|Lincoln Alexander • Oscar Peterson • Michaëlle Jean|
783,795 – 2. Lincoln MacCauley Alexander PC CC QC OOnt CD (born January 21, 1922) served as the 24th Oscar Emmanuel Peterson, CC, CQ, OOnt ( 15 August 1925 – 23 December 2007) was a Canadian Michaëlle Jean, CC CMM COM CD ʒɑ̃ (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, 5% of Canada's population 
|Regions with significant populations|
|Ontario, Quebec, Alberta, Nova Scotia|
|English, French, Caribbean English, Haitian Creole, and other African languages|
|Christianity, Islam, Rastafari|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Afro-Caribbean, African American, Afro-Australian, Black British, African European, Black Loyalist, Black Nova Scotians|
Black Canadians, Caribbean Canadians, and African Canadians are designations used for people of Black-African descent who reside in Canada. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Canadian English ( CanE, en-CA) is the variety of English used in Canada. Canadian French is an Umbrella term for the varieties of the French language used in Canada. Caribbean English is a broad term for the dialects of the English language spoken in the Caribbean, most countries on the Caribbean coast of Central America Haitian Creole language ( kreyòl ayisyen) often called simply Creole or Kreyòl ( pronounced) is a language spoken in Haiti There are an estimated 2000 Languages spoken in Africa. About a hundred of these are widely used for inter-ethnic communication Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, Rastafarianism or simply Rasta) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic, New Testament African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa See also British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British Black British is a term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political Euro-Africans or African Europeans are people with African ancestry racial cultural and social heritage born in or citizens of a European country A Black Loyalist or African American Loyalist was a formerly enslaved African American or Free Negro who escaped to the British during the Black Nova Scotians' are the descendants of African American slaves and freemen who came to Nova Scotia, Canada during the The term black people usually refers to a racial group of Humans with dark Skin color, but the term has also been used to categorise a number of diverse Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The terms are used by and of Canadian citizens who trace their ancestry back to people who were indigenous to Sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries The majority have relatively recent origins in the Caribbean, while some trace their lineage to the first slaves brought by British and French colonists to the mainland of North America. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Most Black Canadians claim that they are blacks even though they have multi-ethnic ancestries, and due to their mixed backgrounds, some black Canadians have lighter skin or straight hair. A minority have recent African roots.
Blacks and other Canadians often draw a distinction between those of Caribbean ancestry and those of African descent, which sometimes results in controversy around the terms used to label and identify the Black community. Unlike in the United States, where African American is now considered the standard terminology, Blacks of Caribbean origin in Canada largely reject the term African Canadian as an elision of their Caribbean heritage. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa
According to the 2006 census by Statistics Canada, 783,795 Canadians identified themselves as black, constituting 2. Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing Statistics to help The term black people usually refers to a racial group of Humans with dark Skin color, but the term has also been used to categorise a number of diverse 5% of the entire Canadian population . The ten largest centres of Black population in Canada in 2006 were Toronto, Montreal, Brampton, Ottawa, Calgary, Vancouver, Edmonton, Hamilton, Winnipeg, Halifax and Oshawa. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec Brampton (pronounced bramton is the third-largest city in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada and the seat of Peel Region. Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality. Calgary (ˈkælgəriː is the largest city in the Province of Alberta, Canada Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal Edmonton (ˈɛdmɨntɨn is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta. Hamilton (ˈhæməltən ( 2006 population 504559 UA population 647634 CMA population Winnipeg (ˈwɪnɨpɛg is the capital and largest city in the Canadian province of Manitoba, and 7th largest municipality in Canada with a population See also Halifax Nova Scotia See also Halifax Regional Municipality municipal election 2008 Halifax Regional Municipality is the capital Preston, in the Halifax area, is the community with the highest percentage of Blacks at 69. Preston is an area in central Nova Scotia, Canada in the Halifax Regional Municipality, located on Trunk 7. 4%. .
However, it has also been alleged that Black Canadians may be significantly undercounted in census data. Writer George Elliott Clarke has cited a McGill University study which found that fully 43 per cent of all Black Canadians were not counted as black in the 1991 Canadian census, because they had identified themselves on census forms as British, French or other cultural identities which were not included in the census group of Black cultures. George Elliott Clarke (born February 12 1960) is a Canadian Poet and Playwright.  Although subsequent censuses have reported the population of Black Canadians to be much more consistent with the McGill study's revised 1991 estimate than with the official 1991 census data, no recent study has been conducted to determine whether some Black Canadians are still missed.
