A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. In general religious use ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is set apart as Clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. The office of bishop is one of the three ordained offices within Christianity, the other two being those of priest and deacon. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Deacon is a role in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind but which varies among theological and denominational traditions Within the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian Church of the East and Anglican churches, bishops claim Apostolic Succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ‘Ittā Qaddishtā wa-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e Within these churches, bishops can ordain clergy including other bishops. Some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops as well, although their duties are usually only oversight as Protestants generally reject the sacramental theology of Catholicism. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described The non-Protestant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints church also has bishops, who serve as spiritual leaders of local congregations (wards). TalkMormon#Latter Day Saint vs Latter-day Saint --> Mormon In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a ward is the larger of two types of local congregations (the smaller being a branch) Bishops are of a higher rank than priests.
Bishop comes from the Greek word episkopos (επίσκοπος, from επι "over" and σκοπος "seeing") which can be translated bishop, overseer, superintendent, supervisor, the first, leader or foreman. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly From the word episkopos are derived the English words episcopacy, episcopate and episcopal. The system of church government by bishops is called episcopacy.
The New Testament uses the word episkopos five times.
Words related to episkopos are used in two other verses. The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. The Epistle to the Philippians (or simply Philippians) is a Book included in the New Testament of the Bible. The First Epistle to Timothy is one of three letters in New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles. The Epistle to Titus is one of the Pastoral Epistles. The Epistle to Titus is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the The First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. It has traditionally been held to have been written by Saint Peter the apostle during his time as Bishop Some English Bibles transliterate this word as bishop (KJV, RSV, NRSV, etc. The Revised Standard Version (RSV is an English translation of the Bible published in the mid-20th century The New Revised Standard Version ( NRSV) of the Bible, released in 1989, is a thorough revision of the Revised Standard Version (RSV ), while others use a more basic translation such as "overseer" (NIV, ESV, etc. The New International Version is an English Translation of the Christian Bible. The English Standard Version (ESV is a revision of the 1971 edition of the Revised Standard Version. ). Biblical scholars differ on which, if any, of these verses refer specifically to ordained bishops as we understand them, and which simply refer to a generic "overseer" capacity.
The ministry of these New Testament episkopoi, according to some writers, was not explicitly commissioned by Jesus Christ as far as the Gospels tell, but appears to be a natural, practical development of the church of the apostles during the first and second centuries AD. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament Others maintain that the episcopal structure of the Church was present from the beginning, being a direct institution by Jesus, referring to the apostles who clearly led the first local churches, governed and laid hands on the clergy and faithful. The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e The laying on of hands is a religious practice found throughout the world in varying forms Supporting this latter view, the portions of the New Testament that mention episkopoi do not appear to be ordering a new type of ministry, but giving instructions for an already existing position within the early Church. In places (particularly in the verses from the Epistle to Titus) it appears that the position of episkopos is often similar or the same as that of presbyter (πρεσβυτερος), or elder and (or) priest. The Epistle to Titus is one of the Pastoral Epistles. The Epistle to Titus is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations then a synonym of episkopos (which has now come to mean Bishop An elder (in Greek, πρεσβυτερος; see Presbyter) in Christianity is a person valued for his Wisdom who accordingly holds a particular A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities The Epistle to Timothy mentions deacons (διακονοι) in a manner that suggests that the office of deacon differs from the office of the bishop, and is subordinate to it, though it carries similar qualifications. Deacon is a role in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind but which varies among theological and denominational traditions Some references indicate that a congregation might have multiple episkopoi, which is different than the bishop's role as it came to be established in the 2nd century.
In the Acts of the Apostles, episkopoi are mentioned as being shepherds of the flock, imagery that is still in use today. The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. The other passages from the New Testament describe them as stewards, leaders or administrators, and teachers. In 1 Timothy episkopoi are required to be 'the husband of but one wife'. The First Epistle to Timothy is one of three letters in New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles. Thus, it is clear that the New Testament has no prohibition against bishops being married and already having children. The most famous example of this is the Apostle Peter himself, who was married and had children. It remains unclear however, whether a kind of celibacy or abstinence had to be practiced by these first bishops and apostles after their appointment or episcopal consecration (see also clerical celibacy). Celibacy refers to the lack of participation in Sexual intercourse. In a general sense the term Holy Orders refers to those in the Christian religion who have been ordained in Apostolic Succession. Clerical celibacy is the practice in various religious traditions, in which Clergy, Monastics and those (of either sex in religious orders adopt a
It is interesting to note that in the second chapter of 1 Peter, Jesus is described as 'the Shepherd and Episkopos of your souls' (τον ποιμενα και επισκοπον των ψυχων υμων). The First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. It has traditionally been held to have been written by Saint Peter the apostle during his time as Bishop Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE)
Around the end of the first century AD, the church's organization becomes clearer in historical documents. In the works of the Apostolic Fathers, and Ignatius of Antioch in particular, the role of the episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather, already was very important and being clearly defined. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John
"Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1.
"your godly bishop" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1.
"the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons also who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1.
"Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, [being united with Him], either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters. " — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1.
"Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father [according to the flesh], and as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit. " — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2.
"In like manner let all men respect the deacons as Jesus Christ, even as they should respect the bishop as being a type of the Father and the presbyters as the council of God and as the college of Apostles. Apart from these there is not even the name of a church. " — Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallesians 3:1. The Letter to the Trallians was one of the epistles written by Saint Ignatius of Antioch.
"follow your bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, and the presbytery as the Apostles; and to the deacons pay respect, as to God's commandment" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 8:1. The Letter to the Smyrnaeans (often simply called To the Smyrnaeans) was written by Saint Ignatius of Antioch around AD 110
"He that honoureth the bishop is honoured of God; he that doeth aught without the knowledge of the bishop rendereth service to the devil" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 9:1.— Lightfoot translation.
