of the united Italy. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 Click here for Indian Rebellion of 1857 Year 1857 ( MDCCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the Events 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath. Year 1859 ( MDCCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian
In the new political situation, Bologna gained importance for its cultural role and became an important commercial, industrial, and communications hub; its population began to grow again and at the beginning of the twentieth century the old walls were destroyed (except for a few remaining sections) in order to build new houses for the population. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on
On August 2, 1980, a massive bomb killed 86 people in the central train station in the city (see Bologna massacre). Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) The Bologna massacre (Strage di Bologna was a terrorist bombing at the Central Station of Bologna, Italy on the morning of August Only two months previously, Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870 had crashed under suspicious circumstances. Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870, also known in the Italian media as the Ustica Massacre ("Strage di Ustica" was an Italian flight that suffered an in-flight explosion
Bologna is a very important railway and motorway hub in Italy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The city's Fiera District (exhibition area) is the second largest in Italy and the fourth largest in Europe, with important international exhibitions, like the motorshow , Saie, Saiedue and Cersaie (buildings), Cosmoprof (beauty culture, considered the most important in the world), Lineapelle, etc. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Bologna and its metropolitan area have several important industries in the fields of mechanics, foods, and electronics, important retail and wholesale trade (the "Centergross" in the northern metropolitan area, built in 1973, was the largest in Europe for several years), and the first Italian vegetable and fruit market. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central
Bologna has about 400,000 inhabitants in the city proper and about 1 million in the metropolitan area, including over 100,000 students of the ancient and renowned University of Bologna, founded in the eleventh century. The University of Bologna (Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna UNIBO) is one of the oldest continually operating degree-granting universities in the world
Until the early nineteenth century, when a large-scale urban reconstruction project was undertaken, Bologna remained one of the best-preserved medieval cities in Europe; to this day it remains unique in its historic value. Despite having suffered considerable bombing damage in 1944, Bologna's historic centre, Europe's second largest (after Venice), contains a wealth of important Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque artistic monuments. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc
Bologna developed along the Via Emilia as an Etruscan and later Roman colony; the Via Emilia still runs straight through the city under the changing names of Strada Maggiore, Rizzoli, Ugo Bassi, and San Felice. Due to its Roman heritage, the central streets of Bologna, today largely pedestrianized, follow the grid pattern of the Roman settlement.
The original Roman ramparts were supplanted by a high medieval system of fortifications, remains of which are still visible, and finally by a third and final set of ramparts built in the thirteenth century, of which numerous sections survive. Over twenty medieval defensive towers, some of them leaning precariously, remain from the over two hundred that were constructed in the era preceding the security guaranteed by unified civic government. For a complete treatment, see Towers of Bologna. The Towers of Bologna are a group of medieval structures in Bologna, Italy.
Bologna is home to numerous important churches. An incomplete list includes:
The cityscape is further enriched by elegant and extensive arcades (or porticos), for which the city is famous. Santo Stefano is a complex of religious edifices in the city of Bologna, Italy. The Basilica of San Domenico is one of the major churches in Bologna, Italy San Francesco is a church in Bologna, northern Italy. It was begun in 1236 by Marco da Brescia and his brother Giovanni a Franciscan monk Santa Maria dei Servi is a Catholic Basilica in Bologna, Italy. The Sanctuary of the Madonna of San Luca in Bologna is a basilica church sited atop Colle or Monte della Guardia in a forested hill some 300 meters above the plain just In total, there are some 38 kilometres of arcades in the city's historical center (over 45 km in the city proper), which make it possible to walk for long distances sheltered from rain, snow, or hot summer sun. An arcade is a passage or walkway covered over by a succession of Arches or vaults supported by columns The Portico of San Luca, the longest in the world (3. 5 km, 666 arcades) connects the Porta Saragozza (one of the twelve gates of the ancient walls built in the Middle Ages, which circled a 7. 5 km part of the city) with the San Luca Sanctuary, on Colle della Guardia, over the city (289 m. ).
The Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca is located just outside the main city on the Colle della Guardia (Guard Hill). The Sanctuary of the Madonna of San Luca in Bologna is a basilica church sited atop Colle or Monte della Guardia in a forested hill some 300 meters above the plain just Built in the eleventh century, it was much enlarged in the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries. The interior contains works of several masters, but probably the most important is the painting of the Madonna with Child attributed to Luke the Evangelist. Luke the Evangelist ( Hebrew: לוּקָֻא Greek: Loukás) was an early Christian leader who is said by tradition to be the author of The best way to visit this Sanctuary is on foot; you can walk under the portico mentioned above.
Over the centuries, Bologna has acquired many nicknames: "the learned one" (la dotta) is a reference to its famous university; "the fat one" (la grassa) refers to its cuisine.
"The red one" (la rossa) originally refers to the colour of the roofs in the historic centre, but this nickname is also connected to the political situation in the city, started after World War II: until the election of a centre-right mayor in 1999, the city was renowned as a bastion of socialism and communism. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The centre-left regained power again in the 2004 mayoral elections, with the election of Sergio Cofferati. Sergio Cofferati (born 30 January 1948 in Sesto ed Uniti, Cremona) is an Italian politician and mayor of Bologna as of It was one of the first European towns to experiment with the concept of free public transport. 
Another nickname for Bologna is the Basket City, referring to Bologna's obsession with basketball, which is partly unusual in football-dominated Italy. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The local derby between the city's two principal basketball clubs, Fortitudo and Virtus (often called after the clubs' principal sponsors), is intense, as you can see here and here. In many countries the term local derby, or simply just derby (pronounced 'dur-bee' in American English and 'dar-bee' in British English after the city of Derby Fortitudo Pallacanestro Bologna is a prominent Italian League professional Basketball club that is based in Bologna. Virtus Pallacanestro Bologna is a prominent Italian League professional Basketball club that is based in Bologna.
Football is still a highly popular sport in Bologna; the main local club is Bologna F.C. 1909, which are currently in the national Serie B. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Bologna Football Club 1909 is an Italian football club based in Bologna, Emilia-Romagna. Promotion and Relegation At the end of the season, three teams are promoted to Serie A and four teams are relegated to Serie C1.
The city of Bologna was appointed a UNESCO City of Music on 29 May 2006. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 According to UNESCO, "As the first Italian city to be appointed to the Network, Bologna has demonstrated a rich musical tradition that is continuing to evolve as a vibrant factor of contemporary life and creation. It has also shown a strong commitment to promoting music as an important vehicle for inclusion in the fight against racism and in an effort to encourage economic and social development. Fostering a wide range of genres from classical to electronic, jazz, folk and opera, Bologna offers its citizens a musical vitality that deeply infiltrates the city’s professional, academic, social and cultural facets. "
Bologna is home to Guglielmo Marconi International Airport, expanded in 2004 by extending the runway to accommodate larger aircraft. Bologna Airport ( Aeroporto di Bologna) or Guglielmo Marconi Airport is an airport serving the city of Bologna in Italy. It is the fifth busiest Italian airport for passenger traffic (over than 4 million/year in 2006). Since 2004, it is also the third busiest for intercontinental flights.
Bologna Central Station is considered the most important train hub in Italy thanks to the city's strategic location. Bologna Centrale is a railway station in Bologna, Italy. History The first Bologna Centrale station was constructed in 1864 however there Also, its goods-station (San Donato) with its 33 railway tracks, is the largest in Italy in size and traffic.
