Blood is a specialized bodily fluid (technically a tissue). Bodily fluids listed below are found in the bodies of men and/or women Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism
In vertebrates it is composed of blood cells suspended in a liquid called blood plasma. Vertebrates are members of the Subphylum Vertebrata, Chordates with backbones or spinal columns The grouping sometimes includes A blood cell (also called blood corpuscle) is any cell of any type normally found in Blood. Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended Plasma, which comprises 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (90% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), platelets and blood cells themselves. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Platelets, or Thrombocytes, are small cytoplasmic bodies derived from cells They circulate in the Blood of Mammals and are involved The blood cells present in blood are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes) and white blood cells, including leukocytes and platelets (also called thrombocytes). Red blood cells are the most common type of Blood cell and the Vertebrate body's principal means of delivering Oxygen to the body tissues via the Blood Platelets, or Thrombocytes, are small cytoplasmic bodies derived from cells They circulate in the Blood of Mammals and are involved
The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates transportation of oxygen by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood. Hemoglobin ( also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb) is the Iron -containing Oxygen -transport Metalloprotein Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Breathing takes Oxygen in and Carbon dioxide out of the body Aerobic Organisms require oxygen to create energy via respiration, in In contrast, carbon dioxide is almost entirely transported extracellularly dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ion. In Inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate ( IUPAC -recommended nomenclature hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the Deprotonation
Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated. Some animals, such as crustaceans and mollusks, use hemocyanin to carry oxygen, instead of hemoglobin. Structure of crustaceans As Arthropods crustaceans have a stiff Exoskeleton, which must be shed to allow the animal to grow ( Ecdysis or molting Molluscs are animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca. There are around 250000 extant Species within the phylum with an estimated 70000 Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory Proteins in the form of Metalloproteins containing two Copper atoms that reversibly Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called haemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that haemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system. Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Hemolymph or haemolymph is the Blood analogue used by all Arthropods and most Mollusks that have an Open circulatory system. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as haemoglobin because their bodies are small enough that their tracheal system suffices for supplying oxygen. Many terrestrial Arthropods have evolved a closed Respiratory system composed of Spiracles, tracheae and Tracheoles to transport metabolic
Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, based largely on white blood cells. Gnathostomata is the group of Vertebrates with Jaws The group is traditionally a superclass, including the familiar classes of Fish, Immune system|Passive immunity|Innate immune system The adaptive immune system is composed of highly specialized systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent Pathogenic White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites. Platelets are important in the clotting of blood. Platelets, or Thrombocytes, are small cytoplasmic bodies derived from cells They circulate in the Blood of Mammals and are involved Coagulation is a complex process by which Blood forms Clots It is an important part of Hemostasis (the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel whereby  Arthropods, using haemolymph, have haemocytes as part of their immune system. Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " For the creatures in the film I Am Legend, see there A hemocyte is a cell that plays a role in the Immune system of an An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor
Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. The blood vessels are part of the Circulatory system and function to transport Blood throughout the body The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic In animals having lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled. lung is the essential Respiration organ in air-breathing Animals including most Tetrapods a few Fish and a few Snails The most primitive Arteries are Blood vessels that carry blood away from the Heart. In the Circulatory system, a vein is a Blood vessel that carries Blood back toward the Heart (as opposed to Artery, a blood vessel Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living Organisms It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living and is often called lung is the essential Respiration organ in air-breathing Animals including most Tetrapods a few Fish and a few Snails The most primitive
Medical terms related to blood often begin with hemo- or hemato- (BrE: haemo- and haemato-) from the Greek word "αἷμα" for "blood. British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly " Anatomically and histologically, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen. Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration Histology (from the Greek = 'tissue' is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of Plants and Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, Muscle, and Nervous tissue) Fibrin (also called Factor Ia) is a Protein involved in the clotting of blood
Blood performs many important functions within the body including:
Blood accounts for 7% of the human body weight, with an average density of approximately 1060 kg/m³, very close to pure water's density of 1000 kg/m3.  The average adult has a blood volume of roughly 5 litres, composed of plasma and several kinds of cells (occasionally called corpuscles); these formed elements of the blood are erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) and thrombocytes (platelets). The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. Red blood cells are the most common type of Blood cell and the Vertebrate body's principal means of delivering Oxygen to the body tissues via the Blood Platelets, or Thrombocytes, are small cytoplasmic bodies derived from cells They circulate in the Blood of Mammals and are involved By volume the red blood cells constitute about 45% of whole blood, the plasma constitutes about 55%, and white cells constitute a minute volume.