It is clear that, by this period, a single bishop was expected to lead the church in each centre of Christian mission, supported by a council of presbyters (a distinct and subordinate position at least by this time) with a pool of deacons. Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations then a synonym of episkopos (which has now come to mean Bishop Deacon is a role in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind but which varies among theological and denominational traditions As the Church continued to expand, new churches in important cities gained their own bishop, but churches in the regions around an important city were served by presbyters and deacons from the bishop's city church. Thus, in time, the bishop changed from being the leader of a single church confined to an urban area to being the leader of the churches of a given geographical area.
Clement of Alexandria (end of the 2nd century) writes about the ordination of a certain Zachæus as bishop by the imposition of Simon Peter Bar-Jonah's hands. Saint Clement of Alexandria (born Titus Flavius Clemens) (c150 - 211/216 was the first notable member of the Church of Alexandria, and one of its most The words bishop and ordination are used in their technical meaning by the same Clement of Alexandria.  The bishops in the 2nd century are defined also as the only clergy to whom the ordination to priesthood (presbyterate) and diaconate is entrusted: "a priest (presbyter) lays on hands, but does not ordain. A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Presbyterium is a modern term used in the Catholic Church and Eastern Catholic Churches after the Second Vatican Council " (cheirothetei ou cheirotonei)
At the end of the 2nd century and the beginning of the 3rd century, we have Hippolytus of Rome describing another feature of the ministry of a bishop, which is that of the "Spiritum primatus sacerdotii habere potestatem dimittere peccata": the primate of sacrificial priesthood and the power to forgive sins. For places named after the saint see Saint-Hippolyte Saint Hippolytus of Rome (c 
The efficient infrastructure of the Roman Empire became the template for the organization of the church in the fourth century, particularly after the Edict of Milan. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed Religious toleration in the Roman Empire. As the church moved from the shadows of privacy into the public forum it acquired land for churches, burials and clergy. In 391, Theodosius I decreed that any land that had been confiscated from the church by Roman authorities be returned. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄
The most usual term for the geographic area of a bishop's authority and ministry, the diocese, began as part of the structure of the Roman Empire under Diocletian. In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate As Roman authority began to fail in the western portion of the empire, the church took over much of the civil administration. This can be clearly seen in the ministry of two popes: Pope Leo I in the fifth century, and Pope Gregory I in the sixth century. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461. The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Both of these men were statesmen and public administrators in addition to their role as Christian pastors, teachers and leaders. In the Eastern churches, latifundia entailed to a bishop's see were much less common, the state power did not collapse the way it did in the West, and thus the tendency of bishops acquiring secular power was much weaker than in the West. Latifundia are pieces of property covering tremendous areas The latifundia (Latin lātifundium; lātus, "spacious" + fundus, "farm estate" However, the role of Western bishops as civil authorities, often called prince bishops, continued throughout much of the Middle Ages. A Prince-Bishop is a Bishop who is a territorial Prince of the Church on account of one or more Secular principalities usually pre-existent titles of nobility
The most important of these prince bishops was the Pope, who ruled as monarch of the Papal States by virtue of his title as Bishop of Rome. A Prince-Bishop is a Bishop who is a territorial Prince of the Church on account of one or more Secular principalities usually pre-existent titles of nobility A Prince-Bishop is a Bishop who is a territorial Prince of the Church on account of one or more Secular principalities usually pre-existent titles of nobility History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 His claim to this fief rested on the forged Donation of Constantine, but in fact his authority over this kingdom in central Italy grew slowly after the collapse of Roman and Byzantine authority in the area. Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing The Donation of Constantine ( Latin, Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial edict devised probably between 750 and 775, the The Papal States were abolished when King Victor Emmanuel II took possession of Rome in 1870 and completed the reunification of Italy. Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of This became a perennial source of tension between the Papacy and the government of Italy. In 1929, a representative of Pope Pius XI signed a concordat with the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini and the Pope became the independent sovereign of the Vatican, while giving up any rights to the rest of the former Papal States. Pope Pius XI ( Latin: Pius PP XI; Italian: Pio XI; May 31 1857 &ndash February 10 1939) born The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory He was recognised as an independent, non-hereditary, elected monarch by the Lateran Treaties, a position the current Pope continues to hold. The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy The only other bishop who currently is a head of state is the Bishop of Urgell, a Co-Prince of Andorra. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state The Diocese of Urgell is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical unit in Catalonia, Spain, with origins in the fifth century AD or possibly This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra. The Principality of Andorra, in the Pyrenees Mountains on the French – Spanish border
Three senior bishops served as Electors in the Holy Roman Empire. The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in By the terms of the Golden Bull of 1356, the Archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne were made permanent electors, who chose the next Holy Roman Emperor upon the death of his predecessor. The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead The Archbishopric of Mainz (Erzbistum Mainz or Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz) was an influential ecclesiastic and secular Prince-bishopric The Archbishopric of Trier (Erzbistum Trier was a Roman Catholic Diocese in Germany, that existed from Carolingian times until the end of the The Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln or Kurköln) was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire and existed from the 10th to the early 19th The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states The Archbishop of Mainz was President of the Electors and Archchancellor of Germany. Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Likewise, the Archbishop of Cologne was Archchancellor of Italy, and the Archbishop of Trier was Archchancellor of Burgundy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) A number of other bishops within the Holy Roman Empire, although not being Electors, were sovereign prince-bishops in their own lands.