One of the ongoing controversies in the Black Canadian community revolves around appropriate terminologies. Some use the term "African Canadian" instead, although this is more commonly used to refer only to those whose ancestors came directly from Africa or from the United States. "Caribbean Canadian" is often used to refer to Black Canadians of Caribbean heritage, although this usage can also be controversial because the Caribbean is not populated only by people of African origin, but also includes large groups of Indo-Caribbeans, Chinese Caribbeans, European Caribbeans, Syrian or Lebanese Caribbeans, Latinos and Amerindians. Indo-Caribbean people or Indo-Caribbeans are people with roots in the Indian subcontinent who reside in the Caribbean. Chinese Caribbean people are people of Chinese ethnic origin living in the Caribbean, and their descendants For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. (The same racial diversity is also true of Africa, although this is far less frequently cited as an argument against the use of "African Canadian". ) The term "Afro-Caribbean-Canadian" is occasionally used in response to this controversy, although as of 2008 this term is still fairly rare.
Blacks of Caribbean origin form a much larger proportion of the black community in Canada than in the United States — in fact, almost 40% of Canada's black population is of Jamaican origin alone, and a further 32% are from other Caribbean nations. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Many Canadians of Afro-Caribbean origin strongly object to the term "African Canadian", as it obscures their own culture and history, and this partially accounts for the term's less prevalent use in Canada, compared to the consensus "African American" south of the border. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa
However, there are also regional demographic variations. In particular, the black communities of Nova Scotia and Southwestern Ontario — two of the major historical destinations along the Underground Railroad — are much more strongly associated with African American immigration from the United States, and much less with Caribbean immigration, than in most of Canada. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Southwestern Ontario is a region of the Canadian province of Ontario, centred on the city of London. The Underground Railroad was an informal network of secret routes and Safe houses used by 19th century Black slaves in the United States Blacks in the province of Nova Scotia, who have a unique history stretching back to the Black Loyalist community during the American Revolution, are also commonly identified as a distinct Black Nova Scotian community within the larger Black Canadian group, a distinction that is not shared by any other Canadian province. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's A Black Loyalist or African American Loyalist was a formerly enslaved African American or Free Negro who escaped to the British during the In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Black Nova Scotians' are the descendants of African American slaves and freemen who came to Nova Scotia, Canada during the
More specific national terms such as "Jamaican Canadian", "Haitian Canadian" or "Ghanaian Canadian" are also used. A Jamaican Canadian' is a Canadian -born person of Jamaican descent or a Jamaican-born person with Canadian citizenship A Haitian Canadian is a Canadian -born person of Haitian descent or a Haitian-born person with Canadian citizenship As of 2008, however, there is no widely-used alternative to "Black Canadian" that is accepted by both the African Canadian and Afro-Caribbean-Canadian communities as an umbrella term for the whole group. An umbrella term is a word that provides a Superset or grouping of related concepts also called a Hypernym.
The history of blacks in Canada prior to the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, though extensive, is rarely mentioned in Canadian media or education. The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 (citation 3 & 4 Will IV c 73 was an 1833 Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom abolishing The first recorded black person to set foot on land now known as Canada was a free man named Mathieu de Costa, who travelled with explorer Samuel de Champlain, or arrived in Nova Scotia some time between 1603 and 1608 as a translator for the French explorer Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts. Mathieu de Costa (sometimes d'Acosta or da Costa, died 1623 is the first recorded black person in Canada. Samuel de Champlain (c 1575 - 25 December 1635) "The Father of New France " was a French navigator geographer cartographer Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Pierre du Gua de Monts, (c 1558 - 1628 was a French merchant explorer and colonizer The first known black person to live in Canada was a slave from Madagascar named Olivier Le Jeune, who may have been of partial Malay ancestry. Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern Olivier Le Jeune (buried 10 May 1654) was the first recorded Slave purchased in New France. Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast As a group, black people arrived in Canada in several waves. The first of these came as free persons serving in the French Army and Navy; some were enslaved. The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Land Army is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and its largest The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale ( National Navy) and often called La Royale ( The Royal Navy) is the maritime arm Later, some were indentured servants, as were some white immigrants. An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to This category can be used to efface slavery.
