Blood pressure refers to the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels, and constitutes one of the principal vital signs. Blood is a specialized Bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells such as nutrients and oxygenâand transports Waste products The blood vessels are part of the Circulatory system and function to transport Blood throughout the body Vital signs are measures of various physiological statistics often taken by Health professionals in order to assess the most basic body functions The pressure of the circulating blood decreases as blood moves through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins; the term blood pressure generally refers to arterial pressure, i. Arteries are Blood vessels that carry blood away from the Heart. An arteriole is a small diameter Blood vessel that extends and branches out from an Artery and leads to capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest of a body's Blood vessels measuring 5-10 Î¼m in diameter which connect Arterioles and Venules and enable the interchange In the Circulatory system, a vein is a Blood vessel that carries Blood back toward the Heart (as opposed to Artery, a blood vessel e. , the pressure in the larger arteries, arteries being the blood vessels which take blood away from the heart. Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which uses the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure (see Non-invasive measurement). A sphygmomanometer ( or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure Blood pressure, comprising an inflatable Cuff to restrict blood flow and a Blood pressure values are reported in either kilopascals (kPa) or in millimetres of mercury (mmHg), despite the fact that many modern vascular pressure devices no longer use mercury. The torr (symbol Torr) is a non- SI unit of Pressure defined as 1/760 of an atmosphere. Mercury (ËmÉrkjÊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum
The systolic arterial pressure is defined as the peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle; the diastolic arterial pressure is the lowest pressure (at the resting phase of the cardiac cycle). Systole (ËsÉªstÉli rhymes with "fiscally" is the contraction of Heart chambers driving blood out of the chambers Cardiac cycle is the term referring to all or any of the events related to the flow of blood that occur from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next Diastole is the period of time when the heart fills with blood after systole (contraction The average pressure throughout the cardiac cycle is reported as mean arterial pressure; the pulse pressure reflects the difference between the maximum and minimum pressures measured. The mean arterial pressure ( MAP) is a term used in medicine to describe a notional average Blood pressure in an individual Pulse pressure is the change in Blood pressure seen during a contraction of the Heart.
Typical values for a resting, healthy adult human are approximately 120 mmHg (16 kPa) systolic and 80 mmHg (11 kPa) diastolic (written as 120/80 mmHg, and spoken as "one twenty over eighty") with large individual variations. Diastole is the period of time when the heart fills with blood after systole (contraction These measures of arterial pressure are not static, but undergo natural variations from one heartbeat to another and throughout the day (in a circadian rhythm); they also change in response to stress, nutritional factors, drugs, or disease. Medication, also referred to as medicine, can be loosely defined as any substance intended for use in the diagnosis cure mitigation treatment or prevention of disease Hypertension refers to arterial pressure being abnormally high, as opposed to hypotension, when it is abnormally low. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated In Physiology and Medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low Blood pressure. Along with body temperature, blood pressure measurements are the most commonly measured physiological parameters.
Arterial pressures can be measured invasively (by penetrating the skin and measuring inside the blood vessels) or non-invasively. The term invasive in Medicine has two meanings A Medical procedure which penetrates or breaks the Skin or a Body cavity, i The former is usually restricted to a hospital setting.
The non-invasive auscultatory (from the Latin for listening) and oscillometric measurements are simpler and quicker than invasive measurements, require less expertise in fitting, have virtually no complications, and are less unpleasant and painful for the patient. For the ancient monasterial worker see Auscultare Auscultation is the technical term for listening to the internal sounds of the body usually However, non-invasive measures may yield somewhat lower accuracy and small systematic differences in numerical results. Non-invasive measurement methods are more commonly used for routine examinations and monitoring.