As well as the Archchancellors of the Holy Roman Empire, bishops generally served as chancellors to medieval monarchs, serving as head of the justiciary and chief chaplain. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen A chaplain is typically a Priest, Pastor, ordained Deacon, Rabbi, Imam or other member of the Clergy serving a group of The Lord Chancellor of England was almost always a bishop up until the dismissal of Thomas Cardinal Wolsey by Henry VIII. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Thomas Cardinal Wolsey (c1470–1471 – November 28 or November 29 1530 who was born in Ipswich Suffolk England was an English Statesman and a cardinal Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Likewise, the position of Kanclerz in the Polish kingdom was always a bishop until the sixteenth century. Kanclerz ( Polish for Chancellor, from Latin: cancellarius) was one of the highest Officials in the historic Poland. The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state created by the accession of Wladislaus II Jagiełło, Grand Duke of Lithuania, to
In France before the French Revolution, representatives of the clergy — in practice, bishops and abbots of the largest monasteries — comprised the First Estate of the Estates-General, until their role was abolished during the French Revolution. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The word abbot, meaning Father, is a title given to the head of a Monastery in various traditions including Christianity. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. The Estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society usually distinguishing Nobility, Clergy, and Commoners recognized in the Middle Ages In France under the Ancien Regime, the States-General or Estates-General (French états généraux) was a Legislative assembly The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an
The more senior bishops of the Church of England continue to sit in the House of Lords of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as representatives of the established church, and are known as Lords Spiritual. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories An established church is a church officially sanctioned and supported by the government of a country e The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, are the 26 Clergymen of the established Church of England The Bishop of Sodor and Man, whose diocese lies outside of the United Kingdom, is ex officio a member of the Legislative Council of the Isle of Man. The Bishop of Sodor and Man is the Ordinary of the Diocese of Sodor and Man in the Province of York in the Church of England. In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located An Ex-officio member is a member of a body (a board committee council etc The Legislative Council (Yn Choonseil Slattyssagh is the upper chamber of Tynwald, the legislature of the Isle of Man. The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical In the past, the Bishop of Durham, known as a prince bishop, had extensive viceregal powers within his northern diocese — the power to mint money, collect taxes and raise an army to defend against the Scots. See also List of Bishops of Durham The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican Bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in A Prince-Bishop is a Bishop who is a territorial Prince of the Church on account of one or more Secular principalities usually pre-existent titles of nobility The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland.
Eastern Orthodox bishops, along with all other members of the clergy, are canonically forbidden to hold political office. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches Occasional exceptions to this rule are tolerated when the alternative is political chaos. In the Ottoman Empire, the Patriarch of Constantinople, for example, had de facto administrative, fiscal, cultural and legal jurisdiction, as well as spiritual, over all the Christians of the empire. A recent prominent example of this was Archbishop Makarios III of Cyprus, who served as President of the Republic of Cyprus from 1960 to 1977. Makarios III (Μακάριος Γ born Mihail Christodoulou Mouskos (Greek Μιχαήλ Χριστοδούλου Μούσκος) on August 13, Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía
During the period of the English Civil War, the role of bishops as wielders of political power and as upholders of the established church became a matter of heated political controversy. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. An established church is a church officially sanctioned and supported by the government of a country e John Calvin formulated a doctrine of Presbyterianism, which held that in the New Testament the offices of presbyter and episkopos were identical; he rejected the doctrine of apostolic succession. John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Calvin's follower John Knox brought Presbyterianism to Scotland when the Scottish church was reformed in 1560. John Knox (c 1510 – 24 November 1572 was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. In practice, Presbyterianism meant that committees of lay elders had a substantial voice in church government, as opposed to merely being subjects to a ruling hierarchy.
This vision of at least partial democracy in ecclesiology paralleled the struggles between Parliament and the King. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the The Parliament of England was the Legislature of the Kingdom of England. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during A body within the Puritan movement in the Church of England sought to abolish the office of bishop and remake the Church of England along Presbyterian lines. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The Martin Marprelate tracts, applying the pejorative name of prelacy to the church hierarchy, attacked the office of bishop with satire that deeply offended Elizabeth I and her Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift. Martin Marprelate was the name used by the anonymous Author or authors of the Marprelate tracts. Words and phrases are pejorative if they imply disapproval or contempt A prelate is a high-ranking member of the Clergy who either is an Ordinary or ranks in precedence with ordinaries The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the John Whitgift (c 1530 &ndash February 29, 1604) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1583 to his death The vestments controversy also related to this movement, seeking further reductions in church ceremony, and labelling the use of elaborate vestments as "unedifying" and even idolatrous. The vestments controversy arose in the English Reformation, ostensibly concerning Vestments but more fundamentally concerned with English Protestant identity An idol is a material object representing a Deity, to which religious worship is directed
King James I, reacting against the perceived contumacy of his Presbyterian Scottish subjects, adopted "No Bishop, no King" as a slogan; he tied the hierarchical authority of the bishop to the absolute authority he sought as king, and viewed attacks on the authority of the bishops as attacks on his own authority. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Matters came to a head when King Charles I appointed William Laud as the Archbishop of Canterbury; Laud aggressively attacked the Presbyterian movement and sought to impose the full Anglican liturgy. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. Archbishop William Laud (7 October 1573 - 10 January 1645 was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633 to 1645 The controversy eventually lead to Laud's impeachment for treason by a bill of attainder in 1645, and subsequent execution. Impeachment is the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to forcibly remove a Government official In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of Attainder) is an act of Legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of Charles also attempted to impose episcopacy on Scotland; the Scots' violent rejection of bishops and liturgical worship sparked the Bishops' Wars in 1639-1640.
