January 30, 1648 – August 6, 1657
|Preceded by||Dmytro Hunia|
|Succeeded by||Ivan Vyhovsky|
Subotiv, near Chyhyryn, Ukraine
|Died||August 6, 1657|
Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmel'nyts'kyi (Ukrainian: Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий, translit. Bogdan Khmelnitsky) (born c. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Dmytro Hunia (Дмитро Гуня Dimitr Hunia was elected Hetman of the Zaporozhian Sich in 1638 Ivan Vyhovsky ( Ukrainian: Іван Виговський Polish: Iwan Wyhowski (?-1664 was a Hetman (or otoman) of the Ukrainian Subotiv (Суботів is a Village ( selo) in central Ukraine. Chyhyryn (Чигирин Чигирин translit Chigirin; Czehryń Çehrin is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Chyhyryn (Чигирин Чигирин translit Chigirin; Czehryń Çehrin is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. The Greek Orthodox Church ( Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) is formed by several autocephalous churches Ukrainian (in Ukrainian украї́нська мо́ва ukrayins'ka mova,) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic alphabet and 1595 — died August 6, 1657) was a hetman of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate of Ukraine. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the Monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland, Ukraine and Grand Zaporizhia ( Ukrainian: Запоріжжя Zaporizhzhya; Polish: Zaporoże or Dzikie Pola (Wild Fields or Savage Steppe The Hetmanate or officially Viysko Zaporozke (Гетьманщина Het’manshchyna; Військо Запорозьке Viys’ko Zaporoz’ke Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. He led the uprising against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth magnates (1648 – 1654) with the goal of creating an independent Ukrainian state. The term Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Khmel'nyts'kyi/Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky / Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a Rebellion or The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man itself from Latin magnus 'great' designates a noble or other man in a high social position In 1654 he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Tsardom of Russia, which led to the eventual loss of Ukrainian independence first in the Russian Empire and later in the Soviet Union. The Treaty of Pereyaslav (Pereiaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi (Pereyaslav The Tsardom of Rus' (Царство Русское was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IV 's assumption of the title of Tsar (Emperor in 1547 The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
Although there is no definite proof of the date of his birth, it has been suggested by Ukrainian historian Mykhaylo Maksymovych that his date of birth was likely 27 December 1595 (St. Theodore's  day). Mykhaylo Olexandrovich Maksymovych (also spelled Mykhailo Михайло Олександрович Максимович 1804-1873 was a famous Ukrainian naturalist Events 537 - The Hagia Sophia is completed 1512 - The Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos, governing the St Theodore ( Russian: ru Святой Феодор начертанный (died 820) Feast Days 11 November ( Catholic Church) 27 December ( As it was the custom in the Orthodox Church, he was baptized with one of his middle names - Theodor, transformed into Ukrainian as Bohdan. The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to The Eastern Orthodox Church: the Eastern Christian churches of Byzantine Ukrainian (in Ukrainian украї́нська мо́ва ukrayins'ka mova,) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages.
The latest biography of Khmelnytsky by Smoliy and Stepankov, however, challenges the 27 December date and suggests that it is more likely that he was born on 9 November (feast day of St Zenoby, 30 October in Julian Calendar) and was baptised on 11 November (feast day of St. Theodore in the Catholic Church)
Khmelnytsky was probably born in the village of Subotiv, near Chyhyryn in Ukraine at the estate of his father Mykhailo Khmelnytsky. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare St Theodore ( Russian: ru Святой Феодор начертанный (died 820) Feast Days 11 November ( Catholic Church) 27 December ( Subotiv (Суботів is a Village ( selo) in central Ukraine. Chyhyryn (Чигирин Чигирин translit Chigirin; Czehryń Çehrin is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Even though his father, Mykhailo Khmelnytsky, a courtier of Great Crown Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski, was of noble birth himself, and belonged to the Clan Massalski, Abdank or Syrokomla, there was and is still controversy as to whether Bohdan belonged to the szlachta himself. A courtier is a person who attends the court of a Monarch or other powerful person. Field and Great Hetmans From the end of 16th century there were two hetmans in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and two hetmans in the Crown: a Field Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski (1547 &ndash 1620 was a Polish nobleman, Magnate and military commander Abdank - is a Polish Coat of Arms. It was used by several Szlachta families in the times of the Kingdom of Poland Syrokomla - is a Polish coat of arms. It was used by several Szlachta families in the times of the Polish-Lithuanian  This however didn't prevent Khmelnytsky from considering himself a noble and his father's status as a deputy Starosta (elder) of Chyhyryn helped him to be considered as such by others. Starost(a ( Elder Cyrillic: Старост/а is a Title for an official or unofficial position of leadership that has been used in various contexts through The term Elder (or its equivalent in another language is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority Later on, however, during the Uprising he would stress his mother's Cossack roots and his father's exploits with the Cossacks of the Sich. The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern Zaporizhian Sich (Запорізька Січ Zaporiz'ka Sich) original Slavonic name "Zaporizhska Sich'" was the center of the Dnieper Cossacks
There is also no concrete evidence in regard to Khmelnytsky's early education. Several historians believe he received his elementary schooling from a church clerk until he was sent to one of Kyiv's Orthodox fraternity schools. Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the He continued his education in Polish at a Jesuit college, possibly in Jaroslaw, but more likely in Lviv, in the school founded by hetman Żółkiewski. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Jarosław (יאַרעסלאָוו- Yareslov) is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 40523 inhabitants (2004 Lviv ( Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv, Lwów Lemberg Львов L'vov; see also other names) is a major city in western He completed his schooling by 1620 and acquired a broad knowledge of world history and learned Polish and Latin. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Later in addition to these languages he learned Turkish, Tatar, and French. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. The Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili Qırımtatarca also known as Crimean (Qırım tili Qırımca and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi is the language French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Unlike many of the other Jesuit students, he did not embrace Roman Catholicism but remained Greek Orthodox. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world
