The black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, is a species of large edible sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Haliotidae, the abalones. William Elford Leach FRS ( 2 February 1790 – 26 August 1836) was an English Zoologist and Marine biologist In Scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different Scientific names used for a single Taxon. William Healey Dall, ( August 21, 1845 - March 27, 1927) was a great American naturalist and a prominent malacologist In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. The word snail is a Common name that can be used for almost all members of the Molluscan class Gastropoda which have coiled shells in the Marine is an Umbrella term. As an adjective it is usually applicable to things relating to the Sea or Ocean, such as Marine biology, Marine The class Gastropoda or the gastropods, also previously known as gasteropods, or univalves, and more commonly known as Snails Molluscs are animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca. There are around 250000 extant Species within the phylum with an estimated 70000 
This species is relatively small compared with most of the other abalone species from the eastern Pacific, and it has a relatively smooth dark shell. This used to be the most abundant large marine mollusk on the west coast of North America, but now, because of overfishing and the Withering Syndrome, it has much declined in population. Overfishing occurs when Fishing activities reduce fish stocks below an acceptable level Withering abalone syndrome is a disease of the Abalone Shellfish, primarily found in the black and Red abalone species
Black abalones can be found along the Pacific coast of the USA from Mendocino County, California to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions Mendocino County is a County located on the north coast of the U Cabo San Lucas (popularly known as just 'Los Cabos' - along with San José del Cabo - in Mexico and 'Cabo' in the United States) is a City at the southern tip Baja California (pronounced ˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjə in English is the northernmost state of Mexico. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Prehistoric distribution has been confirmed along much of this range from archaelogical recovery at a variety of Pacific coastal Native American sites. Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the Ocean. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. For example, Chumash peoples in central California were known to have been harvesting black abalone approximately a millennium earlier in the Morro Bay area. Morro Bay is a waterfront city in San Luis Obispo County, California, United States. 
There is a subspecies: Haliotis cracherodii californiensis, which is found around Guadalupe Island, off Baja California (Mexico). In Zoology, as in other branches of Biology, subspecies is the Taxonomic rank immediately subordinate to a Species. Guadalupe Island, or Isla Guadalupe ( is a volcanic island located 241 kilometers (150 Statute miles off the west coast of Mexico 's Baja Baja California (pronounced ˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjə in English is the northernmost state of Mexico. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
The exterior of the shell is smoother than most abalones. The coloration is dark brown, dark green, dark blue or almost black. The interior of the shell shows a pale pinkish and greenish iridescence. Iridescence is an Optical phenomenon in which Hue changes with the angle from which a surface is viewed There are usually five to seven open respiratory holes in the shell and the rim of the holes is flush with the rest of the shell.
The black abalone's shell length can reach a maximum of 20 cm. A centimetre ( American spelling: centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one hundredth
In the living animal the tentacles on the epipodium, the mantle, and the foot are black.
Black abalones cling to rocky surfaces in the low intertidal zone, up to 6 m deep. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International They can typically be found wedged into crevices, cracks, and holes during low tide. Characteristics A tide is a repeated cycle of sea level changes in the following stages Over several hours the water rises or advances up a beach in the flood They generally occur in areas of moderate to high surf. They are herbivores, feeding on kelp and drifiting algae. Kelp are large Seaweeds ( Algae) belonging to the Brown algae and classified in the order Laminariales Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms
Predators of this species other than mankind are sea otters, starfish, large fishes and octopuses. The sea otter ( Enhydra lutris) is a Marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Starfish (also called sea stars) are any Echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea. Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two The
Beginning in 1985, black abalones in southern California were experiencing mass mortality due to a bacterial disease known as Withering Syndrome or abalone wasting disease. Withering abalone syndrome is a disease of the Abalone Shellfish, primarily found in the black and Red abalone species This has led to local extinction of black abalone along the California coast and contributed to the closure of commercial and sport abalone fisheries in California in 1993. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean.
Black abalone have separate sexes and broadcast spawn, primarily in the Summer. Maturity is reached at about 3 years of age.
Black abalone are threatened by overharvesting and the Withering abalone syndrome disease. California has a Abalone Recovery Management Plan to guide conservation efforts. They are a U. S. National Marine Fisheries Service Species of Concern. Species of Concern are those species about which the U. S. Government’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service has some concerns regarding status and threats.