During the height of Puritan power in the Commonwealth and the Protectorate, episcopacy was abolished in the Church of England in 1649. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland In British history, the Protectorate was the period 1653&ndash1659 during which the Commonwealth of England Scotland and Ireland was governed by a Lord The Church of England remained Presbyterian until the Restoration of the monarchy with Charles II in 1660. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Bishops form the leadership in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion, the larger branches of the Lutheran Church, the Independent Catholic Churches, the Independent Anglican Churches, and certain other, smaller, denominations. In the Catholic Church, a Bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the priesthood. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Independent Catholic Churches are Christian denominations (or congregations) which claim apostolic succession Continuing Anglican is a term used for a number of Christian churches which follow what they believe to be more traditional Anglican belief and worship
The traditional role of a bishop is as pastor of a diocese (also called a bishopric, synod, eparchy or see), and so to serve as a "diocesan bishop," or "eparch" as it is called in many Eastern Christian churches . In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application Eparchy is an Anglicized Greek word authentically Latinized as eparchia and loosely translating as 'rule over something' but has the following An episcopal see is the ecclesiastical domain of authority of a Bishop. Dioceses vary considerably in their size of area and population. Some dioceses around the Mediterranean Sea which were Christianized early are rather compact; whereas dioceses in areas of rapid modern growth in Christian commitment, as in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, South America and the Far East, are much larger and more populous. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia.
As well as traditional diocesan bishops, many churches have a well-developed structure of church leadership that involves a number of layers of authority and responsibility.
In Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy ,and Anglicanism only a bishop can ordain other bishops, priests, and deacons. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Deacon is a role in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind but which varies among theological and denominational traditions
In the Eastern liturgical tradition, a priest can celebrate the Divine Liturgy only with the blessing of a bishop. The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. In Byzantine usage, an antimension signed by the bishop is kept on the altar partly as a reminder of whose altar it is and under whose omophorion the priest at a local parish is serving. The Antimension ( Greek "instead of the table" Slavonic: Antimíns) is one of the most important furnishings of the Altar in many In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition the omophorion ( Greek:; Slavonic: омофоръ omofor) In Syriac Church usage, a consecrated wooden block called a tablitho is kept for the same reasons. In the Syrian Orthodox Church a thabilitho is a wooden slab placed at the center of the altar and is covered with cloth
The pope, in addition to being the Bishop of Rome and spiritual head of the Roman Catholic Church, is also the Patriarch of the Latin Rite. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See, more often referred to in the Catholic tradition as the Pope. The Latin Rite is one of the 23 Sui iuris Particular Churches within the Catholic Church. Each bishop within the Latin Rite is answerable directly to the Pope and not any other bishop except to metropolitans in certain oversight instances. The Latin Rite is one of the 23 Sui iuris Particular Churches within the Catholic Church. The pope previously used the title Patriarch of the West, but this title was dropped from use in 2006.
In the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion, the cathedral of a diocese will have a special chair set aside for the exclusive use of the bishop. This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral This is the bishop's cathedra, which is often called the bishop's throne. A cathedra ( Latin, "chair" from Greek, kathedra, "seat" is the Chair or Throne of a Bishop This article is about royal thrones for the order of Angels by the same name see Thrones. In some Christian denominations, other churches besides the cathedral will maintain a chair for the use of the bishop when he visits their parish; this is to signify the parish's union with the bishop.
The bishop is also the proper minister of the sacrament of confirmation. Confirmation is a Rite of initiation in many Christian Churches normally in the form of Laying on of hands and/or Anointing for However, in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches bishops usually delegate this power to priests. A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Among Anglicans, only bishops can administer confirmation. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs
Bishops in all of these communions are ordained by other bishops through the laying on of hands. In a general sense the term Holy Orders refers to those in the Christian religion who have been ordained in Apostolic Succession. The laying on of hands is a religious practice found throughout the world in varying forms While traditional teaching maintains that any bishop with Apostolic Succession can validly perform the ordination of another bishop, some churches require two or three bishops participate, either to insure sacramental validity or to conform with church law. Roman Catholic doctrine holds that one bishop can validly ordain another male (priest) as a bishop. Though a minimum of three bishops participating is desirable (there are usually several more) in order to demonstrate collegiality, canonically only one bishop is necessary. The practice of only one bishop ordaining was normal in countries where the Church was persecuted under Communist rule.
Apart from the ordination, which is always done by other bishops, there are different methods as to the actual choosing of a candidate for ordination as bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church today, the Congregation for Bishops oversees the selection of new bishops with the approval of the pope. The Congregation for Bishops ( Congregatio pro Episcopis) is the congregation of the Roman Curia which oversees the selection of new Bishops pending History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The papal nuncio usually solicits names from the bishops of a country, and then selects three to be forwarded to Rome. Most Eastern Orthodox churches allow varying amounts of more or less formalised laity and/or lower clergy influence on the choice of bishops. This also applies in those Eastern churches which are in union with the pope, though he is required to give assent.
Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutheran bishops claim to be part of the continuous sequence of ordained bishops since the days of the apostles referred to as Apostolic Succession. Since Pope Leo XIII issued the bull Apostolicae Curae in 1896, the Roman Catholic Church has insisted that Anglican orders are invalid because of changes in the Anglican ordination rites of the 16th century and divergence in understanding of the theology of episcopacy and Eucharist. Pope Leo XIII ( March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903) born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope However, this view has since been complicated. Since the 1930s, Old Catholic bishops (whom Rome recognises as valid) have acted as co-consecrators the ordination of Anglican bishops. By 1969, all Anglican bishops had acquired Old Catholic lines of apostolic succession fully recognized by Rome.  This development has muddied the waters somewhat as it could be argued that the strain of Apostolic Succession has been re-introduced into Anglicanism.
The Roman Catholic Church does recognise as valid (though illicit) ordinations done by breakaway Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, or Oriental bishops, and groups descended from them, and as valid and licit those ordinations done by Eastern Orthodox bishops, so long as those receiving the ordination conform to other canonical requirements (e. g. is an adult male) and an orthodox rite of episcopal ordination, expressing the proper functions and sacramental status of a bishop, is used; this gives rise to the phenomenon of episcopi vagantes (e. Episcopi vagantes (singular episcopus vagans) are persons who have been consecrated as Christian Bishops outside the structures and g. clergy of the Independent Catholic groups claiming Apostolic Succession).