At the time of the American Revolution, inhabitants of the United States had to decide where their future lay. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Those loyal to the British Crown were called United Empire Loyalists, and came north. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy The name United Empire Loyalists is a honorific name which has been given after the fact to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other White American Loyalists brought their African American slaves with them, while formerly enslaved Black Americans, about 10% of the total, also made their way to the colonies of British North America, settling predominantly in Nova Scotia, see Black Nova Scotians. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa British North America consisted of the colonies and territories of the British Empire in continental North America after the end of the American Revolutionary Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Black Nova Scotians' are the descendants of African American slaves and freemen who came to Nova Scotia, Canada during the This latter group was largely made up of tradespeople and labourers, and many set up home in Birchtown near Shelburne. Some settled in New Brunswick, where they received discriminatory treatment; prominent leaders there held slaves. New Brunswick ( French: Nouveau-Brunswick /nuvobʁɔnzwik/ is one of Canada 's three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally The charter of the city of Saint John was amended in 1785 specifically to exclude blacks from practising a trade, selling goods, fishing in the harbour, or becoming freemen; these provisions stood until 1870. A charter is the grant of authority or rights stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified 
In 1782, the first race riot in North America took place in Shelburne, with white soldiers attacking the African American settlers who were getting work that the soldiers thought they should have. Year 1782 ( MDCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Race Riot is a 1929 animated Short subject, featuring Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Due to the unkept promises of the British government and the discrimination from the white colonists, 1,192 African American men, women and children left Nova Scotia for West Africa on January 15, 1792 and settled in what is now Sierra Leone, where they became the original settlers of Freetown. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. The Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor was a charitable organization founded in London in 1786 to provide sustenance for distressed people of African and Freetown is the Capital and largest City of Sierra Leone, and a major Port on the Atlantic Ocean. They, along with other groups of free transplanted people such as the Black Poor from England, became what is now the Sierra Leone Creole people, also known as the Krio. The Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor was a charitable organization founded in London in 1786 to provide sustenance for distressed people of African and The Sierra Leone Creole (or Krios) are an Ethnic group in Sierra Leone, they are descendants of freed slaves from the West Indies, freed
In 1796, a group of fiercely independent rebels known as the Trelawney Maroons were moved from Jamaica to Nova Scotia, following their long battle against colonization. Year 1796 ( MDCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Maroons redirects here and may refer to Queensland state rugby league team. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. While there, these Jamaican Maroons deterred an attack by Napoleon and constructed parts of the Halifax Citadel and all of Government House. The Jamaican Maroons were runaway slaves who fought the British during the 18th century and the term is now used for their descendants Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Halifax Citadel is a provincial electoral district in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, that elects one member of the Nova Scotia After only a few winters, the British government decided it would be cheaper to send them to Sierra Leone than to try to persuade them to farm in a cold country. Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. Upon their arrival in West Africa in 1800, they were used to quell an uprising among the previous settlers mentioned above, who after eight years were unhappy with their treatment by the Sierra Leone Company. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. The Sierra Leone Company was the organisation involved in founding the first African American Colony in Africa in 1792 through the resettlement
The Canadian climate made it uneconomic to keep slaves year-round, unlike the plantation agriculture practised in the southern United States and Caribbean, and slavery within the colonial economy became increasingly rare. The Act Against Slavery was an Act passed by Upper Canada on July 9, 1793 to prohibit slavery. Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Not all owners were white. For example, the powerful Mohawk leader Joseph Brant bought an African American named Sophia Burthen Pooley, whom he kept for about 12 years before selling her for $100. Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant ( c 1743 &ndash 24 November 1807) was a Mohawk leader and British military officer during African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa  In 1773 John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, attempted to abolish slavery. Lieutenant-General John Graves Simcoe ( February 25, 1752 &ndash October 26, 1806) was the first Lieutenant governor of Upper A Lieutenant Governor is a high officer of state whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction The Province of Upper Canada (French Province du Haut-Canada) was a British colony located in what is now the southern portion of the Province of Ontario That same year, the new Legislative Assembly there became the first entity in the British Empire to restrict slavery, confirming existing ownership but allowing for anyone born to a female slave after that date to be freed at the age of 25.  Slavery was all but abolished throughout the other British North American colonies by 1800, and was illegal throughout the British Empire after 1834. British North America consisted of the colonies and territories of the British Empire in continental North America after the end of the American Revolutionary The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. This made Canada an attractive destination for those fleeing slavery in the United States, such as minister Boston King. Boston King, ( c 1760 &ndash 1802 was an African American missionary and Black Loyalist during the Revolutionary War.