A minimum systolic value can be roughly estimated without any equipment by palpation, most often used in emergency situations. Palpation used as part of a Physical examination in which an object is felt (usually with the hands of a Healthcare practitioner to determine its size shape firmness Emergency medical services (abbreviated to the initialism "EMS" in many countries are a branch of Emergency services dedicated to providing out-of-hospital Palpation of a radial pulse indicates a minimum blood pressure of 80 mmHg (11 kPa), a femoral pulse indicates at least 70 mmHg (9. 3 kPa), and a carotid a minimum of 60 mmHg (8. 0 kPa). However, one study indicated that this method was not accurate enough and often overestimated patient's systolic blood pressure.  A more accurate value of systolic blood pressure can be obtained by with a sphygmomanometer and palpating for when a radial pulse returns. A sphygmomanometer ( or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure Blood pressure, comprising an inflatable Cuff to restrict blood flow and a  Because a diastolic pressure cannot be obtained by this method, blood pressures obtained by palpation are noted as "<systolic>/P". 
The auscultatory method uses a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer. The stethoscope (from Greek ÏÏÎ·Î¸Î¿ÏÎºÏÏÎ¹Î¿, of ÏÏÎ®Î¸Î¿Ï stÃ©thos - chest and ÏÎºÎ¿ÏÎ® skopÃ© - examination) is an acoustic A sphygmomanometer ( or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure Blood pressure, comprising an inflatable Cuff to restrict blood flow and a This comprises an inflatable (Riva-Rocci) cuff placed around the upper arm at roughly the same vertical height as the heart, attached to a mercury or aneroid manometer. Scipione Riva-Rocci ( 7 August 1863 â 15 March 1937) was an Italian Internist and Pediatrician who was a native of A cuff is an extra layer of fabric at the lower edge of the Sleeve of a Garment covering the arms Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of Pressure and Vacuum. The mercury manometer, considered to be the gold standard for arterial pressure measurement, measures the height of a column of mercury, giving an absolute result without need for calibration, and consequently not subject to the errors and drift of calibration which affect other methods. In Medicine, a gold standard test or criterion standard test is a Diagnostic test or benchmark that is regarded as definitive The use of mercury manometers is often required in clinical trials and for the clinical measurement of hypertension in high risk patients, such as pregnant women. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated
A cuff of appropriate size is fitted and inflated manually by repeatedly squeezing a rubber bulb until the artery is completely occluded. Listening with the stethoscope to the brachial artery at the elbow, the examiner slowly releases the pressure in the cuff. The brachial artery is the major Blood vessel of the upper arm The elbow is the region surrounding the elbow-joint&mdashthe ginglymus or Hinge joint in the middle of the Arm. When blood just starts to flow in the artery, the turbulent flow creates a "whooshing" or pounding (first Korotkoff sound). Korotkoff are the sounds that medical personnel listen for when they are taking Blood pressure using a non-invasive procedure The pressure at which this sound is first heard is the systolic blood pressure. The cuff pressure is further released until no sound can be heard (fifth Korotkoff sound), at the diastolic arterial pressure. Sometimes, the pressure is palpated (felt by hand) to get an estimate before auscultation.
Oscillometric methods are sometimes used in the long-term measurement and sometimes in general practice. The equipment is functionally similar to that of the auscultatory method, but with an electronic pressure sensor (transducer) fitted in to detect blood flow, instead of using the stethoscope and the expert's ear. A pressure sensor measures the Pressure, typically of Gases or Liquids. A transducer is a device usually electrical, electronic, Electro-mechanical, Electromagnetic, Photonic, or Photovoltaic In practice, the pressure sensor is a calibrated electronic device with a numerical readout of blood pressure. To maintain accuracy, calibration must be checked periodically, unlike the inherently accurate mercury manometer. In most cases the cuff is inflated and released by an electrically operated pump and valve, which may be fitted on the wrist (elevated to heart height), although the upper arm is preferred. They vary widely in accuracy, and should be checked at specified intervals and if necessary recalibrated.
Oscillometric measurement requires less skill than the auscultatory technique, and may be suitable for use by untrained staff and for automated patient home monitoring.