The Orthodox Churches would not accept the validity of any ordinations performed within the Independent Catholic groups, as Orthodoxy considers to be spurious any consecration outside of the Church as a whole. Unlike Roman Catholicism, Orthodoxy considers Apostolic Succession to exist only within the Church as a whole, and not through any authority held by individual bishops.
Having said this, although Roman Catholicism does recognise the validity of the orders of those Old Catholics in communion with Utrecht, as well as groups such as the Polish National Catholic Church (which received its orders directly from Utrecht, and was - until recently - part of that communion), it would refuse to recognise the orders of any group whose teaching is at variance with core tenets of Christianity e. The Old Catholic Church is a Christian denomination originating with churches (many of them German -speaking that split from the Roman Catholic Church in The Polish National Catholic Church (PNCC is a Christian church founded and based in the United States by Polish-Americans who were Roman Catholic g. The Liberal Catholic Church which has a strong theosophist tendency and permits belief in reincarnation even though they may use the proper ordination ritual. The Liberal Catholic Church (LCC is a form of Christianity open to Theosophical ideas and even Reincarnation. The recent practice within Independent Catholic groups of ordaining women has added a definite cloudiness to the matter. The act of ordaining women demonstrates an understanding of Priesthood which is unacceptable to the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches; thus, any sacramental acts performed by these women are considered to be invalid. Further, the theology of male clergy is suspect as they presumably approve of the ordination of females (thereby demonstrating a belief in Orders different from that of Catholicism and Orthodoxy), and may have even undergone an (invalid) ordination ceremony conducted by a woman. Whilst members of the Independent Catholic movement take seriously the issue of valid orders, it is highly significant that the relevant Vatican Congregations usually do not to respond to petitions from Independent Catholic bishops and clergy who seek to be received into communion with Rome, hoping to continue in some sacramental role. Independent Catholic Churches are Christian denominations (or congregations) which claim apostolic succession In those instances where Rome does grant reconciliation, those deemed to be clerics within the Independent Old Catholic movement are invariably admitted as laity and not priests or bishops.
There is a mutual recognition of the validity of orders amongst Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Old Catholic, Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian Nestorian churches. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The Old Catholic Church is a Christian denomination originating with churches (many of them German -speaking that split from the Roman Catholic Church in Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ‘Ittā Qaddishtā wa-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi
Some provinces of the Anglican Communion have begun ordaining women as bishops in recent decades e. An ecclesiastical province is a large jurisdiction of religious government so named by analogy with a secular Province, existing in certain hierarchical Christian See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches In general religious use Ordination is the process by which a person is consecrated (set apart for the administration of various religious rites g. the United States, Aotearoa New Zealand, Canada and Cuba. The first woman bishop within Anglicanism was Barbara Clementine Harris, who was ordained in the United States in 1989. The Rt Rev Barbara Clementine Harris (born 12 June 1930 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was the first woman ordained a Bishop
In the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States, and based largely on the Nordic Lutheran state churches (similar to that of the Church of England), bishops are elected by Synod Assemblies, consisting of both lay members and clergy, for a term of 6 years, which can be renewed, depending upon the local synod's "constitution" (which usually mirrors that of the national ELCA constitution). The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America ( ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago Illinois. The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Since a 1999 Concordat with the Episcopal Church, they have been ordained in the historic episcopate of apostolic succession, by the laying on of hands of other bishops whose line passes back to the apostles, including Episcopal bishops and Lutheran bishops from church branches in apostolic succession.  Currently, they are responsible for, since going into ecumenical communion with the Episcopal Church in the United States, ordaining of all pastors, consecrating of all diaconal ministers, giving approvals to "roster" all current pastors (pastors are called by local congregations, like that of the Episcopal Church), and upholding the teachings of Luther, the ELCA and synod constitutions. The Episcopal Church is the official name of the Province of the Anglican Communion in the United States. The Presiding Bishop of the ELCA, the national bishop, is elected for a single 6-year term and is limited to 2 terms, and handles all episcopal consecrations, as well as presiding at the Churchwide Assembly, which is held every 2 years. A similar structure exists with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC). The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC (Eglise Evangelique Lutherienne au Canada is Canada 's largest Lutheran denomination with 182077 baptized members It should be noted that although ELCA agreed with the Episcopal Church to limit ordination to the bishop "ordinarily", ELCA pastor-ordinators are given permission to perform the rites in "extraordinary" circumstance. In practice, "extraordinary" circumstance have included disagreeing with Episcopalian views of the episcopate.
In The United Methodist Church, bishops serve as administrative and pastoral superintendents of the church. The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination and the second largest Protestant denomination in the United States. They are elected for life from among the ordained elders (Presbyters) by vote of the delegates in regional (called Jurisdictional) conferences, and are consecrated by the other bishops present at the conference through the laying on of hands. An Elder in the Methodist Church -- sometimes called a Presbyter or Minister -- is someone who has been Ordained by a Bishop to the In The United Methodist Church bishops are not ordained in the traditional sense (i. The episcopate is the collective body of all Bishops of a church e. belonging to the threefold ministry of bishop, presbyter, deacon) but remain members of the "Order of Elders" while being consecrated to the "Office of the Episcopacy. An Elder in the Methodist Church -- sometimes called a Presbyter or Minister -- is someone who has been Ordained by a Bishop to the Episcopal polity is a form of church governance which is hierarchical in structure with the chief authority over a local Christian church resting in a Bishop (Greek " Within The United Methodist Church only bishops are empowered to consecrate bishops and ordain clergy. Among their most critical duties is the ordination and appointment of clergy to serve local churches as pastor, presiding at sessions of the Annual, Jurisdictional, and General Conferences, providing pastoral ministry for the clergy under their charge, and safeguarding the doctrine and discipline of the Church. Furthermore, individual bishops, or the Council of Bishops as a whole, often serve a prophetic role, making statements on important social issues and setting forth a vision for the denomination, though they have no legislative authority of their own. In all of these areas, bishops of United Methodist Church function very much in the historic meaning of the term. According to the Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church, a bishop's responsibilities are
Leadership. The Book of Discipline constitutes the law and doctrine of the United Methodist Church. —Spiritual and Temporal. — 1. To lead and oversee the spiritual and temporal affairs of The United Methodist Church, which confesses Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, and particularly to lead the Church in its mission of witness and service in the world. 2. To travel through the connection at large as the Council of Bishops (¶ 526) to implement stategy for the concern of the Church. 3. To provide liaison and leadership in the quest for Christian unity in ministry, mission, and structure and in the search for strengthened relationships with other living faith communities. 4. To organize such Missions as shall have been authorized by the General Conference. 5. To promote and support the evangelistic vision of the whole Church. 6. To discharge such other duties as the Discipline may direct.
