Biometrics (ancient Greek: bios ="life", metron ="measure") refers to two very different fields of study and application. Walt Disney World Resort is the most visited and largest recreational resort in the world containing four Theme parks two Water parks twenty-three themed hotels Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The first, which is the older and is used in biological studies, including forestry, is the collection, synthesis, analysis and management of quantitative data on biological communities such as forests. Forestry is the Art and Science of managing forests tree Plantations and related Natural resources. Numerical data (or quantitative data) is Data measured or identified on a numerical scale A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria Biometrics in reference to biological sciences has been studied and applied for several generations and is somewhat simply viewed as "biological statistics. "
More recently and incongruently, the term's meaning has been broadened to include the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. The term intrinsic denotes a characteristic or property of some thing or action which is essential and specific to that thing or action and which is wholly independent
Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics for behavioral biometrics such as typing rhythm or mouse gestures where the analysis can be done continuously without interrupting or interfering with user activities. Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός - rhythmos, "any measured flow or movement symmetry" is the variation of the length and accentuation of A gesture is a form of Non-verbal communication made with a part of the body used instead of or in combination with verbal communication.
Biometrics are used to identify the input sample when compared to a template, used in cases to identify specific people by certain characteristics.
Standard validation systems often use multiple inputs of samples for sufficient validation, such as particular characteristics of the sample. This intends to enhance security as multiple different samples are required such as security tags and codes and sample dimensions.
Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes, as represented in figure on the right:
Recently, a new trend has been developed that merges human perception to computer database in a brain-machine interface. This approach has been referred to as cognitive biometrics. Cognitive biometrics is based on specific responses of the brain to stimuli which could be used to trigger a computer database search. Currently, cognitive biometrics systems are being developed to use brain response to odor stimuli , facial perception  and mental performance  for search at ports and high security areas. These systems are based on use of functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) and functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy (fTCDS)  to obtain brain responses, which are used to match a target odor, a target face or target performance profile stored in a computer database. Thus, the precision of human perception provides the data to match that stored in the computer with improve sensitivity of the system.
Strictly speaking, voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different pitch, but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks, commonly classified as behavioral. Pitch represents the perceived Fundamental frequency of a sound
Other biometric strategies are being developed such as those based on gait (way of walking), retina, hand veins, ear canal, facial thermogram, DNA, odor and scent and palm prints. Gait analysis is the study of Animal locomotion, including Locomotion of humans Gait analysis is commonly used to help athletes run more efficiently and A retinal scan is a Biometric technique that uses the unique patterns on a person's Retina to identify them The dorsal venous network of the hand is a network of veins formed by the Dorsal metacarpal veins. The ear canal ( external auditory meatus, external acoustic meatus) is a tube running from the Outer ear to the Middle ear. wiki stranglesnakejpg|thumb|Thermographic image of a Snake held by a human]] Infrared Thermography, thermal imaging, or thermal video, is a type of Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known The palmar aponeurosis (palmar fascia invests the muscles of the palm and consists of central lateral and medial portions
In forensics, odor evaluation can make important contributions in both prosecution and defense of criminal cases. The use of blood hounds and other scent following dogs to identify individual people or their scent trails in the environment on the basis of a previous offered reference scent article such as handkerchief, hat, and other items of clothing has been described  Canine scent identification evidence is usually accepted in court to suggest the unique identification of an accused individual in the same way that finger prints are used  The latter is premised on the alleged factuality of the "individual odor theory," which hold that each person has a unique scent that can be identified by the dog and related back to a specific individual. High courts have accepted the performance of canine scent identification, even when it is claimed that they are detecting the scent of a specific individual at the scene of a crime nearly 2 years after the crime was committed as discussed in the case State v. Eugene Wiley Case No. 8001659, 18th Judicial Circuit, Brevard County Fla. (1982). However, error have been known to occur, and juries have found individuals guilty almost solely on the basis of dog evidence subsequently shown to be unreliable, if not fraudulent as in the case State v. Kevin Roscoe, CR-127656, 11-20-90, Maricopa County, Arizona Superior Court, Judge Paulson. It is therefore imperative that further research studies of the abilities of such scenting dogs be undertaken. Especially, the ability to scent match odors from individuals to handled objects, under controlled laboratory conditions ; However, in some studies dogs have proven capable of performing such scent matching tasks at levels greater than chance, their error rates are seldom more than 10 to 20%  Errors may also be introduced by the interpretation of the behavioral response of the dog. What is probably lacking is an objective physiologic correlate of scent matching odors in canine detectives. The latter has the subject matter current research. There is thus ample evidence that in primates olfactory memory has several unique characteristics, the most striking being its resistance to decay over long intervals, suggesting a specialized memory system. However, investigations into the neural substrates of human olfactory memory have been limited. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown significant regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) increases during olfactory stimulation: unilateral in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and bilaterally in the inferior frontal and temporal lobes (piriform cortex) . A new approach that uses noninvasive transcranial Doppler ultrasound to measure mean blood flow velocities in human and canine subjects during odor presentation is currently being evaluated. The target odor such as bomb making materials (e. g. TNT) or noxious chemicals elicit are first committed to memory in human or canine detectors. A area wide search such as at a seaport or at an airport could produce a matching odor, that triggers pattern recognition by computer. The latter is a brain-machine interface for odor recognition such as that described in United States Patent No. 6,663,571.