The Anti-Slavery Society of Canada estimated in its first report in 1852 that the "colored population of Upper Canada" was about 30,000, of whom almost all adults were "fugitive slaves".  St. Catharines had a population of 6000 at that time; 800 of them were "of African descent". 
The next major migration of blacks occurred between 1813 and 1815. Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Refugees from the War of 1812 fled the United States to settle in Hammonds Plains, Beechville, Lucasville, North Preston, East Preston, and Africville. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Lucasville can refer to Lucasville Ohio Lucasville Ontario Lucasville Nova Scotia North Preston is a Rural community in eastern Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, in Canada. East Preston is an expansive rural area located in eastern Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, in Atlantic Canada. Africville was a small unincorporated community located on the southern shore of Bedford Basin, in the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. A Black Loyalist named Richard Pierpoint, who was born about 1744 in Senegal and who had settled near present-day St. Catharines, Ontario, offered to organize a Corps of Men of Colour; this was refused but a white officer raised a small black corps. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec  This "Coloured Corps" fought at Queenston Heights and the siege of Fort George, defending what would become Canada from the invading American army. The Queenston Heights is a geographical feature of the Niagara Escarpment immediately above the village of Queenston, Ontario, Canada. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. 
There is a sizable community of Black Canadians in Nova Scotia  and Southern Ontario who trace their ancestry to African American slaves who used the Underground Railroad to flee from the United States, seeking refuge and freedom in Canada. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Southern Ontario is the portion of the Canadian province of Ontario lying south of the French River and Algonquin Park. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa The Underground Railroad was an informal network of secret routes and Safe houses used by 19th century Black slaves in the United States The United States of America —commonly referred to as the From the late 1820s until the American Civil War began in 1861, the Underground Railroad brought tens of thousands of fugitives to Canada. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South While many of these returned to the United States after emancipation, a significant population remained, largely in Southern Ontario, widely scattered in both rural and urban locations, including Amherstburg, Colchester, Dresden, Wallaceburg, Guelph and Wellington County, Kitchener, Waterloo, Sudbury, Chatham, Windsor, London, Hamilton, Collingwood, St. Catharines, Niagara Falls, Fort Erie, Welland, Owen Sound and Toronto. Emancipation is a term used to describe various efforts to obtain Political rights or equality, often for a specifically Disenfranchised group or more Amherstburg (2006 population 21748 UA population 13410 is a Town near the mouth of the Detroit River in Essex County Colchester ( /ˈkəʊltʃɛstə/ is a town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester, in Essex, England. Dresden is a community in southwestern Ontario, Canada, part of the municipality of Chatham-Kent. Wallaceburg is a community (pop 11114 located in the municipality of Chatham-Kent[http //www The City of Kitchener (ˈkɪtʃɨnɚ is a City in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Waterloo is a City in Ontario, Canada. It is the smallest of the three cities in the Regional Municipality Greater Sudbury (2006 Census population 157857 is a city in Northern Ontario, Canada. For the town in England see Chatham Kent. The Municipality of Chatham-Kent ( 2006 Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and lies at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor with a metropolitan area population of 457720 the city proper Hamilton (ˈhæməltən ( 2006 population 504559 UA population 647634 CMA population Collingwood is a town in Simcoe County, Ontario. Geographically it is situated on Nottawasaga Bay at the southern point of Georgian Bay Niagara Falls is a Canadian City of 82184 residents Geography and Climate Niagara Falls Ontario Fort Erie (2006 population 29925 is a Town on the Niagara River in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. Welland (formally The Corporation of the City of Welland; 2006 population 50331) is a city in the Regional Municipality of Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario
In 1858, James Douglas, the governor of the British colony of Vancouver Island, replied to an inquiry from a group of blacks in San Francisco about the possibilities of settling in his jurisdiction. Sir James Douglas, KCB, ( August 15, 1803 – August 2 1877) was a company fur-trader and a Vancouver Island is a large Island in British Columbia, Canada, one of several North American regions named after George Vancouver, the British The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Governor Douglas, whose mother had been a Creole, replied favourably, and, at the outbreak of the Cariboo Gold Rush, several dozen of these African American migrants travelled to Victoria. For the languages see Creole language. For other meanings see Creole (disambiguation. The Cariboo Gold Rush was a Gold rush in the Canadian province British Columbia. Victoria (vɪkˈtɔɹiə is the capital city of British Columbia. Two of them, Peter Lester and Mifflin Gibbs, became successful merchants there, and Gibbs was elected to the City Council in the 1860s.