Presidential Duties. —1. To preside in the General, Jurisdictional, Central, and Annual Conferences. 2. To form the districts after consultation with the district superintendents and after the number of the same has been determined by vote of the Annual Conference. 3. To appoint the district superintendents annually (¶¶ 517-518). A District Superintendent in the United Methodist Church is a Clergyperson who serves in a Supervisory position over a geographic District of 4. To consecrate bishops, to ordain elders and deacons, to consecrate diaconal ministers, to commission deaconesses and home missionaries, and to see that the names of the persons commissioned and consecrated are entered on the journals of the conference and that proper credentials are funised to these persons. Deaconess (and also Deacon) comes from a Greek word diakonos (διακονος
Working with Ministers. —1. To make and fix the appointments in the Annual Conferences, Provisional Annual Conferences, and Missions as the Discipline may direct (¶¶ 529-533). 2. To divide or to unite a circuit(s), stations(s), or mission(s) as judged necessary for missionary strategy and then to make appropriate appointments. 3. To read the appointments of deaconesses, diaconal ministers, lay persons in service under the World Division of the General Board of Global Ministries, and home missionaries. 4. To fix the Charge Conference membership of all ordained ministers appointed to ministries other than the local church in keeping with ¶443. 3. 5. To transfer, upon the request of the receiving bishop, minsterial member(s) of one Annual Conference to another, provided said member(s) agrees to transfer; and to send immediately to the secretaries of both conferences involved , to the conference Boards of Ordained Ministry, and to the clearing house of the General Board of Pensions written notices of the transfer of members and of their standing in the course of study if they are undergraduates. 
In each Annual Conference, United Methodist bishops serve for four year terms, and may serve up to three terms before either retirement or appointment to a new Conference. United Methodist bishops may be male or female, with the Rev. Marjorie Matthews being the first woman to be consecrated a bishop in 1980.
The collegial expression of episcopal leadership in the United Methodist Church is known is the Council of Bishops. The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination and the second largest Protestant denomination in the United States. The Council of Bishops speaks to the Church and through the Church into the world and gives leadership in the quest for Christian unity and interreligious relationships.  The Conference of Methodist Bishops includes the United Methodist Council of Bishops plus bishops from affiliated autonomous Methodist or United Churches. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations United and uniting churches are churches formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.
John Wesley consecrated Thomas Coke a "General Superintendent," and directed that Francis Asbury also be consecrated for the United States of America in 1784, where the Methodist Episcopal Church first became a separate denomination apart from the Church of England. John Wesley (ˈwɛslɪ ( – March 2, 1791) was an Anglican cleric and Christian theologian who was the founder of the (Evangelical Thomas Coke ( September 9, 1747 &ndash May 2, 1814) was the first Methodist Bishop and is known as the Father of Methodist Missions Francis Asbury ( August 20 1745 &ndash March 31 1816) was one of the first two bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For individual churches named Methodist Episcopal Church, see Methodist Episcopal Church (disambiguation The Methodist Episcopal Church, sometimes Church (disambiguation A religious denomination is a subgroup within a Religion that operates under a common name tradition and identity The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Coke soon returned to England, but Asbury was the primary builder of the new church. At first he did not call himself bishop, but eventually submitted to the usage by the denomination.
Notable bishops in United Methodist history include Coke, Asbury, Richard Whatcoat, Philip William Otterbein, Martin Boehm, Jacob Albright, John Seybert, Matthew Simpson, John S. Stamm, William Ragsdale Cannon, Marjorie Matthews, Leontine T. Kelly , William B. Oden, Ntambo Nkulu Ntanda, Joseph Sprague, William Willimon, and Thomas Bickerton. Thomas Coke ( September 9, 1747 &ndash May 2, 1814) was the first Methodist Bishop and is known as the Father of Methodist Missions Richard Whatcoat ( February 23, 1736 &ndash July 4, 1806) was the third Bishop of the American Methodist Episcopal Philip William Otterbein (1726 - 1813 was a US ( German -born clergyman Martin Boehm ( November 30, 1725 &ndash March 23, 1812) was an American clergyman and pastor Jacob Albright ( Jakob Albrecht) ( May 1 1759 - May 17 1808) was an American Christian leader founder of Albright's John Seybert (1791 &ndash 1860 was an American Bishop of the Evangelical Association. Matthew Simpson ( 20 June 1811 &ndash 18 June 1884) was an American Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church John Samuel Stamm (1878-1956 was an American Bishop of the Evangelical Church, elected in 1926 William Ragsdale Cannon ( 5 April 1916 &ndash 1997 was an American Bishop of the United Methodist Church, elected in 1968 Leontine Turpeau Current Kelly is a retired American Bishop of the United Methodist Church. William Bryant Oden is a retired American Bishop of the United Methodist Church, elected in 1988 William H Willimon (born May 15, 1946) is a Bishop in the United Methodist Church in the U Thomas J Bickerton is a Bishop in The United Methodist Church, elected and consecrated to the Episcopacy in 2004
Methodists in the United Kingdom acquired their own bishops early in the nineteenth century, after the Methodist movement in Britain formally parted company with the Church of England. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The position no longer exists, however, in British Methodism.