Whole blood (plasma and cells) exhibits non-Newtonian fluid dynamics; its flow properties are adapted to flow effectively through tiny capillary blood vessels with less resistance than plasma by itself. A non-Newtonian fluid is a Fluid whose flow properties are not described by a single constant value of Viscosity. In addition, if all human hemoglobin was free in the plasma rather than being contained in RBCs, the circulatory fluid would be too viscous for the cardiovascular system to function effectively.
One microliter of blood contains:
45 ± 7 (38-52%) for males
|pH||7. The hematocrit ( Ht or HCT) or packed cell volume ( PCV) or erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF is the proportion of Blood pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. 35-7. 45|
|base excess||-3 to +3|
|PO2||10-13kPa (80-100 mmHg)|
|PCO2||4. In Human Physiology, base excess (see base) refers to the amount of Acid required to return the Blood PH of an individual Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single 8kPa - 5. 8kPa (35-45 mmHg)|
|HCO3-||21mM - 27mM|
About 55% of whole blood is blood plasma, a fluid that is the blood's liquid medium, which by itself is straw-yellow in color. Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3 Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended The blood plasma volume totals of 2. Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended 7-3. 0 litres in an average human. It is essentially an aqueous solution containing 92% water, 8% blood plasma proteins, and trace amounts of other materials. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients, such as, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins), and removes waste products, such as, carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this In Chemistry, especially Biochemistry, a fatty acid is a Carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched Aliphatic tail ( chain) which Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Urea is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula ( N[[hydrogen H]]22 C[[oxygen O]] Lactic acid ( IUPAC Systematic name: 2-hydroxypropanoic acid) also known as milk acid, is a Chemical compound that plays a role
Other important components include:
The term serum refers to plasma from which the clotting proteins have been removed. List of human blood components and their concentrations Serum albumin, often referred to simply as albumin, is the most abundant Plasma protein in humans and other Mammals Albumin is essential for maintaining Coagulation is a complex process by which Blood forms Clots It is an important part of Hemostasis (the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel whereby Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are Gamma globulin Proteins that are found in Blood or other Bodily Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl An electrolyte is any substance containing free Ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 The chloride Ion is formed when the element Chlorine picks up one Electron to form an Anion (negatively-charged ion Cl&minus Most of the proteins remaining are albumin and immunoglobulins. Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are Gamma globulin Proteins that are found in Blood or other Bodily
The normal pH of human arterial blood is approximately 7. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. 40 (normal range is 7. 36-7. 44), a weak alkaline solution. Blood that has a pH below 7. 35 is too acidic, while blood pH above 7. In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are 45 is too alkaline. In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal Blood pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide(PaCO2) and HCO3 are carefully regulated by a number of homeostatic mechanisms, which principally exert their influence through influence the respiratory system and the urinary system in the control the acid-base balance and respiration. In a mixture of Ideal gases each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume In Inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate ( IUPAC -recommended nomenclature hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the Deprotonation Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος hómos, "equal" and ιστημι istēmi, "to stand" lit In living organisms a respiratory system functions to allow Gas exchange. The urinary system (also called Excretory system or the genitourinary system (GUS is the Organ system that produces stores and eliminates Urine. Acid-base homeostasis is the part of Human homeostasis concerning the proper balance between Acids and bases, in other words the PH. Plasma also circulates hormones transmitting their messages to various tissues. Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body The list of normal reference ranges for various blood electrolytes is extensive. A Reference range is a set of values used by a Health professional to interpret a set of Medical test results
Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" The blood vessels are part of the Circulatory system and function to transport Blood throughout the body The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic In humans, blood is pumped from the strong left ventricle of the heart through arteries to peripheral tissues and returns to the right atrium of the heart through veins. Arteries are Blood vessels that carry blood away from the Heart. Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism In the Circulatory system, a vein is a Blood vessel that carries Blood back toward the Heart (as opposed to Artery, a blood vessel It then enters the right ventricle and is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. The pulmonary arteries carry Blood from the Heart to the Lungs. lung is the essential Respiration organ in air-breathing Animals including most Tetrapods a few Fish and a few Snails The most primitive The four pulmonary veins carry Oxygen -rich Blood from the Lungs to the left atrium of the Heart. Blood then enters the left ventricle to be circulated again. Arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to all of the cells of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism by cells, to the lungs to be exhaled. Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living Organisms It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living and is often called However, one exception includes pulmonary arteries which contains the most deoxygenated blood in the body, while the pulmonary veins contain oxygenated blood.