In the late nineteenth century, there was an unofficial policy of restricting blacks from immigration. The huge influx of immigrants from Europe and the United States in the period before World War I included only very small numbers of black arrivals. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All This was formalised in 1911 by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier: "His excellency in Council, in virtue of the provisions of Sub-section (c) of Section 38 of the Immigration Act, is pleased to Order and it is hereby Ordered as follows: For a period of one year from and after the date hereof the landing in Canada shall be and the same is prohibited of any immigrants belonging to the Negro race, which race is deemed unsuitable to the climate and requirements of Canada. " (Compare with the White Australia policy. The White Australia policy is a term used to describe a collection of historical policies that intentionally restricted non-white Immigration to Australia from )
The flow between the United States and Canada continued in the twentieth century. A wave of immigration occurred in the 1920s, with blacks from the Caribbean coming to work in the steel mills of Cape Breton, replacing those who had come from Alabama in 1899 . Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. Some Black Canadians trace their ancestry to people who fled racism in Oklahoma and other American Great Plains states in the early 1900s to move north to Alberta and Saskatchewan. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. The Great Plains are the broad expanse of Prairie and Steppe which lie east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 (See for example those buried in the Shiloh Baptist Church cemetery in Saskatchewan. ) Unfortunately, they found racism when they arrived in Canada, which they had regarded as the Promised Land. The Promised Land ( הארץ המובטחת, translit: ha-Aretz ha-Muvtachat) is another name for the Land of Israel, the region which according  Many of Canada's railway porters came from the U. A porter is a railroad employee assigned to assist passengers aboard a passenger train or to handle their baggage it may be used particularly to refer to employees assigned to assisting S. as well, with many coming from the South, New York City and Washington, D.C., and mainly settling in Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg and Vancouver . The City of New York Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Winnipeg (ˈwɪnɨpɛg is the capital and largest city in the Canadian province of Manitoba, and 7th largest municipality in Canada with a population Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal
The restrictions on immigration remained until 1962, when racial rules were eliminated from the immigration laws. This coincided with the dissolution of the British Empire in the Caribbean, and over the next decades several hundred thousand blacks came from that region to Canada. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Since then, an increasing number of immigrants from Africa have been coming to Canada, as is also the case in the United States and Europe. This includes large numbers of refugees, but also many skilled workers pursuing better economic conditions. Today's Black Canadians are largely of Caribbean origin, with some of recent African origin, and smaller numbers from Latin American countries.
However, a sizable number of Black Canadians who descended from freed American slaves can still be found in Nova Scotia and parts of Southwestern Ontario. Southwestern Ontario is a region of the Canadian province of Ontario, centred on the city of London. Some descendants of the freed American black slaves have mixed into the white Canadian community and have mostly lost their ethnic identity. Some of the descendants went back to the United States. Bangor, Maine received quite a few Black Canadians from the Maritime provinces. Bangor is the County seat of Penobscot County, Maine, United States, and the major commercial and cultural center for eastern and northern Maine 
Although many Black Canadians live in integrated communities, there have also been a number of notable Black communities, both as unique settlements and as Black-dominated neighbourhoods in urban centres.