In the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, bishops are administrative superintendents of the church; they are elected by "delegate" votes for as many years deemed until the age of 74, then he/she must retire. The Christian Methodist Epsicopal Church is a historically black denomination within the broader context of Methodism. Among their duties, are responsibility for appointing clergy to serve local churches as pastor, for performing ordinations, and for safeguarding the doctrine and discipline of the Church. The General Conference, a meeting every four years, has an equal number of clergy and lay delegates. In each Annual Conference, CME bishops serve for four year terms. CME Church bishops may be male or female.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Bishop is the leader of a local congregation, called a ward. Bishop is the highest priesthood office of the Aaronic priesthood in the Latter Day Saint movement. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known Bishop is the highest priesthood office of the Aaronic priesthood in the Latter Day Saint movement. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a ward is the larger of two types of local congregations (the smaller being a branch) As with most Mormon priesthood, the Bishop is a part-time lay minister and earns a living through other employment; in almost all cases, he is married. As such, it is his duty to preside at services, call local leaders, and judge the worthiness of members for service. The bishop does not deliver sermons at every service (generally asking members to do so), but is expected to be a spiritual guide for his congregation. It is therefore believed that he has both the right and ability to receive divine inspiration (through the Holy Ghost) for the ward under his direction. In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is one of the three entities of the Holy Trinity which make up the single substance In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a ward is the larger of two types of local congregations (the smaller being a branch) Because it is a part-time position, all able members are expected to assist in the management of the ward by holding delegated lay positions (e. g. women's' and youth leaders, teachers) referred to as callings. Although members are asked to confess serious sins to him, unlike the Roman Catholic Church, he is not the instrument of divine forgiveness, merely a guide through the repentance process (and a judge in case transgressions warrant excommunication or other official discipline). The bishop is also responsible for the physical welfare of the ward, and thus collects tithing and fast offerings and distributes financial assistance where needed. A tithe (from Old English teogoþa "tenth" is a one-tenth part of something paid as a (usually voluntary contribution or as a Tax or levy Fast offering is the term used in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to denote money or usable commodities donated to the church in order to help the needy
A bishop is the president of the Aaronic Priesthood in his ward (and is thus a form of Mormon Kohen; in fact, the church's Doctrine and Covenants states that any "descendant of Aaron" who converts to Mormonism has a right to be a bishop). The Aaronic priesthood (also called the Levitical priesthood) is the lesser of the two (or sometimes three orders of priesthood recognized in Mormonism A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן "priest" pl כּהנִים kohanim or cohanim) has a separate status in Judaism. The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the A bishop is also a High priest in the Melchizedek Priesthood. High priest is a priesthood office in the Melchizedek priesthood of denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of The Melchizedek priesthood is the name of several priesthoods Each bishop is selected from resident members of the ward by the stake presidency with approval of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and chooses two counselors to form a bishopric. A stake is an administrative unit composed of multiple congregations in denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the quorum of the Twelve (also known as the council of the Twelve, the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Council In special circumstances (such as a ward consisting entirely of young university students), a bishop may be chosen from outside the ward. A bishop is typically released after about five years and a new bishop is called to the position. Although the former bishop is released from his duties, he continues to hold the priesthood office of bishop, and is usually still referred to by the title "Bishop" as a term of respect.
Latter-Day Saint bishops do not wear any special clothing or insignia the way clergy in many other churches do, but are expected to dress and groom themselves neatly and conservatively per their local culture, especially when performing official duties. Bishops (as well as other members of the priesthood) can trace their line of authority back to Joseph Smith, who, according to church doctrine, was ordained to lead the Church in modern times by the ancient apostles Peter, James, and John, who were ordained to lead the Church by Jesus Christ. The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e For people and places called Saint James, see the Saint James disambiguation page Saint John the Apostle ( Greek Ιωάννης, see Names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE)
The Presiding Bishop oversees the temporal affairs (buildings, properties, commercial corporations, etc. Presiding BishopBishop (Latter Day Saints The Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church is a priesthood calling ) of the entire Latter Day Saints Church, including the Church's massive global humanitarian aid and social welfare programs. The Presiding Bishop has two counselors; the three together form the Presiding Bishopric.
The New Apostolic Church (NAC) knows 3 classes of ministries: Deacons, Priests and Apostles. The New Apostolic Church ( NAC) is a chiliastic church, existing since 1879 in Germany and since 1897 in the Netherlands. The Apostles, who are all included in the apostolate with the Chief Apostle as head, are the highest ministries. The New Apostolic Church ( NAC) is a chiliastic church, existing since 1879 in Germany and since 1897 in the Netherlands. The Chief Apostle is the highest minister in the New Apostolic Church, and has existed since 1896
Of the several kinds of priest-ministries, the bishop is the highest. Nearly all bishops are set in line directly from the chief apostle. They support and help their superior apostle.
In 2002, the general convention of the Pentecostal Church of God came to a consensus to change the title of their overseer from General Superintendent to Bishop. The Pentecostal Church of God (PCG is a trinitarian Pentecostal Christian denomination The change was brought on because internationally, the term Bishop is more commonly related to religious leaders than the previous title. Although called "bishops", they are not validly ordained in apostolic succession, and as such, have no traceable ordinational connection to the Apostles of Christ, as the Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Orthodox Churches do. The Apostles are an experimental punk rock band who developed within the confines of the 1980s Anarcho Punk scene in the UK, but did not necessarily adhere to Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs
The title Bishop is used for both the General (International leader) and the district (state) leaders. The title is sometimes used in conjunction with the previous thus becoming General (District) Superintendent/Bishop.
Some Baptists have begun taking on the title of Bishop. 