The cuff is inflated to a pressure initially in excess of the systolic arterial pressure, and then reduces to below diastolic pressure over a period of about 30 seconds. When blood flow is nil (cuff pressure exceeding systolic pressure) or unimpeded (cuff pressure below diastolic pressure), cuff pressure will be essentially constant. It is essential that the cuff size is correct: undersized cuffs may yield too high a pressure, whereas oversized cuffs yields too low a pressure. When blood flow is present, but restricted, the cuff pressure, which is monitored by the pressure sensor, will vary periodically in synchrony with the cyclic expansion and contraction of the brachial artery, i. e. , it will oscillate. Oscillation is the repetitive variation typically in Time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of Equilibrium) or between two or more different states The values of systolic and diastolic pressure are computed, not actually measured from the raw data, using an algorithm; the computed results are displayed.
Oscillometric monitors may produce inaccurate readings in patients with heart and circulation problems, that include arterial sclerosis, arrhythmia, preeclampsia, pulsus alternans, and pulsus paradoxus. Dysrhythmia redirects here For the American band see Dysrhythmia (band. Pre-eclampsia (US preeclampsia) is a Medical condition where Hypertension arises in pregnancy ( Pregnancy-induced hypertension) in association Pulsus alternans is a physical finding with arterial pulse waveform showing alternating strong and weak beats In Medicine, a pulsus paradoxus (PP also paradoxic pulse and paradoxical pulse, is an exaggeration of the normal variation in the pulse during the inspiratory
In practice the different methods do not give identical results; an algorithm and experimentally obtained coefficients are used to adjust the oscillometric results to give readings which match the auscultatory as well as possible.  Some equipment uses computer-aided analysis of the instantaneous arterial pressure waveform to determine the systolic, mean, and diastolic points. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. waveformogg|right|a sine square and sawtooth wave at 440 hz]] Waveform means the shape and form of a signal such as a Wave moving in a solid liquid or gaseous Since many oscillometric devices have not been validated, caution must be given as most are not suitable in clinical and acute care settings.
The term NIBP, for Non-Invasive Blood Pressure, is often used to describe oscillometric monitoring equipment.
Arterial blood pressure (BP) is most accurately measured invasively through an arterial line. Invasive arterial pressure measurement with intravascular cannulae involves direct measurement of arterial pressure by placing a cannula needle in an artery (usually radial, femoral, dorsalis pedis or brachial). A cannula (from Latin "little reed" plural cannulae) or canula is a tube which can be inserted into the body often for the delivery or removal In Human anatomy, the radial artery is the main Blood vessel, with oxygenated Blood, of the lateral aspect of the Forearm. The femoral artery is a large Artery in the muscles of the Thigh. In Human anatomy, the dorsalis pedis artery ( dorsal artery of foot) is a Blood vessel of the Lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the The brachial artery is the major Blood vessel of the upper arm This is usually done by an anesthesiologist or surgeon in a hospital.
The cannula must be connected to a sterile, fluid-filled system, which is connected to an electronic pressure transducer. The advantage of this system is that pressure is constantly monitored beat-by-beat, and a waveform (a graph of pressure against time) can be displayed. This invasive technique is regularly employed in human and veterinary intensive care medicine, anesthesiology, and for research purposes. Intensive Care Medicine or critical care medicine is a branch of medicine concerned with the provision of Life support or organ support systems in patients Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek grc Î±Î½- an-, "without" and grc Î±á¼²ÏÎ¸Î·ÏÎ¹Ï
Cannulation for invasive vascular pressure monitoring is infrequently associated with complications such as thrombosis, infection, and bleeding. Thrombosis is the formation of a blood Clot ( Thrombus) inside a Blood vessel, obstructing the flow of Blood through the Circulatory An infection is the detrimental Colonization of a host Organism by a foreign Species. Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging / haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences) is the loss of Blood from Patients with invasive arterial monitoring require very close supervision, as there is a danger of severe bleeding if the line becomes disconnected. It is generally reserved for patients where rapid variations in arterial pressure are anticipated.
Invasive vascular pressure monitors are pressure monitoring systems designed to acquire pressure information for display and processing. There are a variety of invasive vascular pressure monitors for trauma, critical care, and operating room applications. These include single pressure, dual pressure, and multi-parameter (i. e. pressure / temperature). The monitors can be used for measurement and follow-up of arterial, central venous, pulmonary arterial, left atrial, right atrial, femoral arterial, umbilical venous, umbilical arterial, and intracranial pressures.