The growing threat of terrorism and the aftermath of the Sep. 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York, has made recognition of the faces of terrorist suspects entering the airports, seaports and border crossings crucial to National Security. However, conventional biometric methods introduced to improve security are static, mainly based on cross matching the face of the traveler with that in the international passport and fingerprints. Although a welcome improvement to the prior situation of total absence of biometric information, its importance in terror crime prevention may be limited. However, it may serve to provide a database of biometric information including faces and fingerprints. At present, the data is static and would not, for example, identify suspects with cosmetic or plastic surgery modification of their faces to escape identification. However, it is possible to train persons that could be referred to as `face-minders`, to memorized faces of suspects on terrorist watch-list, by way of example. The immigration officer trained as a `face-minder` is here referred to as `immigration officer and face-minder`. Trainees could acquire skills of cross-matching key features of faces of persons seen at the ports as compared to that in the immigration or forensic facial database. However to be effective, subjective judgment must be replaced with objective physiologic correlates of good matches. This will require objective online detection of physiologic variables, suggestive of facial memory involvement and cross matching the online variables to expected variables, for the particular face involved. Online brain imaging adapted for use for such applications include electrophysiological techniques and transcranial Doppler ultrasound. One such brain-machine interface method based on functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy (fTCDS), detects the presence of an equivalent to cortical long-term potentiation (CLTP), in the left middle cerebral artery  in male face minders and triggers a search for a matching face, to be reviewed by other observers as described in United States Patent Application No. 20040158155.
Task performance using general intelligence must elicit responses in neural anatomic structures for processing of the information. In task requiring general intelligence there is the necessity of keeping several conceptual formulations in mind such as during Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), and is itself a working memory function  involving prefrontal cortex . Basso and others demonstrated that post-rolandic structures may be more critical for this general task as shown in patients with brain lesions . Evidence obtained in normal subjects using positron emission tomography studies have shown that high g tasks do not show diffuse recruitment of multiple brain regions, instead they are associated with selective recruitment of lateral prefrontal cortex in one or both hemispheres . It has been shown that working memory is typically associated with activations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, parietal and occipital regions. These brain areas received blood supply from the middle cerebral arteries. Two fundamental working-memory processes have been identified: the passive maintenance of information in short-term memory and the active manipulation of this information . In young subjects, studies using RPM tasks showed areas of regional CBF activation that comprised inferolateral temporal cortex including the fusiform gyrus bilaterally, and the middle temporal gyrus on the left, portions of the left medial temporal cortex including the parahippocampal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule, and the cerebellum. The identified anatomic structures (except for the cerebellum) derive major blood supply from the middle cerebral artery. In a study, using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD), Njemanze demonstrated that for successful resolution of RPM tasks, females used a left hemisphere strategy while males used the right hemisphere. The latter implies that general intelligence is associated with neural systems within one hemisphere that are accessible to a variety of cognitive processes. It was demonstrated that bi-hemispheric activation was associated with Wrong ANSWER, which may suggest that, increasing level of task difficulty is associated with diverse pattern of neural activation due to broad sampling of all major cognitive functions . Njemanze postulated that, successful RPM problem-solving employs a discrete knowledge strategy (DKS), that selects neural pathways represented in one hemisphere. While unsuccessful outcome implicates a non-discrete knowledge strategy (nDKS). RPM paradigm could be viewed as a working memory task. This suggests that the DKS model may have a correlate in mnemonic operations. In other words, DKS model may have a discrete knowledge base (DKB) of essential components needed for task resolution, while for nDKS, DKB is absent, and hence a "global" or bi-hemispheric search occurs. Based on these findings, a brain-machine interface system was designed as described in United State Patent No. 6,390,979. A pattern of blood flow velocity changes is obtained in response to a set intelligence task, which is used to form a 'mental signature' that could be repeatedly recognized, in an automated man-machine interface system. The system is designed to go beyond passive recognition, but rather to set a desired level of 'mental performance', before access is gained into the system. The device could be used as a 'lie detector' based on the fact that, it could distinguish Wrong ANSWER which elicits bi-hemispheric activation, from Correct ANSWER that activates unilateral response.