Additional return flow may be generated by the movement of skeletal muscles which can compress veins and push blood through the valves in veins towards the right atrium.
In vertebrates, the various cells of blood are made in the bone marrow in a process called haematopoiesis, which includes erythropoiesis, the production of red blood cells; and myelopoiesis, the production of white blood cells and platelets. Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of Bones In adults marrow in large bones produces new Blood cells It constitutes 4% of Haematopoiesis (from Ancient Greek haima blood poiesis to make (or hematopoiesis in the United States sometimes also haemopoiesis or Erythropoiesis is the process by which Red blood cells (erythrocytes are produced During childhood, almost every human bone produces red blood cells; as adults, red blood cell production is limited to the larger bones: the bodies of the vertebrae, the breastbone (sternum), the ribcage, the pelvic bones, and the bones of the upper arms and legs. In addition, during childhood, the thymus gland, found in the mediastinum, is an important source of lymphocytes. In Human anatomy, the thymus is an organ located in the upper Anterior portion of the chest cavity just behind the Sternum. The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the Thorax (chest surrounded by Loose connective tissue. A lymphocyte is a type of White blood cell in the Vertebrate Immune system.  The proteinaceous component of blood (including clotting proteins) is produced predominantly by the liver, while hormones are produced by the endocrine glands and the watery fraction is regulated by the hypothalamus and maintained by the kidney. The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals Endocrine glands are Glands that secrete their product ( Hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct The hypothalamus links the Nervous system to the Endocrine system via the Pituitary gland (hypophysis The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles
Healthy erythrocytes have a plasma life of about 120 days before they are degraded by the spleen, and the Kupffer cells in the liver. The spleen is an organ found in all Vertebrate animals In humans the spleen is located in the abdomen of the body where it functions in the destruction of redundant Red Kupffer cells, also known as Browicz-Kupffer cells, are specialized Macrophages located in the Liver that form part of the Reticuloendothelial system The liver also clears some proteins, lipids and amino acids. In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this The kidney actively secretes waste products into the urine. Urine is a liquid waste product of the body secreted by the Kidneys by a process of filtration from Blood and Excreted through the Urethra.
About 98. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" 5% of the oxygen in a sample of arterial blood in a healthy human breathing air at sea-level pressure is chemically combined with the Hgb. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the About 1. 5% is physically dissolved in the other blood liquids and not connected to Hgb. The hemoglobin molecule is the primary transporter of oxygen in mammals and many other species (for exceptions, see below). Hemoglobin ( also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb) is the Iron -containing Oxygen -transport Metalloprotein Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands
With the exception of pulmonary and umbilical arteries and their corresponding veins, arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and deliver it to the body via arterioles and capillaries, where the oxygen is consumed; afterwards, venules and veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The pulmonary arteries carry Blood from the Heart to the Lungs. The umbilical artery is a paired artery (with one for each half of the body that is found in the abdominal and pelvic regions Arteries are Blood vessels that carry blood away from the Heart. The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic An arteriole is a small diameter Blood vessel that extends and branches out from an Artery and leads to capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest of a body's Blood vessels measuring 5-10 μm in diameter which connect Arterioles and Venules and enable the interchange A venule is a small Blood vessel that allows deoxygenated Blood to return from the Capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called Veins In the Circulatory system, a vein is a Blood vessel that carries Blood back toward the Heart (as opposed to Artery, a blood vessel
Under normal conditions in humans at rest, hemoglobin in blood leaving the lungs is about 98-99% saturated with oxygen. In a healthy adult at rest, deoxygenated blood returning to the lungs is still approximately 75% saturated.  Increased oxygen consumption during sustained exercise reduces the oxygen saturation of venous blood, which can reach less than 15% in a trained athlete; although breathing rate and blood flow increase to compensate, oxygen saturation in arterial blood can drop to 95% or less under these conditions.  Oxygen saturation this low is considered dangerous in an individual at rest (for instance, during surgery under anesthesia. Sustained hypoxia,(oxygenation of less than 90%) is dangerous to health, and severe hypoxia (saturations of less than 30%) may be rapidly fatal. 