Vascular pressure parameters are derived in the monitor's microcomputer system. Usually, systolic, diastolic, and mean pressures are displayed simultaneously for pulsatile waveforms (i. Diastole is the period of time when the heart fills with blood after systole (contraction e. arterial and pulmonary arterial). Some monitors also calculate and display CPP (cerebral perfusion pressure). Normally, a zero key on the front of the monitor makes pressure zeroing extremely fast and easy. Alarm limits may be set to assist the medical professional responsible for observing the patient. High and low alarms may be set on displayed temperature parameters.
Up to 25% of patients diagnosed with hypertension do not suffer from it, but rather from white coat hypertension (elevated arterial pressure specifically during medical exams, probably as a result of anxiety). Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated See also Hypertension White coat Hypertension is a phenomenon in which patients exhibit elevated Blood pressure in a clinical Thus, well-performed, accurate home arterial pressure monitoring can prevent unnecessary anxiety, as well as costly and potentially dangerous therapy in many millions of people worldwide. Home arterial pressure monitoring provides a measurement of a person's arterial pressure at different times and in different environments, such as at home and at work, throughout the day. Home arterial pressure monitoring may assist in the diagnosis of high or low arterial pressure. It may also be used to monitor the effects of medication or lifestyle changes taken to lower or regulate arterial pressure levels.
Automatic self-contained blood pressure monitors are available at reasonable prices, some of which are capable of Korotkoff's measurement in addition to oscillometric methods, enabling irregular heartbeat patients to accurately measure their blood pressure at home, which was not possible using the traditional devices.
The 2003 US Joint National Committee recommends the use of self monitoring of arterial pressure, before considering the more expensive ambulatory monitoring of arterial pressure, to improve hypertension management.  Both the Joint National Committee and the 2003 guidelines from the European Society of Hypertension and the European Society of Cardiology suggest that self monitoring might also be used as an alternative to ambulatory monitoring for the diagnosis of white coat hypertension. See also Hypertension White coat Hypertension is a phenomenon in which patients exhibit elevated Blood pressure in a clinical 
A study published in the May 2006 American Journal of Hypertension compared home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring methods in the adjustment of antihypertensive treatment. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM measures Blood pressure at regular intervals throughout the day and night The study showed home arterial pressure monitoring is as accurate as a 24 hour ambulatory monitoring in determining arterial pressure levels. Researchers at the University of Turku, Finland studied 98 patients with untreated hypertension. They compared patients using a home arterial pressure device and those wearing a 24-hour ambulatory monitor. Researcher Dr. Niiranen said that, "home blood pressure measurement can be used effectively for guiding anti-hypertensive treatment". Dr. Stergiou added that home tracking of arterial pressure, "is more convenient and also less costly than ambulatory blood pressure monitoring".
A clinical study published in the May 2007 edition of The American Journal of Hypertension compared the accuracy of three different methods of taking arterial pressure in indicating cardiovascular health. The study aim was to assess the accuracy of home blood pressure monitoring (HBP), 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABP) and arterial pressure readings taken in a doctorâs office (OBP). The arterial pressure tests were compared to the left-ventricular mass index (LVMI). The LVMI was calculated from an echocardiogram of the heart and indicates cardiovascular organ damage, an indicator of arterial pressure. An echocardiogram is a Sonography of the Heart. Also known as a cardiac ultrasound it uses standard ultrasound techniques to image two-dimensional slices of Researchers at The Columbia University Medical Center, New York found that home arterial pressure monitoring, over a ten-week period was a significant independent predictor of LVMI even after adjusting for age, sex and BMI (body mass index). The body mass index ( BMI) or Quetelet index, is a statistical measurement which compares a person's weight and height They found that home monitoring over time is a better indicator of cardiovascular health than ambulatory readings or readings taken at the doctorsâ office. The value of home monitoring increases over time with a number of measurements taken.