|Part of a series of articles on|
|Don · Ural · Terek · Kuban · Orenburg ·Astrakhan · Siberian · Baikal · Amur · Semirechye · Ussuri|
|Azov · Black Sea · Bug · Caucasus Line · Danube (Sich)· Danube (Host) · Hetmanate · Tatar Cossacks · Nekrasov · Turkey · Jewish Cossacks · Zaporozhia|
|History of the Cossacks|
|Colonisation of Siberia · Khmelnytsky Uprising · Treaty of Hadiach · Bulavin Rebellion · Pugachev's Rebellion · 1st Cavalry Army · Decossackization · Betrayal of the Cossacks · XVth SS Cossack Cavalry Corps · 1st Cossack Division|
|Andrei Shkuro · Bohdan Khmelnytsky · Ivan Mazepa · Ivan Sirko · Pyotr Krasnov . The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern A Cossack host or Cossack voisko (Казачье войско kazachye voysko, sometimes incorrectly translated as Cossack Army) was an administrative Don Cossacks (Донские казаки were Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don. The Ural Cossack Host was a Cossack host formed from the Ural Cossacks -- those cossacks settled by the Ural River. Terek Cossack Host (Терское казачье войско was a Cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks who resettled from Volga to Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские кaзаки Kubanskiye Kаzaki) are Cossacks who live in the Kuban region of Russia. The Orenburg Cossack Host ( Оренбургское казачье войско) a part of the Cossack population in pre- Revolutionary Russia Astrakhan Cossack Host ( Астраханское казачье войско in Russian) was a Cossack host of Imperial Russia drawn from the Siberian Cossacks were Cossacks who settled in the Siberian region of Russia since the end of the 16th century Baikal Cossacks were Cossacks of the Transbaikal Cossack Host (Забайка́льское каза́чье во́йско a Cossack host formed in 1851 The Amur Cossack Host ( Амурское казачье войско in Russian) a Cossack host created in the Amur region and Primorye Semirechye Cossask Host (Семиреченское казачье войско was a Cossack host in Imperial Russia, located in Semirechye Oblast (today Ussuri Cossack Host (Уссури́йское каза́чье во́йско was a Cossack Host in Imperial Russia, located in Primorye south of Azov Cossack Host (Азовское Казачье Войско was a Cossack host that existed on the northern shore of the Sea of Azov, between 1832 and 1862 Black Sea Cossack Host (Черноморское казачье войско was a Cossack host created in 1787 in Southern Ukraine from former Zaporozhians The Buh Cossack Host (Бузьке козацьке військо (Бугское казачье войско was a Cossack host which used to be located along the Caucasus Line Cossack Host (Кавказское линейное казачье войско was a Cossack host created in 1832 in the Northern Caucasus. The Danubian Sich (Задунайська Сiч Задунайская Сечь was a fortified settlement ( Sich) of Zaporozhian Cossacks who settled The Danube Cossack Host (Дунайское Казачье Войско was an Imperial Russian Cossack Host formed in 1828 prior to the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829 The Hetmanate or officially Viysko Zaporozke (Гетьманщина Het’manshchyna; Військо Запорозьке Viys’ko Zaporoz’ke Nağaybäk ( plural Nağaybäklär Russian: Нагайбаки are an ethnoconfessional group in Russia. Nekrasov Cossacks, Nekrasovite Cossacks, Nekrasovites, Nekrasovtsy ( Некрасовцы Некрасовские казаки Казаки-некрасовцы Cossacks in Turkey refers to descendants of a group of Don Cossacks who had lived in the territory of the Republic of Turkey until they migrated in 1962 Background Of the different branches of Cossacks the only one that would allow Jews into their society were the Cossacks of The Zaporozhian Cossacks (Запорожці Zaporozhtsi,were Cossacks who lived in Zaporizhia, in Central Ukraine The history of the Cossacks spans several centuries Early history The origins of the first Cossacks are uncertain The Russian conquest of Siberia took place in the 16th century when the Siberian Khanate had become a loose political structure of Vassalages which were becoming The term Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Khmel'nyts'kyi/Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky / Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a Rebellion or The Treaty of Hadiach (ugoda hadziacka was a Treaty signed on September 16 1658 in Hadiach (Hadziacz Hadiacz Гадяч between representatives of the Polish-Lithuanian The Bulavin Rebellion is the name given to a violent civil uprising in Imperial Russia between the years 1707 and 1708 Pugachev's Rebellion (or the Cossack Rebellion) was the largest peasant Revolt in Russia 's history The 1st Cavalry Army (Первая конная армия was the most famous Red Army сavalry formation Decossackization is a term used to describe Lenin 's Bolsheviks policy of the systematic elimination of the Cossacks as social groups The Betrayal of the Cossacks, also known as The Tragedy of Drau and The Massacre of Cossacks at Lienz refers to the forced repatriation of Cossacks The 15th SS Cossack Cavalry Corps was a German cavalry corps during World War II. The 1st Cossack Division (1 Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division is a Russian Cossack division within the German World War II Army Andrei Grigoriyevich Shkuro (Shkura ( Russian: Андрей Григорьевич Шкуро ( Шкура) Ukrainian: Шкуро Андрій Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Іван Степанович Мазепа historically spelled as Mazeppa; 20 March 1639 &mdash 2 October Ivan Sirko ( Ukrainian: c. 1610 &ndash 1680 was a Cossack military leader Koshovyi Otaman of the Zaporozhian Host and author of Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov ( Петр Николаевич Краснов in Russian) ( September 22 (10 old style) 1869 — January 17 Stenka Razin · Yemelyan Pugachev · Yermak Timofeyevich|
|Ataman · Hetman · Papakha · Plastun · Shashka · Stanitsa|