Bologna's station holds a memory in Italian public consciousness of the terrorist bomb attack that killed 85 victims in August 1980. Other names In Arabic, the month is called أغسطسص ʾUġusṭuṣ or آب ʾĀb; usage varies from place to place and Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) The attack is also known in Italy as the Strage di Bologna ("Bologna massacre"). The Bologna massacre (Strage di Bologna was a terrorist bombing at the Central Station of Bologna, Italy on the morning of August
In May 2007 the comune of Bologna had a population of 373,170, making it the 7th largest city in Italy. In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic Administrative division of both provinces and regions and may be properly approximated in ISTAT data updated 2007 January 1. Figures are based on last 2001 Census plus data from official bilancio demografico ( demographic balance As of 2004, the greater Bologna area had a resident population of 943,983, of which 94. 09% were ethnic Italians. The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging Immigrants in the city constitute 5. 91% of the population. Of the 55,840 immigrants in Bologna, non-Italian Europeans number 19,668 and are chiefly of Romanian, Albanian, and Ukrainian origins. The Romanians (dated Rumanians or Roumanians; Romanian: români or historically and today rather seldom and only regional rumâni } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens Closely following, Africans number 19,060, almost entirely North African Arabs. The term African people can refer to people who live in Africa, or people who trace their ancestry to Indigenous inhabitants of Africa. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding A recent and growing Asian population numbers 14,119 and are mostly Filipino, with some Chinese. Filipinos or the Filipino people are the citizens of the Philippines. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. The remaining consists of immigrants from the Americas and the Middle East. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.  While aging continues to be a factor in the city's population, the number of births has risen in the past decade, contributing to the positive growth of the city.
Bologna is renowned for its culinary tradition. It has given its name to the well-known Bolognese sauce, a meat based pasta sauce called in Italy ragù alla bolognese but in the city itself just ragù as in Tagliatelle al ragù. Bolognese sauce ( Ragù alla bolognese in Italian also known by its French name sauce bolognaise) is a Meat -based sauce for Pasta Ragù is an Italian term for a meat-based sauce which is traditionally served with Pasta. Tagliatelle /taʎːa'tɛlːe|/ (from the Italian tagliare, meaning "to cut" is the classic Pasta of the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.
Situated in the fertile Po River Valley, the rich local cuisine depends heavily on meats and cheeses. Cheese is a Food made from Milk, usually the milk of cows, Buffalo, Goats or sheep, by coagulation. As in all of Emilia-Romagna, the production of cured pork meats such as prosciutto, mortadella and salame is an important part of the local food industry. Pork' is the Culinary name for Meat from the domestic Pig ( Sus scrofa) often specifically the fresh meat but can be used as an all-inclusive Prosciutto (proˈʃutːo pronounced "pro-shoo-toe" is the Italian word for ham. Mortadella pronounced /morta'dɛla/ is an Italian Cold cut ( salume /sa'lume/ made of finely hashed/ground heat-cured Pork For other uses see Salama and Salameh. Salami is cured Sausage, fermented and air-dried Well-regarded nearby vineyards include Pignoletto dei Colli Bolognesi, Lambrusco di Modena and Sangiovese di Romagna.
Tagliatelle al ragù, lasagne, tortellini served in broth and mortadella, the original Bologna sausage, are among the local specialties. Tagliatelle /taʎːa'tɛlːe|/ (from the Italian tagliare, meaning "to cut" is the classic Pasta of the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Lasagna (singular laˈzaɲa in Italian plural lasagne pronounced) is both a form of Pasta in sheets (sometimes rippled though seldom so in Northern Tortellini is a variety of ring-shaped Pasta. They are typically stuffed with a mix of meat (pork loin Prosciutto crudo and Mortadella) Mortadella pronounced /morta'dɛla/ is an Italian Cold cut ( salume /sa'lume/ made of finely hashed/ground heat-cured Pork
The University of Bologna, founded in 1088, is the oldest existing university in Europe, and was an important centre of European intellectual life during the Middle Ages, attracting scholars from throughout Christendom. The University of Bologna (Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna UNIBO) is one of the oldest continually operating degree-granting universities in the world Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon A unique heritage of medieval art, exemplified by the illuminated manuscripts and jurists' tombs produced in the city from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, provides a cultural backdrop to the renown of the medieval institution. The Studium, as it was originally known, began as a loosely organized teaching system with each master collecting fees from students on an individual basis. The location of the early University was thus spread throughout the city, with various colleges being founded to support students of a specific nationality.