A fetus, receiving oxygen via the placenta, is exposed to much lower oxygen pressures (about 21% of the level found in an adult's lungs) and so fetuses produce another form of hemoglobin with a much higher affinity for oxygen (hemoglobin F) in order to function under these conditions. A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing Mammal or other Viviparous Vertebrate, after the Embryonic stage and The placenta is an Ephemeral organ present in placental Vertebrates, such as Eutherial Mammals and Sharks during Gestation 
When blood flows through capillaries, carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissues into the blood. Some carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood. Some carbon dioxide reacts with hemoglobin and other proteins to form carbamino compounds. Carbamino refers to a compound composed by the addition of Carbon dioxide with a free Amino group in an Amino acid or a Protein, such as The remaining carbon dioxide is converted to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions through the action of RBC carbonic anhydrase. In Inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate ( IUPAC -recommended nomenclature hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the Deprotonation Hydrogen ion is recommended by IUPAC as a general term for all Ions of Hydrogen and its Isotopes Depending on the Charge of the ion The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of Enzymes that catalyze the rapid conversion of Carbon dioxide to Bicarbonate Most carbon dioxide is transported through the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions.
Carbon dioxide (CO2), the main cellular waste product is carried in blood mainly dissolved in plasma, in equilibrium with bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3). Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended In Inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate ( IUPAC -recommended nomenclature hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the Deprotonation Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3 86%-90% of CO2 in the body is converted into carbonic acid, which can quickly turn into bicarbonate, the chemical equilibrium being important in the pH buffering of plasma. Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3 For an aqueous solution composed of both a weak acid or base and its conjugate see Buffer solution.  Blood pH is kept in a narrow range (pH between 7. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. 35-7. 45). 
Some oxyhemoglobin loses oxygen and becomes deoxyhemoglobin. Deoxyhemoglobin binds most of the hydrogen ions as it has a much greater affinity for more hydrogen than does oxyhemoglobin.
In mammals, blood is in equilibrium with lymph, which is continuously formed in tissues from blood by capillary ultrafiltration. The lymphatic system in Vertebrates is a network of conduits that carry a clear fluid called Lymph. The lymphatic system in Vertebrates is a network of conduits that carry a clear fluid called Lymph. Lymph is collected by a system of small lymphatic vessels and directed to the thoracic duct, which drains into the left subclavian vein where lymph rejoins the systemic blood circulation. In human Anatomy, the thoracic duct (aka left lymphatic duct is an important part of the Lymphatic system &mdashit is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body In Human anatomy, the subclavian veins are two large Veins one on either side of the body
Blood circulation transports heat throughout the body, and adjustments to this flow are an important part of thermoregulation. In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature Thermoregulation is the ability of an Organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries even when temperature surrounding is very different Increasing blood flow to the surface (e. g. during warm weather or strenuous exercise) causes warmer skin, resulting in faster heat loss, while decreasing surface blood flow conserves heat.
The restriction of blood flow can also be used in specialized tissues to cause engorgement resulting in an erection of that tissue; examples are the erectile tissue in the penis,nipples or clitoris. The erection of the Penis, Clitoris or a Nipple is its enlarged and firm state The penis (plural penises, penes In its most general form a nipple is a Structure from which a fluid emanates The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in Female Mammals In humans the visible button-like portion is located near the Anterior
Another example of a hydraulic function is the jumping spider, in which blood forced into the legs under pressure causes them to straighten for a powerful jump, without the need for bulky muscular legs. The jumping spider family ( Salticidae) contains more than 500 described genera and over 5000 Species, making it the largest family of Spiders with about 
In insects, the blood (more properly called hemolymph) is not involved in the transport of oxygen. Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Hemolymph or haemolymph is the Blood analogue used by all Arthropods and most Mollusks that have an Open circulatory system. (Openings called tracheae allow oxygen from the air to diffuse directly to the tissues). Many terrestrial Arthropods have evolved a closed Respiratory system composed of Spiracles, tracheae and Tracheoles to transport metabolic Insect blood moves nutrients to the tissues and removes waste products in an open system.