Upon completion of his studies in 1617, Bohdan entered into service with the Cossacks. For the place in Azerbaijan see Stepan Razin Azerbaijan. Stepan (Sten'ka Timofeyevich Razin ( Russian: Степан (Стенька Yermak redirects here For the ship see Icebreaker Yermak. Yermak Timofeyevich ( Russian: Ерма́к Тимофе́евич Ataman (variants wataman, vataman, otaman, Cyrillic: атаман (Russian ватаман (Russian regional отаман (Ukrainian was Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the Monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland, Ukraine and Grand Papakhi (ფაფახი transliterated Papakhi; папаха папа́ха; papakh transliterated Papakha) is a Georgian Wool Plastun or plastoon ( Ukrainian, пластун was originally a Cossack of dismounted scouting and Sentry Military The Shashka is a special kind of Sabre, a very sharp single edged single handed and guardless Sword. Stanitsa (стани́ца pronounced stah-nee-tsah; станиця stanytsia) is a village inside a Cossack host (voisko (ru казачье As early as 1619 he was sent along with his father to Moldavia, as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth entered into war with the Ottoman Empire. Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish His first military engagement was a tragic one. During the battle of Cecora (Ţuţora) on 17 September 1620, his father was killed, and young Khmelnytsky among many others, including future hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski, was captured by the Turks. The Battle of Ţuţora (also known as Battle of Cecora) was a battle between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (assisted by Moldavian troops and Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec Biography Childhood Stanisław Koniecpolski was born between 1590 and 1594 into the szlachta and magnate family of Koniecpolscy, likely in their seat of He spent the next two years in captivity in Constantinople, as a prisoner of a Turkish Pasha. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Pasha or pacha, formerly bashaw, (paşa پاشا ( Persian: پاشا ( Armenian: Փաշա was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire 
While there is no concrete evidence as to how he returned to Ukraine, most historians believe he either escaped or his ransom was paid. Sources vary as to by whom — his mother, friends, the Polish king — but perhaps by Krzysztof Zbaraski, ambassador of the Rzeczpospolita to the Ottomans, who in 1622 paid 30,000 thalers in ransom for all prisoners of war captured at the Battle of Cecora. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Thaler (or Taler or Tolar) was a Silver Coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred Years Its name lives on Upon return to Subotiv, Khmelnytsky took over the running of his father's estate and became a registered Cossack in the Chyhyryn Regiment. Registered Cossacks (Реєстрові козаки Reyestrovi kozaky, Polish: Kozacy rejestrowi) is the term used for Ukrainian Cossacks In the meantime, his widowed mother married again, to Belarusian noble Vasyl Stavetsky, and moved to his estate, leaving Bohdan in charge of Subotiv. Belarusians or Belorussians (Беларусы Biełarusy previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorusians, also In a year she had another son, Hryhoriy, who curiously enough later preferred to take his mother's name and was known as Hryhoriy Khmelnytsky. For a short time he also served as a koniuszy to hetman Mikołaj Potocki, but relatively quickly they parted their ways after a personal conflict. The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases is a historical position of varying importance in several European nations Bohdan Khmelnytsky later married Hanna Somkivna, a daughter of a rich Pereyaslavl Cossack and they settled in Subotiv. By the second half of the 1620s they already had three daughters: Stepanida, Olena, and Kateryna. His first son Tymish (Tymofiy) was born in 1632, and another son Yuriy was born in 1640. Tymofiy Bohdanovych Khmelnytsky or Tymish Khmelnytsky ( Тимофій, Тиміш, Тимош Хмельницький; 1632 - Yurii Khmelnytsky (Юрій Хмельницький (1641&ndash1685 son of the famous Bohdan Khmelnytsky, was a Cossack political and military leader
During this time Bohdan Khmelnytsky was running his estate and advanced in his service in the Regiment. He first became a sotnyk and later advanced to the rank of a regiment scribe. Sotnyk (сотник Bulgarian стотник was a military rank among the Ukrainian Cossack Starshyna (officers and Ukrainian Insurgent Army. He certainly had significant negotiation skills and commanded respect of his fellow Cossacks as on 30 August 1637 he was included in a delegation to Warsaw to plead the Cossacks' case before the Polish King Władysław IV. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. This article is about the 17th century king of Poland For another person sometimes mentioned as Wladislaw IV of Poland in works of reference see the 14th century Władysław Serving in the army of a Polish magnate and great commander, hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski, he participated in a rather successful campaign as the Commonwealth army, part of which was Bohdan's regiment, scored a decisive victory over the Tatars in 1644. The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Qırım Hanlığı|قريم خانلغى Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo; During this time, as some archival documents show, he also had a meeting in Warsaw with the French ambassador Count De Bregie, during which he discussed the possibility of Cossack participation in war in France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Sources vary as to whether in April of 1645 he traveled to France (to Fontainebleau) to discuss further details of Cossack service in France; this claim is supported by Ukrainian historiography but disputed by Polish scholarship. Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France.  In October 1644 around two thousand Polish infantry soldiers (some scholars think they were Cossacks, but the French sources do not actually name them as such) went to France by sea via Gdansk and Calais, where they participated in the siege and capture of Dunkerque. Gdańsk ( Polish pronunciation; 'Danzig', Gduńsk Gedania Dantiscum is the City at the centre of the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in Poland Calais (kaˈlɛ in English often kæˈleɪ traditional English pronunciation /ˈkælɨs/ Kales is a town in northern France. Dunkirk ( French: Dunkerque, dœ̃kɛʀk or; Dutch:; is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the However, no records show that Bohdan Khmelnytsky was among them.
In the meantime another trouble was brewing at home. Upon the death of magnate Stanisław Koniecpolski, advocate of fair treatment of Cossacks, his successor Aleksander redrew the maps of his possessions and laid claim to Khmelnytsky's estate, which he claimed was his. The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern In his attempt to find protection from the powerful magnate, Khmelnytsky wrote numerous appeals and letters to different representatives of the Polish crown — but to no avail. At the end of 1645 the Chyhyryn starost (elder) Daniel Czapliński officially received authority from Koniecpolski to seize the Subotiv estate. In summer of 1646 Khmelnytsky, using his favorable standing at the Polish court, arranged an audience with King Władysław IV to plead his case. Władysław, who wanted Cossacks on his side in the wars he planned, gave him a royal charter, which protected his rights to the estate. However, such was the structure of the Commonwealth at that time, and the lawlessness of its eastern realms, that even the King was not able to avert the confrontation with the local magnates. In the beginning of 1647 Daniel Czapliński openly started to harass Khmelnytsky in an attempt to force him off the land. On two occasions Subotiv was raided: considerable property damage was done and Khmelnytsky's son Yuriy was badly beaten. Finally in April 1647, Czapliński completely forced Khmelnytsky off the land and made him move with his large family to a relative's house in Chyhyryn.