In the Napoleonic era, the headquarters of the university were moved to their present location on Via Zamboni (formerly Via San Donato), in the north-eastern sector of the city centre. Headquarters (HQ denotes the location where most if not all of the important functions of an organization are concentrated Today, the University's 23 faculties, 68 departments, and 93 libraries are spread across the city and include four subsidiary campuses in nearby Cesena, Forlì, Ravenna, and Rimini. Cesena (ancient Caesena) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, south of Ravenna and west of Rimini, on the Forlì ( Latin: Forum Livii) is a Comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. Noteworthy students present at the university in centuries past included Dante, Petrarch, Thomas Becket, Pope Nicholas V, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Peter Martyr Vermigli, and Copernicus. Francesco Petrarca ( July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374) known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar St Thomas Becket (c 1118 &ndash December 29, 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170 See also Antipope Nicholas V. Pope Nicholas V (Italian Niccolò V; November 15, 1397 &ndash March Pietro Martire Vermigli, sometimes simply Peter Martyr ( September 8 1499 &ndash November 12 1562) was an Italian Laura Bassi, appointed in 1732, became the first woman to officially teach at a college in Europe. Laura Maria Caterina Bassi was an Italian scientist the first woman to officially teach at a college in Europe In more recent history, Luigi Galvani, the discoverer of biological electricity, and Guglielmo Marconi, the pioneer of radio technology, also worked at the University. Luigi Galvani was an Italian Physician and Physicist who lived and died in Bologna. Marchese Guglielmo Marconi mar'koni (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937 was an Italian inventor best known for his development of a Radiotelegraph system The University of Bologna remains one of the most respected and dynamic post-secondary educational institutions in Italy. To this day, Bologna is still very much a university town, and the city's population swells from 400,000 to over 500,000 whenever classes are in session. This community includes a great number of Erasmus, Socrates, and overseas students.
The university's botanical garden, the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna, was established in 1568; it is the fourth-oldest in Europe. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of Plants primarily to categorize and document for scientific purposes The Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna, also known as the Orto Botanico di Bologna, is a Botanical garden located operated by the University of Bologna
In addition to the above natives, the following became associated with Bologna by long-term residence:
Coventry ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in the County of West Midlands in England. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Kharkiv or Kharkov (Харків Харьков is the second largest city in Ukraine. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. La Plata is the capital city of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, as well as of the partido of La Plata. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία San Carlos is the capital city of the Municipality of San Carlos and of the Río San Juan Department of Nicaragua. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of Senegal 's Saint-Louis Region Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Tuzla is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the time of the 1991 census it had 131000 inhabitants Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Valencia ( Valencian: València, Valencia Spanish phonology --> is the capital of the Spanish autonomous Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Zagreb (ˈzɑːgrɛb is the Capital and the largest city of Croatia. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Greater Bologna is a term for the urbanized area around the city of Bologna, Italy, composed of the cities of Anzola dell'Emilia, Calderara The Province of Bologna ( Provincia di Bologna) is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Bologna Centrale is a railway station in Bologna, Italy. History The first Bologna Centrale station was constructed in 1864 however there The Bologna declaration is the main guiding document of the Bologna process. The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords is to create the European higher education area by making Academic degree standards and quality assurance standards The Bologna massacre (Strage di Bologna was a terrorist bombing at the Central Station of Bologna, Italy on the morning of August Boulogne-sur-Mer ( Bonen in Dutch is a City in Northern France. Bentivoglio (in Latin, rendered as Bentivoius) was an Italian family of princely rank long supreme in Bologna and responsible for giving the A portico is a Porch that is leading to the entrance of a building or extended as a Colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway supported by Columns Wikitravel is a Web -based project "to create a free, complete up-to-date and reliable worldwide travel guide.