Other invertebrates use respiratory proteins to increase the oxygen carrying capacity. Hemoglobin is the most common respiratory protein found in nature. Hemocyanin (blue) contains copper and is found in crustaceans and mollusks. Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory Proteins in the form of Metalloproteins containing two Copper atoms that reversibly Blue is a Colour, the Perception of which is evoked by Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Structure of crustaceans As Arthropods crustaceans have a stiff Exoskeleton, which must be shed to allow the animal to grow ( Ecdysis or molting Molluscs are animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca. There are around 250000 extant Species within the phylum with an estimated 70000 It is thought that tunicates (sea squirts) might use vanabins (proteins containing vanadium) for respiratory pigment (bright green, blue, or orange). Tunicate, also known as urochordata, tunicata (and by the common names of urochordates, sea squirts, and sea pork) is the Vanabins (also known as vanadium-associated proteins or vanadium chromagen) are a specific group of Vanadium -binding Metalloproteins Found Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Vanadium (vəˈneɪdiəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol V and Atomic number 23
In many invertebrates, these oxygen-carrying proteins are freely soluble in the blood; in vertebrates they are contained in specialized red blood cells, allowing for a higher concentration of respiratory pigments without increasing viscosity or damaging blood filtering organs like the kidneys. Red blood cells are the most common type of Blood cell and the Vertebrate body's principal means of delivering Oxygen to the body tissues via the Blood Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a Fluid which is being deformed by either Shear stress or Extensional stress. The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles
Giant tube worms have unusual hemoglobins that allow them to live in extraordinary environments. Giant tube worms, Riftia pachyptila, are marine Invertebrates in the phylum Annelida ref> (formerly grouped in phylum Pogonophora These hemoglobins also carry sulfides normally fatal in other animals.
Hemoglobin is the principal determinant of the color of blood in vertebrates. Each molecule has four heme groups, and their interaction with various molecules alters the exact color. In vertebrates and other hemoglobin-using creatures, arterial blood and capillary blood are bright red as oxygen imparts a strong red color to the heme group. Vertebrates are members of the Subphylum Vertebrata, Chordates with backbones or spinal columns The grouping sometimes includes Deoxygenated blood is a darker shade of red; this is present in veins, and can be seen during blood donation and when venous blood samples are taken. Blood in carbon monoxide poisoning is bright red, because carbon monoxide causes the formation of carboxyhemoglobin. Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of Carbon monoxide gas Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. Carboxyhemoglobin (British English Carboxyhaemoglobin) (COHb is a stable complex of Carbon monoxide and Hemoglobin that forms in red Blood In cyanide poisoning, the body cannot utilize oxygen, so the venous blood remains oxygenated, increasing the redness. A cyanide is any Chemical compound that contains the cyano group (C≡N which consists of a Carbon Atom triple-bonded to a While hemoglobin containing blood is never blue, there are several conditions and diseases where the color of the heme groups make the skin appear blue. If the heme is oxidized, methemoglobin, which is more brownish and cannot transport oxygen, is formed. Methemoglobin (British English Methaemoglobin (pronounced "MET-hemoglobin" is a form of the Oxygen -carrying Protein Hemoglobin (British English In the rare condition sulfhemoglobinemia, arterial hemoglobin is partially oxygenated, and appears dark-red with a bluish hue (cyanosis). Sulfhemoglobinemia is a rare condition in which there is excess sulfhemoglobin (SulfHb in the Blood. Cyanosis is a blue coloration of the Skin and mucous membranes due to the presence of deoxygenated Hemoglobin in Blood vessels near the skin surface
Veins in the skin appear blue for a variety of reasons only weakly dependent on the color of the blood. Light scattering in the skin, and the visual processing of color play roles as well. 
Skinks in the genus Prasinohaema have green blood due to a buildup of the waste product biliverdin. Skinks are the most diverse group of Lizards They make the family Scincidae which shares the superfamily or infraorder Scincomorpha with several other Prasinohaema ( Latin: "green blood" is a Genus of Skinks characterized by having green Blood. Biliverdin is a green Pigment formed as a byproduct of Heme breakdown 
The blood of most molluscs, including cephalopods and gastropods, as well as some arthropods such as horseshoe crabs contains the copper-containing protein hemocyanin at concentrations of about 50 grams per litre. Molluscs are animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca. There are around 250000 extant Species within the phylum with an estimated 70000 The cephalopods ( Greek plural (kephalópoda "head-feet" are the Mollusc class Cephalopoda characterized by Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " The horseshoe crab or Atlantic horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) is a marine Chelicerate Arthropod.  Hemocyanin is colourless when deoxygenated and dark blue when oxygenated. The blood in the circulation of these creatures, which generally live in cold environments with low oxygen tensions, is grey-white to pale yellow, and it turns dark blue when exposed to the oxygen in the air, as seen when they bleed.  This is due to change in color of hemocyanin when is it oxidized. Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory Proteins in the form of Metalloproteins containing two Copper atoms that reversibly  Hemocyanin carries oxygen in extracellular fluid, which is in contrast to the intracellular oxygen transport in mammals by hemoglobin in RBCs. 