In May of 1647 Khmelnytsky arranged a second audience with the King to plead his case, but found the King unwilling to go into an open confrontation with a powerful magnate. In addition to the loss of the estate, his first wife Hanna died, leaving him alone with the children. While he promptly remarried to Motrona, his second wife, he was still unsuccessful in all of his attempts to find justice in regard to his estate. During this time, he met several higher Polish officials to discuss the Cossacks' issue of the war with the Tatars and used this occasion again to plead his case with Czapliński, still unsuccessfully.
When he found no support from the Polish officials, he found it in his Cossack friends and subordinates. The case of a Cossack being unfairly treated by the Poles found a lot of support not only in his Chyhyryn regiment, but also with others including the Sich. All through the autumn of 1647 Khmelnytsky traveled from one regiment to another, and had numerous consultations with Cossack leaders throughout Ukraine. His activity raised suspicion among the Polish authorities already used to Cossack revolts; he was promptly arrested. Koniecpolski even issued an order for his execution but the Chyhyryn Cossack polkovnyk who held Khmelnytsky was persuaded to release him. Polkovnyk (полковник was a high military rank among the Ukrainian Cossack Starshyna ( officers) Not willing to tempt fate any further, Khmelnytsky headed for the Zaporozhian Sich with a group of his supporters. Zaporizhian Sich (Запорізька Січ Zaporiz'ka Sich) original Slavonic name "Zaporizhska Sich'" was the center of the Dnieper Cossacks
While it might appear that the Czapliński Affair caused the Uprising, it was only an impetus that brought a successful and talented Cossack to the forefront of popular discontent among the people of Ukraine. The term Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Khmel'nyts'kyi/Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky / Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a Rebellion or While the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth remained a union of two nations: of Poland and Lithuania, a sizeable population of Orthodox Ruthenians remained ignored. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic The Union of Lublin (Liublino unija Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія Polish: Unia Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the The term Ruthenians (Русини Rusyny) is a culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context in which it is used That left them oppressed by the Polish magnates and their wrath was directed at the Poles' Jewish traders, who often ran their estates for them. The advent of the Counter-Reformation further worsened the relationship between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Many of the Orthodox Ukrainians saw the Union of Brest as a threat to their Orthodox faith, and coupled with the frequent abuse of the Orthodox clergy this added the religious dimension to the conflict. Union of Brest ( Belarusian: Берасьцейская унія, Ukrainian: Берестейська унія, Unia brzeska refers to the This could have been one of the many other frequent Cossack revolts that had been put down by the authorities, but the stature, the skill and the respect of the seasoned 50-year-old negotiator and warrior Khmelnytsky made all the difference.
At the end of the year Khmelnytsky finally made his way to the south, to the estuary of the Dnieper river. An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open For the rocket see Dnepr rocket. For other uses see Dnieper (disambiguation. On 25 January 1648 his small (300–500-man) detachment, with the help of registered Cossacks who went to his side, disarmed the small Polish detachment guarding the area and took over the Zaporozhian Sich — much to the jubilation of many of the Cossacks. Events 41 - After a night of negotiation Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate An attempt to retake the Sich by the Poles was decisively fought off as more registered Cossacks joined his forces. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. At the end of January 1648 a Cossack Rada was called and Khmelnytsky was unanimously elected a hetman. Cossack Rada (Козацька рада Kozats'ka Rada) was a general Cossack meeting often military in nature Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the Monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland, Ukraine and Grand A feverish activity followed. Cossacks were sent with hetman's letters to many regions of Ukraine calling on Cossacks and Orthodox peasants to join the rebellion, the defence of Khortytsia was improved, arrangements were made to acquire and make weapons and anmunition, and emissaries were sent to the Khan of Crimea, İslâm III Giray. Great Khortytsia Island (Хортиця Хортица Khortitsa) is a large island on the Dnieper which played a vital role in the history of Ukraine The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Qırım Hanlığı|قريم خانلغى Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo; İslâm III Giray (III İslâm Geray|۳اسلام گراى (1604&ndash1654 — a khan of the Crimean Khanate in 1644&ndash1654
Initially, Polish authorities took the news of Khmelnytsky's arrival at the Sich and reports about the rebellion quite lightly. The territory of Ukraine was a key centre of East Slavic culture in the Middle Ages, before being divided between a variety of powers The Cucuteni culture, better known in the countries of the former Soviet Union as Trypillian culture or Tripolie culture, is a late Neolithic The Yamna (from Russian / Ukrainian яма "pit" also known as Pit Grave or Ochre Grave culture) is a late copper age /early The Catacomb culture, ca 2800-2200 BC refers to an early Bronze Age culture occupying essentially what is present-day Ukraine. See Cimmeria (Conan or Cimmeria (Poem for the fiction of Robert E In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th The Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae ( Old Iranian Sarumatah 'archer' Σαρμάτες The Zarubintsy culture was one of the major Archaeological cultures which flourished in the area north of the Black Sea along the upper Dnieper and The Chernyakhiv culture (also known as Cherniakhov culture or Cherniakhovo culture) ( Second century to Fifth century) was found in Ukraine Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns.The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes especially Turkic ones from the Steppes of The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Стара Велика България Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles alternative White Croatia (also Chrobatia) is an ill-defined area said to lie somewhere in Central Europe, near Bavaria, beyond Hungary, and adjacent to "Kazar" redirects here for the Marvel Comics character see Ka-Zar; for the village in Azerbaijan see Xəzər. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan The Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia ( Ruthenian: sla Галицко-Волинскоє Королѣвство Regnum Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ or Galicia-Vladimir, was Cumania is a name formerly used to designate several distinct lands in Central and Eastern Europe inhabited by and under the military dominance of the Cumans, a The Mongol invasion of Rus' was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River in 1223 between Subutai 's reconnaissance unit and the combined force This article refers to the medieval Turkic state For the Irish rock band see The Golden Horde (band. Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė old literary Lithuanian Didi Kunigiste Letuvos, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Qırım Hanlığı|قريم خانلغى Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo; The term Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Khmel'nyts'kyi/Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky / Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a Rebellion or The Ruin (Руїна is a period of Ukrainian history from the death of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnitsky in 1657 and until ascension of Hetman Right-bank Ukraine ( Pravoberezhna Ukrayina; Pravoberezhnaya Ukraina; Prawobrzeżna Ukraina a historical name of a part of Ukraine on the right (west Left-bank Ukraine ( Livoberezhna Ukrayina; Levoberezhnaya Ukraina; Lewobrzeżna Ukraina is a historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left (East Sloboda Ukraine (Слобiдська Україна translit Slobids'ka Ukrayina, Слободская Украина translit The Hetmanate or officially Viysko Zaporozke (Гетьманщина Het’manshchyna; Військо Запорозьке Viys’ko Zaporoz’ke Zaporizhia ( Ukrainian: Запоріжжя Zaporizhzhya; Polish: Zaporoże or Dzikie Pola (Wild Fields or Savage Steppe The Danubian Sich (Задунайська Сiч Задунайская Сечь was a fortified settlement ( Sich) of Zaporozhian Cossacks who settled During the growth of the Ottoman Empire (also known as the " Pax Ottomana " the Ottoman Empire expanded southwestwards into North Africa Little Russia, sometimes Little or Lesser Rus’ ( Malorossiya; Mala Rus’) was the name applied to parts of the territory of modern-day Novorossiya (Новоро́ссия literally New Russia) is a historic area now mostly located in southern Ukraine, in southern Russia, in Bessarabia Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria official (Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien mit dem Großherzogtum Krakau und den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator official Bukovina (Bucovina Буковина/ Bukovyna; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Rusinko Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia ( Rusyn and Ukrainian Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary The Ukrainian People's Republic (Українська Народна Республіка Ukrayins’ka Narodna Respublika; also translated as the Ukrainian National The West Ukrainian National Republic (Західно-Українська Народна Республика Zakhidno-Ukrayins’ka Narodna Respublyka or ЗУНР ZUNR This article is about the government of the Ukrainian National Republic 1918&ndash1920 The Directorate, or Directory (Директорія Dyrektoriya) was a government of the Ukrainian National Republic formed in 1918 in rebellion against Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (Galician SSR existed from July 8, 1920 to September 21, 1920 during the Polish-Soviet War The Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic (Донецко-Криворожская советская республика was a short-lived Soviet republic. The Ukrainian War of Independence was a series of military conflicts between Ukrainian, Anarchist, Bolshevik, Central Powers forces The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic or the Ukrainian SSR was one of the 15 constituent republics that made up the Former Soviet Union from its Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Modern Qırım Muhtar Sotsialist Sovet Cumhuriyeti Official Crimean Tatar name ( Uniform Turkic Alphabet) Qrьm Avonomjalь The territory of Ukraine was a key centre of East Slavic culture in the Middle Ages, before being divided between a variety of powers Carpatho-Ukraine (Карпатська Україна Karpats’ka Ukrayina) was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15 The Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Ukraine Reich Commission was the civil administration of much of German-occupied Ukraine (which included adjacent areas of modern Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. The two sides exchanged lists of demands: the Poles asked for Cossacks to surrender the mutinous leader and disband, while Khmelnytsky and the Rada demanded that the Commonwealth restore the Cossacks' ancient rights, stop the advance of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, yield the right to appoint Orthodox leaders of the Sich and of the Registered Cossack regiments, and remove the Commonwealth troops from Ukraine. History Before the Union of Brest See also History of Christianity in Ukraine The Ukrainian Catholic church did not exist as such until the  These demands of Khmelnytsky were taken as an affront by the Polish magnates and an army headed by Stefan Potocki moved in the direction of the Sich. Had the Cossacks stayed at Khortytsia they might have been defeated as in many other rebellions. Great Khortytsia Island (Хортиця Хортица Khortitsa) is a large island on the Dnieper which played a vital role in the history of Ukraine But this time, instead of waiting for the Poles, Khmelnytsky marched against them. The two armies met on 16 May 1648 at Zhovti Vody, where, aided by the Tatars of Tugay Bey, the Cossacks inflicted their first crushing defeat on the Commonwealth. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Battle of Zhovti Vody (Жовтi Води Żółte Wody literally "yellow waters" ( April 29 to May 16, 1648 or because they wanted to act Tugay Bey (Toğay bey Tuhaj-bej Тугай-бей Тугай-бей sometimes also spelled as Tugai Bey (d This was repeated soon after, with the same success, at the Battle of Korsuń on 26 May 1648. Battle of Korsun (Корсунь Korsuń ( May 26, 1648) was the second significant battle of the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place What made these Cossack successess different was the diplomatic and military skill of Khmelnytsky: under his leadership, the Cossack army moved to battle positions following his plans, Cossacks were proactive and decisive in their maneuver and attacks, and most importantly, he not only managed to persuade large contingents of registered Cossacks to switch to his side, but also got the support of the Crimean Khan — his crucial ally for the many battles to come. Giray (sing Geray pl Geraylar alternative spellings Guirey, Ghirai, Ghiray, Geray, is the Genghisid dynasty which reigned in
On Christmas of 1648, Khmelnytsky made a triumphant entry into Kyiv, where he was hailed as "the Moses, savior, redeemer, and liberator of the people from Polish captivity . . . the illustrious ruler of Rus. " In February 1649, during negotiations in Pereiaslav with a Polish delegation headed by senator Adam Kysil, Khmelnytsky declared that he was "the sole autocrat of Rus" and that he had "enough power in Ukraine, Podilia, and Volhynia . Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi (Переяслав-Хмельницький translit Adam Świętołdycz Kisiel (1600-1653 was a Voivode of Kijów or Bracław Voivodship (sources vary (1649-1653 and castellan or voivode of Czernichów The region of Podolia (also spelled Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, . . in his land and principality stretching as far as Lviv, Chełm, and Halych. Chełm (Холм Kholm) is a city in eastern Poland with 72595 inhabitants (2005 Halych (Галич Гáлич Halicz Halyčas is a historic city on the Dniester River in western Ukraine. " It became clear to the Polish envoys that Khmelnytsky had positioned himself not just as a leader of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, but of Ukraine, and stated his claims to the heritage of the Rus. The Zaporozhian Cossacks (Запорожці Zaporozhtsi,were Cossacks who lived in Zaporizhia, in Central Ukraine A Vilnius panegyric in Khmelnytsky's honor (1650–1651) explained it this way: "While in Poland it is King Jan II Casimir Vasa, in Rus it is Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky. A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use written verse delivered in high praise of a Person or thing, a generally highly studied and discriminating For other monarchs with similar names please see John of Poland. "
After the period of initial military successes the state-building process began. State-building is a term used in state theory It describes the construction of a functioning state His leadership was demonstrated in all areas of state-building: in the military, administration, finance, economics, and culture. With political acumen he made the Zaporozhian Host under the leadership of its hetman the supreme power in the new Ukrainian state, and unified all the spheres of Ukrainian society under his authority. The Zaporozhian Cossacks (Запорожці Zaporozhtsi,were Cossacks who lived in Zaporizhia, in Central Ukraine Khmelnytsky built a new government system and developed military and civilian administration.