The June 2007 AMNews; Newspaper for America's Physicians released a study which showed arterial pressure readings taken in a doctors office are often unreliable. The American Medical Association newspaper quoted Prof Norman Kaplan from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center who said, "Of all the procedures done in a doctor's office, measurement of blood pressure is usually the least well performed but has the most important implications for the care of the patient. " The paper explained that arterial pressure readings taken in a Doctors office can be falsely raised or lowered. This can be due to the presence of a Doctor or clinician which results in the patient experiencing white coat hypertension. See also Hypertension White coat Hypertension is a phenomenon in which patients exhibit elevated Blood pressure in a clinical
The American Heart Association website states, "You may have what's called 'white coat hypertension'; that means your blood pressure goes up when you're at the doctor's office. Monitoring at home will help you measure your true blood pressure and can provide your doctor with a log of blood pressure measurements over time. This is helpful in diagnosing and preventing potential health problems. "
Those using home arterial pressure monitoring devices are increasingly also making use of arterial pressure charting software.  These charting methods provide print outs for the patients physician and reminders on how often to check arterial pressure. 
The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute has issued guidelines for taking blood pressure using home monitoring devices. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (or NHLBI) is a division of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda  Obtaining an accurate reading requires that the patient should not drink coffee, smoke cigarettes, or engage in strenuous exercise for 30 minutes before taking the reading. For 5 minutes before the test, the patient should be sitting upright in a chair with his or her feet flat on the floor and without any limbs crossed. The arm should be relaxed and kept at heart level during the reading. The blood pressure cuff should always be against bare skin, as readings taken over a shirt sleeve are less accurate. A full bladder may have a small effect on blood pressure readings, so if the urge to urinate exists, the patient should be encouraged to void the bladder before the reading. 
While statistically normal values for arterial pressure could be computed for any given population, there is often a large variation from person to person; arterial pressure also varies in individuals from moment to moment. Additionally, the norm of any given population may have a questionable correlation with its general health, thus the relevance of such statistical values is equally questionable. In a study of 100 subjects with no known history of hypertension, an average systolic blood pressure of 112. 4 mmHg (14. 99 kPa) and an average diastolic pressure of about 64. 0 mmHg (8. 53 kPa) was found. 
In children the observed normal ranges are lower; in the elderly, they are often higher, largely because of reduced flexibility of the arteries. Factors such as age, gender and race influence blood pressure values. Pressure also varies with exercise, emotional reactions, sleep, digestion and time of the day.
Levels above 120 mmHg (16 kPa) but below 140 mmHg (19 kPa) in systolic pressure, or above 80 (11 kPa) but below 95 mmHg (13 kPa) in diastolic pressure, are referred to as "prehypertensive" and often progress to frankly hypertensive levels. However studies already extant reveal that there are fewer complications at, e. g. , 115 mmHg (15 kPa) systolic than 120 mmHg (16 kPa), and in fact arterial pressure is a continuum with decreasing pathology associated with lower levels to well within the current "optimum" range. The risk of cardiovascular disease increases progressively throughout the range of arterial pressure, beginning at 115/75 mm Hg.  "Some data indicates that 115/75 mm Hg should be the gold standard. Once arterial pressure rises above 115/75 mm Hg, the risk of cardiovascular disease begins to increase. Prehypertension is now considered to be a systolic pressure ranging from 120 to 139 or a diastolic pressure ranging from 80 to 89. " (Excerpts from Mayo Clinic website). In the past, hypertension was only diagnosed if secondary signs of high arterial pressure were present, along with a prolonged high systolic pressure reading over several visits. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated In the US, this reactive stance has been soundly rejected in the light of recent evidence.