Substances other than oxygen can bind to hemoglobin; in some cases this can cause irreversible damage to the body. Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of Carbon monoxide gas Carbon monoxide, for example, is extremely dangerous when carried to the blood via the lungs by inhalation, because carbon monoxide irreversibly binds to hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, so that less hemoglobin is free to bind oxygen, and less oxygen can be transported in the blood. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. Carboxyhemoglobin (British English Carboxyhaemoglobin) (COHb is a stable complex of Carbon monoxide and Hemoglobin that forms in red Blood This can cause suffocation insidiously. A fire burning in an enclosed room with poor ventilation presents a very dangerous hazard since it can create a build-up of carbon monoxide in the air. Some carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin when smoking tobacco. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana.
Blood for transfusion is obtained from human donors by blood donation and stored in a blood bank. Blood transfusion is the process of transferring Blood or blood-based products from one person into the Circulatory system of another A blood bank is a cache or bank of Blood or blood components, gathered as a result of Blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in Blood transfusions There are many different blood types in humans, the ABO blood group system, and the Rhesus blood group system being the most important. A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of Blood based on the presence or absence of inherited Antigenic substances on the The term Rhesus (Rh blood group system refers to the 5 main Rhesus Antigens (C c D E and e as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens Transfusion of blood of an incompatible blood group may cause severe, often fatal, complications, so crossmatching is done to ensure that a compatible blood product is transfused. Cross-matching, in Transfusion medicine, refers to the testing that is performed to determine the Compatibility of a donated unit of Blood
Other blood products administered intravenously are platelets, blood plasma, cryoprecipitate and specific coagulation factor concentrates. Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of Liquid substances directly into a Vein.
Many forms of medication (from antibiotics to chemotherapy) are administered intravenously, as they are not readily or adequately absorbed by the digestive tract. In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa Chemotherapy, in its most general sense refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells specifically those of micro-organisms or Cancer.
After severe acute blood loss, liquid preparations, generically known as plasma expanders, can be given intravenously, either solutions of salts (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 etc. . . ) at physiological concentrations, or colloidal solutions, such as dextrans, human serum albumin, or fresh frozen plasma. In these emergency situations, a plasma expander is a more effective life saving procedure than a blood transfusion, because the metabolism of transfused red blood cells does not restart immediately after a transfusion.
In modern evidence-based medicine bloodletting is used in management of a few rare diseases, including haemochromatosis and polycythemia. Bloodletting (or blood-letting, in modern medicine referred to as phlebotomy) was a tremendously popular medical practice from antiquity up to the late Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis (see spelling differences) also called siderophilia Polycythemia (or polycythaemia or erythrocytosis) is a condition in which there is a net increase in the total number of Blood cells, primarily Red However, bloodletting and leeching were common unvalidated interventions used until the 19th century, as many diseases were incorrectly thought to be due to an excess of blood, according to Hippocratic medicine. Bloodletting (or blood-letting, in modern medicine referred to as phlebotomy) was a tremendously popular medical practice from antiquity up to the late Bloodletting (or blood-letting, in modern medicine referred to as phlebotomy) was a tremendously popular medical practice from antiquity up to the late Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos ( ca. 460 BC – ca
In classical Greek medicine, blood was associated with air, springtime, and with a merry and gluttonous (sanguine) personality. It was also believed to be produced exclusively by the liver. The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals
In Hippocratic medicine, blood was considered to be one of the four humors, together with phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos ( ca. 460 BC – ca Humorism, or humoralism, was a theory of the makeup and workings of the human body adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers Phlegm ( is sticky Fluid secreted by the Mucous membranes of Humans and other Animals. Erich Adickes, Eduard Spränger, Ernst Kretschmer, and Erich Fromm all theorized on the four temperaments (with different names and greatly
Due to its importance to life, blood is associated with a large number of beliefs. One of the most basic is the use of blood as a symbol for family relationships; to be "related by blood" is to be related by ancestry or descendance, rather than marriage. This bears closely to bloodlines, and sayings such as "blood is thicker than water" and "bad blood", as well as "Blood brother". "Blood is thicker than water" is a German Proverb (originally Blut ist dicker als Wasser Blood brother can refer to one of two things two males related by birth or two or more men not related by Birth, who swear loyalty to one another Blood is given particular emphasis in the Jewish and Christian religions because Leviticus 17:11 says "the life of a creature is in the blood. Leviticus (from Greek Λευιτικός, "relating to the Levites " " This phrase is part of the Levitical law forbidding the drinking of blood, due to its practice in idol worship by surrounding societies.