During this time a new generation of statesmen and military leaders came to the forefront: Ivan Vyhovsky, Pavlo Teteria, Danylo Nechai and Ivan Nechai, Ivan Bohun, Hryhoriy Hulyanytsky. Ivan Vyhovsky ( Ukrainian: Іван Виговський Polish: Iwan Wyhowski (?-1664 was a Hetman (or otoman) of the Ukrainian Pavlo Teteria (Павло Тетеря - Paweł Morzkowski herbu Ślepowron (born ?- died in 1670 in Adrianopolis) was Hetman of Right-Bank Ukraine Ivan Bohun or Ivan Bogun (Іван Богун (died in 1664 was a Ukrainian Cossack colonel. Hryhoriy Hulyanytsky (Григорій Гуляницький (died in 1679 was a Ukrainian Cossack, Polkovnyk, a skilled warrior and a shrewd politician From Cossack polkovnyks, officers, and military commanders, a new elite within the Cossack Hetman state was born. Throughout the years, this elite preserved and maintained the autonomy of the Cossack Hetmanate in the face of Russia's attempt to curb it. The Hetmanate or officially Viysko Zaporozke (Гетьманщина Het’manshchyna; Військо Запорозьке Viys’ko Zaporoz’ke Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending But it was also instrumental in the onset of the period of Ruin that followed and eventually destroyed most of the achievements of the Khmelnytsky era. The Ruin (Руїна is a period of Ukrainian history from the death of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnitsky in 1657 and until ascension of Hetman
Khmelnytsky's initial successes were followed by a series of setbacks as neither Khmelnytsky nor the Commonwealth had had enough strength to stabilize the situation or to inflict a defeat on the enemy. What followed was the period of intermittent warfare and several peace treaties, which neither side put much faith in or cared to abide by. From the spring of 1649 on, the situation turned for the worse for the Cossacks, as the frequency of Polish attacks increased and they were becoming more and more successful. The resulting Treaty of Zboriv on August 18, 1649 was unfavourable for the Cossacks. The Treaty of Zboriv was signed on August 17 1649 after the Polish army was defeated in the Battle of Zboriv by the Cossacks, led by Bohdan Events 293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica. This was followed by another defeat at the battle of Berestechko on June 18, 1651, where the Tatars betrayed him again and even held the hetman captive. The Battle of Berestechko ( Polish: Beresteczko UkrainianБерестечко was fought between rebellious Zaporozhian Cossack, Ukrainian peasant forces and their Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries The result was not only a crushing defeat and a high number of casualties (estimated to be around 30,000 Cossacks), but also the unfavourable Treaty of Bila Tserkva. The Treaty of Bila Tserkva was a Peace treaty between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ukrainian Cossacks in the aftermath of the Battle That treaty was soon violated, and in the years that followed the two sides were almost in the perpetual state of warfare. Conventional warfare is a form of Warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation In this situation the Crimean Tatars played a decisive role — not allowing either side to prevail. Crimean Tatars (sg Qırımtatar, pl Qırımtatarlar) or Crimeans (sg It was in their interests to keep both Ukraine and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from getting too strong and becoming an effective power in the region. 
Under the circumstances, Khmelnytsky started looking for another foreign ally. Even though the Cossacks established their de facto independence from Poland, the new state needed legitimacy that was essential in 17th century Europe, and this legitimacy could be provided by a foreign monarch. In search of a protectorate, Khmelnytsky approached the Ottoman sultan in 1651 and formal embassies were exchanged. The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ( Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922 beginning with The Turks offered vassalship similar to their other arrangements with contemporary Crimea, Moldavia and Walachia. Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania However, the idea of a union with the Muslim monarch didn't rest well with the general populace and the Cossacks from whom Khmelnytsky drew his support. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
The other possible ally was Orthodox Russia. The Tsardom of Rus' (Царство Русское was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IV 's assumption of the title of Tsar (Emperor in 1547 They, however, remained quite cautious and stayed away from the hostilities in Ukraine. In spite of numerous envoys and calls for help from Khmelnytsky in the name of the shared Orthodox faith, the Tsar preferred to wait until the threat of a Cossack-Ottoman union in 1653 finally forced him to action.  The idea that the Tsar might be favourable to taking Ukraine under his hand was communicated to the hetman and the diplomatic activity intensified.