In some smaller Protestant denominations and independent churches the term bishop is used in the same way as pastor, to refer to the leader of the local congregation, and may be male or female. This usage is especially common in African American churches in the USA. In the Church of Scotland, which has a Presbyterian church structure, the word "bishop" refers to an ordained person, usually a normal parish minister, who has temporary oversight of a trainee minister. The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland.
Traditionally, a number of items are associated with the office of a bishop, most notably the mitre, crosier, and episcopal ring. The pontifical vestments, also referred to as episcopal vestments or pontificals, are the liturgical Vestments worn by Bishops (and by concession The mitre (sometimes also spelled miter from the Greek μίτρα, 'headband' or 'turban' is a type of headgear now known as the traditional ceremonial head-dress of A crosier ( crozier, pastoral staff, paterissa, pósokh) is the stylized staff of office ( Pastoral staff) carried by high-ranking ecclesiastical ring is a Finger ring worn by a clergyman such as a Bishop's ring Other vestments and insignia vary between Eastern and Western Christianity.
In the Roman Catholic Church, the choir dress of a bishop includes the purple cassock with amaranth trim, rochet, purple zuchetto (skull cap), purple biretta, and pectoral cross. Choir dress is the vesture of the Clerics seminarians and religious of traditional churches worn for public prayer either apart from the The cassock, an item of Clerical clothing, is a long close-fitting ankle-length Robe worn by clerics of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox A rochet is a Vestment generally worn by a Roman Catholic or Anglican Bishop in Choir dress. The zucchetto (plural zucchetti, Italian for "small Gourd " also called pileolus, is a small skullcap worn by clerics The biretta is a square Cap with three or four ridges or peaks sometimes surmounted by a tuft traditionally worn by Roman Catholic clergy and some Anglican A pectoral cross or pectorale (from the Latin pectoralis, "of the Chest " is a cross, usually large suspended from The vestments of a bishop include the pontifical gloves and pontifical sandals, but these items are rarely seen today except within the context of the Tridentine Mass. The pontifical vestments, also referred to as episcopal vestments or pontificals, are the liturgical Vestments worn by Bishops (and by concession The Episcopal gloves or Pontifical gloves ( chirothecœ, called also at an earlier date manicœ wanti) The Episcopal sandals, also known as the pontifical sandals, are a Roman Catholic Pontifical vestment worn by Bishops when celebrating liturgical The Tridentine Mass (Missa Tridentina is the form of the Roman Rite Mass contained in the typical editions of the Roman Missal that were published The cappa magna, which was once used as choir dress for bishops on solemn occasions, is also rarely seen today although its use continues to be permitted. The cope (Known in Latin as pluviale 'rain coat' or cappa 'cape' is a liturgical Vestment, which may conveniently be described as a very long mantle The coat of arms of a Roman Catholic bishop will usually display a mitre (or galero) and crozier behind the escutcheon; however, the specifics will differ by location and ecclesiastical rank (see Ecclesiastical heraldry). A galero (pl galeri; L galerum, pl galera) in the Roman Catholic Church is a large broad-brimmed tasseled hat worn Ecclesiastical heraldry is the tradition of Heraldry developed by Christian Clergy.
Anglican bishops generally make use of the mitre, crosier, episcopal ring, purple cassock, purple zuchetto, and pectoral cross. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs The mitre (sometimes also spelled miter from the Greek μίτρα, 'headband' or 'turban' is a type of headgear now known as the traditional ceremonial head-dress of A crosier ( crozier, pastoral staff, paterissa, pósokh) is the stylized staff of office ( Pastoral staff) carried by high-ranking ecclesiastical ring is a Finger ring worn by a clergyman such as a Bishop's ring The cassock, an item of Clerical clothing, is a long close-fitting ankle-length Robe worn by clerics of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox The zucchetto (plural zucchetti, Italian for "small Gourd " also called pileolus, is a small skullcap worn by clerics A pectoral cross or pectorale (from the Latin pectoralis, "of the Chest " is a cross, usually large suspended from However, the traditional choir dress of Anglican bishops is quite different as a very long rochet is worn with a chimere. Choir dress is the vesture of the Clerics seminarians and religious of traditional churches worn for public prayer either apart from the A rochet is a Vestment generally worn by a Roman Catholic or Anglican Bishop in Choir dress. A chimere is a Garment that is formally worn as part of Academic regalia, or by Anglican Bishops in Choir dress.
In the Eastern Churches (Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Rite Catholic) a bishop will wear the Mandyas, Panagia (and perhaps an Enkolpion), Sakkos, Omophorion and an Eastern-style mitre. Families of churches Eastern Christians have a shared tradition but they became divided ( Schism) during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See A mantle ( Greek: μανδύας mandyas; Church Slavonic: мантия mantiya) is an ecclesiastical garment in Panagia ( Greek: Παναγία All-holy) also transliterated Panayia or Panaghia, is one of the titles of Mary the mother of Jesus An Engolpion or Enkolpion ( Greek: ἐγκόλπιον enkólpion, "on the chest" plural ἐγκόλπια enkólpia) is a general The Sakkos ( Greek: σάκκος " Sackcloth " is a Vestment worn by Orthodox and Greek Catholic Bishops instead In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition the omophorion ( Greek:; Slavonic: омофоръ omofor) The mitre (sometimes also spelled miter from the Greek μίτρα, 'headband' or 'turban' is a type of headgear now known as the traditional ceremonial head-dress of Eastern bishops do not normally wear an episcopal ring—the faithful will kiss the bishop's hand rather than a ring. To seal official documents, he will usually use an inked stamp. An Eastern bishop's coat of arms will usually display an Eastern-style mitre, cross, eastern crozier and a red and white (or red and gold) mantle. Ecclesiastical heraldry is the tradition of Heraldry developed by Christian Clergy. The arms of Oriental Orthodox bishops will display the episcopal insignia (mitre or turban) specific to their own liturgical traditions. Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the Variations will occur based upon jurisdiction and national customs.