Mythic references to blood can sometimes be connected to the living-giving nature of blood, seen in such events as childbirth, as contrasted with the blood of injury or death. Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a Human Pregnancy or
In many indigenous Australian Aboriginal peoples' traditions, ochre (particularly red) and blood, both high in iron content and considered Maban, are applied to the bodies of dancers for ritual. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. Ochre or Ocher (pronounced /'əʊkə(r/ from the Greek ὠχρός yellow is a Color, usually described as golden - Yellow Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Maban or Mabain is a material that is held to be magical in Australian Aboriginal mythology. As Lawlor states:
In many Aboriginal rituals and ceremonies, red ochre is rubbed all over the naked bodies of the dancers. In secret, sacred male ceremonies, blood extracted from the veins of the participant's arms is exchanged and rubbed on their bodies. Red ochre is used in similar ways in less secret ceremonies. Blood is also used to fasten the feathers of birds onto people's bodies. Bird feathers contain a protein that is highly magnetically sensitive. 
Lawlor comments that blood employed in this fashion is held by these peoples to attune the dancers to the invisible energetic realm of the Dreamtime. Lawlor then connects these invisible energetic realms and magnetic fields, because iron is magnetic. In Physics, magnetism is one of the Phenomena by which Materials exert attractive or repulsive Forces on other Materials.
Among the Germanic tribes (such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norsemen), blood was used during their sacrifices; the Blóts. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who speak one of the North Germanic languages as their native language The blót ( Old Norse plural same as singular refers to Norse pagan sacrifice to the Norse gods and Elves. The blood was considered to have the power of its originator and after the butchering the blood was sprinkled on the walls, on the statues of the gods and on the participants themselves. This act of sprinkling blood was called bleodsian in Old English and the terminology was borrowed by the Roman Catholic Church becoming to bless and blessing. The Hittite word for blood, ishar was a cognate to words for "oath" and "bond", see Ishara. Hittite or Nesili is the Extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern Ishara () is the Hittite word for " Treaty, binding promise" also personified as a Goddess of the Oath. The Ancient Greeks believed that the blood of the Gods, ichor, was a mineral that was poisonous to mortals. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca In Greek mythology, ichor (Greek) is the Mineral that is the Greek gods' Blood, sometimes said to have been present in Ambrosia or nectar
In Judaism, blood cannot be consumed even in the smallest quantity (Leviticus 3:17 and elsewhere); this is reflected in Jewish dietary laws (Kashrut). Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Leviticus (from Greek Λευιτικός, "relating to the Levites " This article is primarily about the human diet For a discussion of animal diets see List of feeding behaviours. Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, he כַּשְׁרוּת refers to Jewish dietary laws. Blood is purged from meat by salting and soaking in water. In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer Salting is the preservation of Food with salt. It is related to Pickling (preparing food with brine rather than dry salt
Other rituals involving blood are the covering of the blood of fowl and game after slaughtering (Leviticus 17:13); the reason given by the Torah is: "Because the life of every animal is [in] his blood" (ibid 17:14). Most or all Birds collectively referred to as fowl belong to one of two orders namely the gamefowl or landfowl ( Galliformes) and the waterfowl A game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for Enjoyment and sometimes also used as an Educational tool Leviticus (from Greek Λευιτικός, "relating to the Levites " term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to
Some Christian churches, including Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and branches of Anglicanism teach that, when consecrated, the Eucharistic wine actually becomes the material blood of Jesus. The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs See also Eucharist (Catholic Church On the related belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist in body blood soul and divinity see Real Presence. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Thus in the consecrated wine, Jesus becomes spiritually and physically present. This teaching is rooted in the Last Supper as written in the four gospels of the Bible, in which Jesus stated to his disciples that the bread which they ate was his body, and the wine was his blood. In the Christian Gospels the Last Supper (also called the Lord's Supper or Mystical Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e "This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you. " (Luke 22:20).
Various forms of Protestantism, especially those of a Wesleyan or Presbyterian lineage, teach that the wine is no more than a symbol of the blood of Christ, who is spiritually but not physically present. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Lutheran theology teaches that the body and blood is present together "in, with, and under" the bread and wine of the Eucharistic feast. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Consubstantiation is a theological doctrine that (like Transubstantiation) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in concrete metaphysical
Christ's blood is also seen as the means for atonement for sins for Christians.