After a series of negotiations, it was agreed that Ukraine would accept the tsar's overlordship. The Treaty of Pereyaslav (Pereiaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi (Pereyaslav To finalize the treaty, a Russian embassy led by boyar Vasili Buturlin came to Pereyaslav, where on January 18, 1653 the Cossack Rada was called and the treaty concluded. This article refers to the aristocratic title of boyar. For the Boyar caste of India, see Boyar (caste. Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi (Переяслав-Хмельницький translit Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor There is still no unanimity among historians as to the true intentions of both Russia and Khmelnytsky in signing this agreement. The Tsardom of Rus' (Царство Русское was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IV 's assumption of the title of Tsar (Emperor in 1547 For Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich the treaty legitimized Moscow's claims to the territory of Kievan Rus and strengthened his influence in the region. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (Алексей Михайлович ( March 9, 1629 (O Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan For Khmelnytsky the Treaty of Pereyaslav offered first and foremost a legitimate monarch's protection and support from a friendly Orthodox power. There have been a number of conflicting opinions as to what kind of union Khmelnytsky had in mind, whether it was to be a military union, a suzerainty or a complete incorporation of Ukraine into the Tsardom of Russia. Suzerainty (ˈsjuːzərənti RP or /ˈsjuːzəreɪnti/ RP) (/ˈsuːzərənti/ GA) is a situation in which a Region or people is a The Tsardom of Rus' (Царство Русское was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IV 's assumption of the title of Tsar (Emperor in 1547 
That both sides had somewhat different idea of the treaty and the union, is exemplified by an incident during the oath of allegiance to the Tsar: the treaty was almost broken when the Moscow envoy refused to reciprocate with an oath from the ruler to his subjects as was the custom with the Polish king. At one point Khmelnytsky even stormed out of the church and threatened to cancel the entire treaty. It was only after some consideration that this demand on the part of the Cossacks was rescinded and the treaty stayed. Both sides, however, had different ends in mind and in the case of Ukraine as whole, whatever liberties were allowed to Khmelnytsky due to his stature, they were denied to his successors. That in the end led to the eventual complete incorporation of Ukraine into the Tsardom of Russia and later into the Russian Empire. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
As a result of the Treaty of Pereyaslav the geopolitical map of the region had changed — a new player, Russia entered the scene and the Cossacks' former allies, the Tatars, went to the Polish side. The Tsardom of Rus' (Царство Русское was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IV 's assumption of the title of Tsar (Emperor in 1547 That intensified the conflict, as the Tatars were now unrestrained in their warfare against Khmelnytsky. Tatar raids depopulated whole areas of Ukraine. The Mongol invasion of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries from the Middle Ages to the Early modern period Cossacks aided by the Tsar's army took revenge on Polish possessions in Belarus and in the spring of 1654 drove them from much of the country. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east To complicate the situation even further, another power entered the scene — Sweden. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. They were the old adversaries of both Poland and Russia, and at the initial stages they concentrated most of their attacks against the Commonwealth. That put Khmelnytsky into a delicate situation in regard to the Tsar, as he had been negotiating with the Swedes for some time, coordinating their attacks on the Commonwealth. In 1656 with the Commonwealth on the brink of collapse, the ruler of Transylvania, George II Rákóczi, also joined in. Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian György Rákóczi II ( January 30, 1621 &ndash June 7, 1660) a Transylvanian Hungarian ruler was the eldest son of George I Under blows from all sides the Commonwealth only survived by a miracle.
Not satisfied with their spoils in Poland and Lithuania, the Swedes turned against their old enemy Russia. This complicated matters even further for Khmelnytsky, as his ally was now fighting his overlord. In addition to diplomatic tensions between the Tsar and Khmelnytsky, a number of other disagreements between the two surfaced, notably in regard to Russian officials' interference in the finances of the Hetmanate and in the newly liberated Belarus. The Hetmanate or officially Viysko Zaporozke (Гетьманщина Het’manshchyna; Військо Запорозьке Viys’ko Zaporoz’ke One thing that infuriated the hetman the most was the separate treaty the Tsar concluded with the Poles in Vilnius in 1656. The Hetman's emissaries were not even allowed to attend the negotiations. That prompted Khmelnytsky to write an irate letter to the Tsar accusing him of breaking the Pereyaslav agreement. Another interesting point in the letter was that in his anger Khmelnytsky compared Swedes to the Tsar, claiming that the former were more honourable and trustworthy than the latter. 
In addition to diplomatic tensions with Russia, the Cossack army with their Transylvanian allies in Poland suffered a number of setbacks. As a result Khmelnytsky even had to deal with Cossack rebellion at home. Troubling news also came from Crimea as Tatars in alliance with Poland were preparing for a new invasion of Ukraine. An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory Though already ill, Khmelnytsky continued to conduct diplomatic activity, at one point even receiving the Tsar's envoys in his bed.  On July 22 he suffered cerebral hemorrhage, became paralyzed, and died at 5 A. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of A cerebral hemorrhage (or intracerebral hemorrhage, ICH) is a subtype of Intracranial hemorrhage that occurs within the Brain tissue itself M. on July 27, 1657. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. His funeral was held on August 23, and his body was taken from his capital Chyhyryn to his estate at Subotiv for burial in his ancestral church. Events 79 - Mount Vesuvius begins stirring on the feast day of Vulcan the Roman god of fire In 1664 a Polish noble Stefan Czarniecki captured Subotiv and ordered the bodies of the hetman and his son Tymish to be exhumed and desecrated. Biography Stefan Czarniecki was born in 1599 in family estate of Czarnca by Włoszczowa in southern Poland in an impoverished Szlachta family Tymofiy Bohdanovych Khmelnytsky or Tymish Khmelnytsky ( Тимофій, Тиміш, Тимош Хмельницький; 1632 - 
It is hard to overestimate Khmelnytsky's contribution and role in the history of Eastern Europe. He not only shaped the future of Ukraine but significantly changed the balance of power in Eastern Europe. As with any other prominent personality his role in the events and his actions were viewed differently by his various contemporaries, and even now different people sometimes have quite opposing views on his legacy.