In the UK, mirroring abandoned earlier US practice, nursing students continue to be taught that their patientsâ readings should be considered ânormalâ if in the range:
Clinical trials demonstrate that people who maintain arterial pressures at the low end of these pressure ranges have much better long term cardiovascular health. The principal medical debate concerns the aggressiveness and relative value of methods used to lower pressures into this range for those who do not maintain such pressure on their own. Elevations, more commonly seen in older people, though often considered normal, are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The clear trend from double blind clinical trials (for the better strategies and agents) demonstrates that lower arterial pressure correlates with lower rates of disease. The blind method is a part of the Scientific method, used to prevent research outcomes from being influenced by either the Placebo effect or the Observer
The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is the average pressure measured over one complete cardiac cycle. The mean arterial pressure ( MAP) is a term used in medicine to describe a notional average Blood pressure in an individual Cardiac cycle is the term referring to all or any of the events related to the flow of blood that occur from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next
The up and down fluctuation of the arterial pressure results from the pulsatile nature of the cardiac output. Arteries are Blood vessels that carry blood away from the Heart. Cardiac output (Q is the volume of blood being pumped by the Heart, in particular by a ventricle in a minute The pulse pressure is determined by the interaction of the stroke volume versus the resistance to flow in the arterial tree. Pulse pressure is the change in Blood pressure seen during a contraction of the Heart. Stroke volume (SV is the volume of Blood pumped by the right/ Left ventricle of the heart in one contraction. In Fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called fluid resistance) is the force that resists the movement of a Solid object through a Fluid (a
The larger arteries, including all large enough to see without magnification, are low resistance (assuming no advanced atherosclerotic changes) conduits with high flow rates that generate only small drops in pressure. Atherosclerosis is a Disease affecting arterial Blood vessels It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries in large part due to the accumulation For instance, with a subject in the supine position, blood travelling from the heart to the toes typically only experiences a 5 mmHg (0. The supine position is a position of the body; lying down with the Face up as opposed to the Prone position, which is face down 67 kPa) drop in mean pressure.
Modern physiology developed the concept of the vascular pressure wave (VPW). This wave is created by the heart during the systole and originates in the ascending aorta. Systole (ËsÉªstÉli rhymes with "fiscally" is the contraction of Heart chambers driving blood out of the chambers The ascending aorta is a portion of the Aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind Much faster than the stream of blood itself, it is then transported through the vessel walls to the peripheral arteries. Arteries are Blood vessels that carry blood away from the Heart. There the pressure wave can be palpated as the peripheral pulse. Palpation used as part of a Physical examination in which an object is felt (usually with the hands of a Healthcare practitioner to determine its size shape firmness In Medicine, a person's pulse is the throbbing of their arteries. As the wave is reflected at the peripheral veins it runs back in a centripetal fashion. Where the crests of the reflected and the original wave meet, the pressure inside the vessel is higher than the true pressure in the aorta. This concept explains why the arterial pressure inside the peripheral arteries of the legs and arms is higher than the arterial pressure in the aorta, and in turn for the higher pressures seen at the ankle compared to the arm with normal ankle brachial pressure index values. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index ( ABPI) is a measure of the reduction in arterial blood pressure of the legs and as such is used to detect evidence of blockages ( Peripheral
The endogenous regulation of arterial pressure is not completely understood. The word endogenous means "arising from within" the opposite of Exogenous. Currently, three mechanisms of regulating arterial pressure have been well-characterized:
These different mechanisms are not necessarily independent of each other, as indicated by the link between the RAS and aldosterone release. Currently, the RAS system is targeted pharmacologically by ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of '''A'''ngiotensin-'''C'''onverting '''E'''nzyme, are a group of Pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of Hypertension Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs AT1-receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of The aldosterone system is directly targeted by spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist. Spironolactone (marketed under the trade names Aldactone, Novo-Spiroton, Spiractin, Spirotone, Verospiron or Berlactone The fluid retention may be targeted by diuretics; the antihypertensive effect of diuretics is due to its effect on blood volume. A diuretic is any Drug that elevates the rate of urination ( Diuresis) Generally, the baroreceptor reflex is not targeted in hypertension because if blocked, individuals may suffer from orthostatic hypotension and fainting. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated Orthostatic hypotension (also known as postural hypotension, and colloquially as head rush or a dizzy spell) is a form of Hypotension in which