At the Council of Jerusalem, the apostles prohibited Christians from consuming blood, probably because this was a command given to Noah (Genesis 9:4, see Noahide Law). Council of Jerusalem (or Apostolic Conference) is a name applied subsequently to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter and probably referred to The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e Noah (or Noe, Noach;; Nūḥ; Arabic: نوح; "Rest") was according to the Bible, the tenth and last of The Seven Laws of Noah ( Hebrew: שבע מצוות בני נח Sheva mitzvot B'nei Noach) often referred to as the Noahide Laws, are a set of seven moral This command continued to be observed by the Eastern Orthodox. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world
Consumption of food containing blood is forbidden by Islamic dietary laws. This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. This is derived from the statement in the Qur'an, sura Al-Ma'ida (5:3): "Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Sura Al-Ma'ida ( Arabic: سورة المائدة, Sūratu al-Mā'idah, "The Table" or "The Table Spread with Food" is the "
Due to Bible-based beliefs, Jehovah's Witnesses do not eat blood or accept transfusions of whole blood or its four major components namely, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets (thrombocytes), and whole plasma. Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that the Bible prohibits eating blood and that this includes the storage and transfusion of Blood, including in cases of emergency Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination Members are instructed to personally decide whether or not to accept fractions, and medical procedures that involve their own blood.
In Chinese culture, it is often said that if a man's nose produces a small flow of blood, this signifies that he is experiencing sexual desire. This often appears in Chinese-language and Hong Kong films as well as in Japanese culture parodied in anime and manga. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. (anime in Japanese, ˈmɑŋgə is the Japanese word for Comics (sometimes called komikku コミック and print Cartoons In their modern form manga date from shortly Characters, mostly males, will often be shown with a nosebleed if they have just seen someone nude or in little clothing, or if they have had an erotic thought or fantasy. Epistaxis (or a nosebleed in Plain English) is the relatively common occurrence of Hemorrhage from the Nose, usually noticed when the blood drains Nudity is the state of wearing no Clothing. The term' "nudity" can also occasionally be used to refer to wearing significantly less clothing than expected 
Various religious and other groups have been falsely accused of using human blood in rituals; such accusations are known as blood libel. Blood libels are sensationalized allegations that a person or group engages in Human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim that the Blood of victims is used in Blood libels are sensationalized allegations that a person or group engages in Human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim that the Blood of victims is used in The most common form of this is blood libel against Jews. Blood libels against Jews are false accusations that Jews use Human blood in certain aspects of their Religious rituals and holidays Although Although there is no ritual involving human blood in Jewish law or custom, fabrications of this nature (often involving the murder of children) were widely used during the Middle Ages to justify Antisemitic persecution and some have persisted into the 21st century. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility
Vampires are mythological beings which live forever by drinking the blood of the living. Vampires are mythological or folkloric revenants who subsist by feeding on the blood of the living Vampires are mythological or folkloric revenants who subsist by feeding on the blood of the living Stories of creatures of this kind are known all over the world. Most of these myths in Western culture originate from Eastern European folklore.
Blood is one of the body fluids that has been used in art.  In particular, the performances of Viennese Actionist Hermann Nitsch, Franko B, Lennie Lee, Ron Athey, Yang Zhichao and Kira O' Reilly along with the photography of Andres Serrano, have incorporated blood as a prominent visual element. The term Viennese Actionism describes a short and violent movement in 20th century Art that can be regarded as part of the many independent efforts of the 1960s to develop " Hermann Nitsch (born 29 August 1938 is an Austrian Artist who works in experimental and multimedia modes Franko B (born 1960 is an internationally acclaimed London-based Performance artist who uses his own body in his art Lennie Lee (born March 4, 1958) is a South African Conceptual artist who lives and works in London. Ron Athey (born December 16, 1961) is an American performance artist associated with Body art and with Extreme performance art Yang Zhichao, Born in 1963 in Gansu province Northern Manchuria, is a Chinese Revolutionary and extreme performance artist Kira O'Reilly is a Performance artist based in the UK She graduated from Cardiff School of Art in 1998 Andres Serrano (born August 15, 1950) is an American photographer who has become most notorious through his photos of corpses as well as Marc Quinn has made sculptures using frozen blood, including a cast of his own head made using his own blood. You may also be looking for the America baseball player Mark Quinn Marc Quinn (born 1964 is a British Artist, best known Blood is also the main leitmotiv in Maligno Art. Description Maligno Art is a genre of Graphic arts created by "BlackNova" and "Nemesis" in the decade of the 1990s
Blood is commonly associated with gore in motion pictures. Films with bloody scenes tend to receive a high rating by film licensing bodies, ranging from PG-13 to NC-17, depending on its depiction and its prominence. Blood in video games has led to video game censorship. Similar to other forms of media Video games have been the subject of debate and Censorship.