The most famous and historically documented Black settlement in Canadian history is the community of Africville, a small village in Nova Scotia which was demolished in the 1960s to facilitate the urban expansion of Halifax. Africville was a small unincorporated community located on the southern shore of Bedford Basin, in the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The City of Halifax (est 1841 is the capital of the province of Nova Scotia and shire town of Halifax County Similarly, the Hogan's Alley neighbourhood in Vancouver was largely demolished in 1970, with only a single small laneway in Strathcona remaining. Hogan's Alley was the local unofficial name for Park Lane an alley that ran through the southwestern corner of Strathcona in Vancouver, British Columbia during Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal Strathcona is one of the oldest residential neighbourhoods in Vancouver British Columbia
The Wilberforce Colony in Ontario was also a historically Black settlement, which evolved demographically as Black settlers moved away and eventually became the Irish-dominated village of Lucan. Wilberforce Colony was a Colony established by free American Black citizens founded at the end of the second decade of the 19th century north of present day Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Lucan Biddulph is an incorporated township in the Canadian province of Ontario. A small group of Black settlers were also the original inhabitants of Saltspring Island. Saltspring Island (also known as Salt Spring Island) is the largest most populated and most visited of the southern Gulf Islands of British Columbia,
Other notable black settlements include North Preston in Nova Scotia, Priceville, Shanty Bay and parts of Chatham-Kent in Ontario, the Maidstone/Eldon area in Saskatchewan and Amber Valley in Alberta. North Preston is a Rural community in eastern Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, in Canada. Priceville is a Village in Grey County, Ontario, Canada. Priceville is located on Grey Road 4 east of Durham and southwest of Oro-Medonte is a township in south-central Ontario, Canada on the northwestern shores of Lake Simcoe in Simcoe County. For the town in England see Chatham Kent. The Municipality of Chatham-Kent ( 2006 Amber Valley (population circa 103 is a small community in Alberta, Canada, about 100 miles north of the capital Edmonton. Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905
One of the most famous Black-dominated urban neighbourhoods in Canada is Montreal's Little Burgundy, regarded as the spiritual home of Canadian jazz due to its association with many of Canada's most influential early jazz musicians. Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec Little Burgundy is the informal name of a Neighbourhood in the Southwest borough of the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Several urban neighbourhoods in Toronto, including Jane and Finch, "Doomstown", Malvern, St. James Town and Lawrence Heights, are popularly associated with Black Canadians — and with gang violence — in media and public perception, although all are much more racially diverse than is commonly believed. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Jane and Finch is a neighbourhood located in the former city of North York in northwestern Toronto, centred around the intersection of two arterial roads Jane Mount Olive-Silverstone-Jamestown is part of the Rexdale neighbourhood in the northwestern area of Etobicoke, in the City of Toronto, Ontario Malvern is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, with a population of 50000 St James Town (sometimes spelled St Jamestown) is a neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Lawrence Heights is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Gangsters redirects here For the computer game see Gangsters (video game.
Media representation of Blacks in Canada has increased significantly in recent years, with television series such as Drop the Beat, Lord Have Mercy and Da Kink in My Hair focusing principally on Black characters and communities. Drop the Beat was a Canadian television series produced by Back Alley Films, which aired on CBC Television in 2000 This is for Lord Have Mercy! the Canadian TV show For Lord Have Mercy the US rap artist see Lord Have Mercy (musician Lord Have Mercy! Da Kink in My Hair is a Canadian television show Based on the play of the same name by Trey Anthony, the story was adapted into a television
The films of Clement Virgo and Sudz Sutherland have been among the most prominent depictions of Black Canadians on the big screen. Clement Virgo (born Kingston, Jamaica) is a Canadian film and television director David "Sudz" Sutherland is a Canadian film director and screenwriter
In literature, the most prominent and famous Black Canadian writers have been George Elliott Clarke, Austin Clarke, Dionne Brand and Dany Laferrière, although numerous emerging writers have gained attention in the 1990s and 2000s. George Elliott Clarke (born February 12 1960) is a Canadian Poet and Playwright. Austin Ardinel Chesterfield Clarke CM, OOnt (born 26 July 1934) is a Canadian Novelist, Essayist and Dionne Brand (born January 7, 1953) is a Canadian Poet, Novelist, and Non-fiction writer who focuses on issues relating Dany Laferrière (born 17 April 1953) is a Haitian and Canadian novelist and journalist
According to Statistics Canada's Ethnic Diversity Survey released in September 2003, when asked about the five year period from 1998 to 2002, nearly one-third (32%) of respondents who identified as black described the frequency of suffering some form of racial discrimination or unfair treatment as 'sometimes' or 'often'. Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing Statistics to help Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing Statistics to help