The diagnosis of abnormalities in arterial pressure may require serial measurement. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated Since arterial pressure varies throughout the day, measurements should be taken at the same time of day to ensure the readings taken are comparable. Suitable times are:
It is sometimes difficult to meet these requirements at the doctor's office; also, some patients become nervous when their arterial pressure is taken at the office, causing readings to increase (this phenomenon is called white coat hypertension). See also Hypertension White coat Hypertension is a phenomenon in which patients exhibit elevated Blood pressure in a clinical Taking blood pressure levels at home or work with a home blood pressure monitoring device may help determine a person's true range of arterial pressure readings and avoid false readings from the white coat hypertension effect. Blood pressure is also the title of a short story by Damon Runyan in Guys and Dolls and Other Stories See also Hypertension White coat Hypertension is a phenomenon in which patients exhibit elevated Blood pressure in a clinical Long term assessments may be made with an ambulatory blood pressure device that takes regular arterial pressure readings every half an hour throughout the course of a single day and night. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM measures Blood pressure at regular intervals throughout the day and night
Aside from the white coat effect, arterial pressure readings outside of a clinical setting are usually slightly lower in the majority of people. The studies that looked into the risks from hypertension and the benefits of lowering the arterial pressure in affected patients were based on readings in a clinical environment. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated
Arterial pressure exceeding normal values is called arterial hypertension. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated In itself it is only an acute problem; see hypertensive emergency. A hypertensive emergency is severe Hypertension (high blood pressure with acute impairment of an Organ system (especially the Central nervous system But because of its long-term indirect effects (and also as an indicator of other problems) it is a serious worry to physicians diagnosing it.
All levels of arterial pressure put mechanical stress on the arterial walls. Higher pressures increase heart workload and progression of unhealthy tissue growth (atheroma) that develops within the walls of arteries. In Pathology, an atheroma (plural atheromata is an accumulation and swelling (-oma in Artery walls that is made up of cells (mostly Macrophage cells The higher the pressure, the more stress that is present and the more atheroma tend to progress and the heart muscle tends to thicken, enlarge and become weaker over time. In Pathology, an atheroma (plural atheromata is an accumulation and swelling (-oma in Artery walls that is made up of cells (mostly Macrophage cells
Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure, arterial aneurysms, and is the leading cause of chronic renal failure. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply Heart failure is a Cardiac condition that occurs when a problem with the structure or function of the Heart impairs its ability to supply Chronic kidney disease (CKD also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years Even moderate elevation of arterial pressure leads to shortened life expectancy. At severely high pressures, mean arterial pressures 50% or more above average, a person can expect to live no more than a few years unless appropriately treated. 
In the past, most attention was paid to diastolic pressure; but nowadays it is recognised that both high systolic pressure and high pulse pressure (the numerical difference between systolic and diastolic pressures) are also risk factors. Diastole is the period of time when the heart fills with blood after systole (contraction Pulse pressure is the change in Blood pressure seen during a contraction of the Heart. In some cases, it appears that a decrease in excessive diastolic pressure can actually increase risk, due probably to the increased difference between systolic and diastolic pressures (see the article on pulse pressure). Pulse pressure is the change in Blood pressure seen during a contraction of the Heart.
Blood pressure that is too low is known as hypotension. In Physiology and Medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low Blood pressure. In Physiology and Medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low Blood pressure. The similarity in pronunciation with hypertension can cause confusion. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated
Low arterial pressure may be a sign of severe disease and requires urgent medical attention.
When arterial pressure and blood flow decrease beyond a certain point, the perfusion of the brain becomes critically decreased (i. The volumetric flow rate in Fluid dynamics and Hydrometry, (also known as volume flow rate or rate of fluid flow) is the volume of fluid which In Physiology, perfusion is the process of nutritive delivery of Arterial Blood to a Capillary bed in the Biological tissue. e. , the blood supply is not sufficient), causing lightheadedness, dizziness, weakness and fainting.
However, people who function well, while maintaining low arterial pressures have lower rates of cardiovascular disease events than people with normal arterial pressures.