In Ukraine, Khmelnytsky is generally regarded as a national hero and a father of the nation. Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae) also seen as Parens Patriae, is a Latin Honorific meaning " Father A city and a region of the country bear his name. His image is prominently displayed on Ukrainian banknotes and his monument in the centre of Kyiv is the focal point of the Ukrainian capital. A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money or simply a note) is a kind of Negotiable instrument, a Promissory note made by a There have also been several issues of the Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky — one of the highest decorations in Ukraine and in the former Soviet Union. The Order of Bohdan Khmelnitsky (Орден Богдана Хмельницкого Орден Богдана Хмельницького is a Soviet and later Ukrainian With all this positive appreciation of his legacy, even in Ukraine it is far from being unanimous. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. He is mostly criticised for his union with Russia, which in the view of some, proved to be disastrous for the future of the country. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending This particular view, among others, was expressed by a prominent Ukrainian poet, Taras Shevchenko, who was one of Khmelnytsky's very vocal and harsh critics. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (Тарáс Григóрович Шевчéнко ( &ndash) was a Ukrainian Poet, Artist and humanist.  Furthermore his local reputation was damaged by his alliance with the Crimean Tatars, which permitted the latter to take a large number of Ukrainian peasants as slaves (this may be interpreted as an illustration of the relative indifference of the cossacks as a military caste toward the 'kholopy', the lowest stratum of the Ukrainian people). The traces of this are still found in folk songs. On the balance, the view of his legacy in present-day Ukraine is more positive than negative, with some critics admitting that the union with Russia was dictated by necessity and an attempt to survive in those difficult times. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe.
Until recently Khmelnytsky's role in the history of Poland was viewed mostly in a negative light. The rebellion of 1648 proved to be the end of the Golden Age of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the beginning of its demise. The term Golden age is best known from Greek mythology and legend but can also be found in other ancient cultures (see below Even though it would survive the rebellion and the period of Deluge that followed, within a hundred years it would be no more — its remains would be divided between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in the partitions of Poland. The Deluge ( Polish: Potop, full Polish name is Potop Szwedzki Deluge''' is the name commonly assigned in the History Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the Many blamed Khmelnytsky for the decline of the Commonwealth. Some offered a rather simplified role of Khmelnytsky in the events: for example prominent Polish writer Henryk Sienkiewicz in his novel With Fire and Sword (Polish: Ogniem i mieczem) offered a view that Khmelnytsky was mostly motivated by his personal animosity and stirred up a rebellion to avenge his personal grudges. With Fire and Sword (Ogniem i mieczem is a Historical novel by the Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz, published in 1884 Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. This book was written with a clearly stated intent of raising the national spirit in partitioned Poland, and shows the story of Khmelnytsky and the Cossacks from the point of view of the Polish nobles (szlachta). Szlachta ( refers to the noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (since 1569 semi-federal semi-confederal Thus it glorifies the Polish side while vilifying the rebels. This view is contrasted with a far more comprehensive appreciation of Khmelnytsky's legacy by Polish historians, like Ludwik Kubala, who in his works compared him with Oliver Cromwell. Ludwik Kubala (1838-1918 was a Polish historian Lived in Kraków and Lwów, fought in the January Uprising. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known  A more balanced appreciation prevails — that the fundamental ills of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth resulted in the rebellion that Khmelnytsky led. The film version of With Fire and Sword (1999) also offered a more balanced, contemporary view on the Ukrainian hetman in Poland.
In their assessment of Khmelnytsky's legacy the official Russian historiography stressed the fact that Khmelnytsky entered into union with Moscow's Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich with an expressed desire to "re-unify" Ukraine with Russia. Mikhail Osipovich Mikeshin (1835 — 1896 was a Russian artist who regularly worked for the Romanov family and designed a number of outdoor statues in the major cities Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (Алексей Михайлович ( March 9, 1629 (O This view corresponded with the official theory of Moscow being an heir of the Kievan Rus and thus a gatherer of its former territories. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan
In this light Khmelnytsky was viewed as a national hero of Russia for bringing Ukraine into the "eternal union" of all Russias — Great, Little and White Russia. As such, he was much respected and venerated in Imperial Russia. His role was presented as a model for all Ukrainians to follow — to aspire for closer ties with Great Russia. This view was expressed in a monument commissioned by the Russian nationalist Mikhail Yuzefovich, which was installed in the center of Kiev. Mikhail Vladimirovich Yuzefovich ( Михаил Владимирович Юзефович) (1802—1889 — deputy commissioner of the Kiev school district chairman Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the 
The original variant of the monument (created by sculptor Mikeshin) appeared too xenophobic even for the Russian authorities, as it was to depict a vanquished Pole, Jew, and a Catholic priest under the hoofs of the horse. Xenophobia is an intense and/or irrational dislike and sometimes fear of people from other countries PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. A more moderate version was installed, but the inscription on the monument read "To Bogdan Khmelnitsky from one and indivisible Russia. "
The view of Khmelnytsky as a prominent, positive figure in the Russian history is further displayed in Mikeshin's Monument to the Millennium of Russia in Novgorod, where Khmelnytsky is shown as one of Russia's prominent figures. Veliky Novgorod (Вели́кий Но́вгород is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia and the administrative center of Novgorod 
Soviet historiography followed in many ways the Imperial Russian theory of "re-unification" while adding the class struggle dimension to the story. Soviet historiography is the history of the academic study of history as written by scholars of the Soviet Union. Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective Thus, Khmelnytsky was not only praised for "re-unifying" Ukraine with Russia, but also for organizing the class struggle of oppressed Ukrainian peasants against Polish and Jewish exploiters.
Khmelnitsky role in the atrocities that resulted from the Cossack-Polish war of 1648 is a highly controversial issue. See Main Article for further information. The term Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Khmel'nyts'kyi/Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky / Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a Rebellion or
Hetman of Ukraine