The physics of the circulatory system, as of any fluid system, are very complex. That said, there are many physical factors that influence arterial pressure. Each of these may in turn be influenced by physiological factors, such as diet, exercise, disease, drugs or alcohol, obesity, excess weight and so-forth. Obesity is a condition in which excess Body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected
|In cardiac physiology, the rate and volume of flow are accounted for in a combined fashion by cardiac output which is the heart rate (the rate of contraction) multiplied by the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped out from the heart with each contraction). Cardiac output (Q is the volume of blood being pumped by the Heart, in particular by a ventricle in a minute Measuring heart rate The Pulse rate (which in most people is identical to the heart rate can be measured at any point on the body where an Artery 's pulsation Stroke volume (SV is the volume of Blood pumped by the right/ Left ventricle of the heart in one contraction. It represents the efficiency with which the heart circulates blood throughout the body.|
Some physical factors are:
In practice, each individual's autonomic nervous system responds to and regulates all these interacting factors so that, although the above issues are important, the actual arterial pressure response of a given individual varies widely because of both split-second and slow-moving responses of the nervous system and end organs. These responses are very effective in changing the variables and resulting blood pressure from moment to moment.
Sometimes the arterial pressure drops significantly when a patient stands up from sitting. This is known as orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension); gravity reduces the rate of blood return from the body veins below the heart back to the heart, thus reducing stroke volume and cardiac output. Orthostatic hypotension (also known as postural hypotension, and colloquially as head rush or a dizzy spell) is a form of Hypotension in which
When people are healthy, the veins below their heart quickly constrict and the heart rate increases to minimize and compensate for the gravity effect. This is carried out involuntarily by the autonomic nervous system. The system usually requires a few seconds to fully adjust and if the compensations are too slow or inadequate, the individual will suffer reduced blood flow to the brain, dizziness and potential blackout. Increases in G-loading, such as routinely experienced by acrobatic jet pilots "pulling Gs", greatly increases this effect. g-force (also G-force, g-load) is a measurement of an object's Acceleration expressed in g s Repositioning the body perpendicular to gravity largely eliminates the problem.
Other causes of low arterial pressure include:
Shock is a complex condition which leads to critically decreased perfusion. Sepsis is a serious medical condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (called a Systemic inflammatory response syndrome or SIRS caused Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging / haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences) is the loss of Blood from A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low Hormones (from Greek á½ÏÎ¼Î® - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body Addison's disease (also known as chronic Adrenal insufficiency, '''hypocortisolism''' or '''hypocorticism) is a rare Endocrine disorder In Physiology, perfusion is the process of nutritive delivery of Arterial Blood to a Capillary bed in the Biological tissue. The usual mechanisms are loss of blood volume, pooling of blood within the veins reducing adequate return to the heart and/or low effective heart pumping. Low arterial pressure, especially low pulse pressure, is a sign of shock and contributes to and reflects decreased perfusion.
If there is a significant difference in the pressure from one arm to the other, that may indicate a narrowing (for example, due to aortic coarctation, aortic dissection, thrombosis or embolism) of an artery. Thrombosis is the formation of a blood Clot ( Thrombus) inside a Blood vessel, obstructing the flow of Blood through the Circulatory In Medicine, an embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the Body (through circulation
Venous pressure is the vascular pressure in a vein or in the atria of the heart. In the Circulatory system, a vein is a Blood vessel that carries Blood back toward the Heart (as opposed to Artery, a blood vessel In Anatomy, the atrium (plural atria) refers to a chamber or space It is much less than arterial pressure, with common values of 5 mmHg (0. 7 kPa) in the right atrium and 8 mmHg (1 kPa) in the left atrium. Measurement of pressures in the venous system and the pulmonary vessels plays an important role in intensive care medicine but requires an invasive central venous catheter. Intensive Care Medicine or critical care medicine is a branch of medicine concerned with the provision of Life support or organ support systems in patients In Medicine, a central venous catheter ( CVC or central venous line or central venous access catheter) is a Catheter placed into a the pressure