It is possible to understand if a human characteristic can be used for biometrics in terms of the following parameters:
The following table shows a comparison of existing biometric systems in terms of those parameters:
* - circumventability listed with reversed colors because low is desirable here instead of high
A. A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source Fingerprint recognition or fingerprint authentication refers to the Automated method of verifying a match between two human Fingerprints Fingerprints are Hand geometry is a biometric that identifies users by the shape of their hands Keystroke dynamics, or typing dynamics, is the detailed timing information that describes exactly when each key was depressed and when it was released as a person is typing at The dorsal venous network of the hand is a network of veins formed by the Dorsal metacarpal veins. Iris recognition is a method of biometric authentication that uses pattern recognition techniques based on high-resolution images of the irides of an individual's A retinal scan is a Biometric technique that uses the unique patterns on a person's Retina to identify them A signature (from Latin signare, " Sign " is a handwritten (and sometimes stylized depiction of someone's name nickname or even a simple Voice recognition redirects here For software that converts speech to text see Speech recognition. wiki stranglesnakejpg|thumb|Thermographic image of a Snake held by a human]] Infrared Thermography, thermal imaging, or thermal video, is a type of Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Gait analysis is the study of Animal locomotion, including Locomotion of humans Gait analysis is commonly used to help athletes run more efficiently and K. Jain ranks each biometric based on the categories as being either low, medium, or high. A low ranking indicates poor performance in the evaluation criterion whereas a high ranking indicates a very good performance.
The diagram on right shows a simple block diagram of a biometric system. When such a system is networked together with telecommunications technology, biometric systems become telebiometric systems. Telebiometrics applies Biometrics to telecommunications and telecommunications to remote biometric sensing The main operations a system can perform are enrollment and test. During the enrollment, biometric information from an individual is stored. During the test, biometric information is detected and compared with the stored information. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and our system; it has to acquire all the necessary data. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system, but it can change according to the characteristics desired. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor, to enhance the input (e. g. removing background noise), to use some kind of normalization, etc. In the third block features needed are extracted. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted and the optimal way. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. A template is a synthesis of all the characteristics extracted from the source, in the optimal size to allow for adequate identifiability.
If enrollment is being performed the template is simply stored somewhere (on a card or within a database or both). If a matching phase is being performed, the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates, estimating the distance between them using any algorithm (e. g. Hamming distance). Examples The Hamming distance between 1011101 and 1001001 The matching program will analyze the template with the input. This will then be output for any specified use or purpose (e. g. entrance in a restricted area ) .
A biometric system can provide the following two functions :
The following table shows the state of art of some biometric systems:
|Face||n. A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source a.||1%||10%||37437||Varied lighting, indoor/outdoor||FRVT (2002)|
|Fingerprint||n. Fingerprint recognition or fingerprint authentication refers to the Automated method of verifying a match between two human Fingerprints Fingerprints are a.||1%||0. 1%||25000||US Government operational data||FpVTE (2003)|
|Fingerprint||2%||2%||2%||100||Rotation and exaggerated skin distortion||FVC (2004)|
|Hand geometry||1%||2%||0. Fingerprint recognition or fingerprint authentication refers to the Automated method of verifying a match between two human Fingerprints Fingerprints are Hand geometry is a biometric that identifies users by the shape of their hands 1%||129||With rings and improper placement||(2005)|
|Iris||< 1%||0. Iris recognition is a method of biometric authentication that uses pattern recognition techniques based on high-resolution images of the irides of an individual's 94%||0. 99%||1224||Indoor environment||ITIRT (2005)|
|Iris||0. Iris recognition is a method of biometric authentication that uses pattern recognition techniques based on high-resolution images of the irides of an individual's 01%||0. 0001%||0. 2%||132||Best conditions||NIST (2005)|
|Keystrokes||1. Keystroke dynamics, or typing dynamics, is the detailed timing information that describes exactly when each key was depressed and when it was released as a person is typing at 8%||7%||0. 1%||15||During 6 months period||(2005)|
|Voice||6%||2%||10%||310||Text independent, multilingual||NIST (2004)|
One simple but artificial way to judge a system is by EER, but not all the authors provided it. Voice recognition redirects here For software that converts speech to text see Speech recognition. Moreover, there are two particular values of FAR and FRR to show how one parameter can change depending on the other. For fingerprint there are two different results, the one from 2003 is older but it was performed on a huge set of people, while in 2004 far fewer people were involved but stricter conditions have been applied. For iris, both references belong to the same year, but one was performed on more people, the other one is the result of a competition between several universities so, even if the sample is much smaller, it could reflect better the state of art of the field.
As with many interesting and powerful developments of technology, there are concerns about biometrics. The biggest concern is the fact that once a fingerprint or other biometric source has been compromised it is compromised for life, because users can never change their fingerprints. A theoretical example is a debit card with a personal Identification Number (PIN) or a biometric. Some argue that if a person's biometric data is stolen it might allow someone else to access personal information or financial accounts, in which case the damage could be irreversible. However, this argument ignores a key operational factor intrinsic to all biometrics-based security solutions: biometric solutions are based on matching, at the point of transaction, the information obtained by the scan of a "live" biometric sample to a pre-stored, static "match template" created when the user originally enrolled in the security system. Most of the commercially available biometric systems address the issues of ensuring that the static enrollment sample has not been tampered with (for example, by using hash codes and encryption), so the problem is effectively limited to cases where the scanned "live" biometric data is hacked. Even then, most competently designed solutions contain anti-hacking routines. For example, the scanned "live" image is virtually never the same from scan to scan owing to the inherent plasticity of biometrics; so, ironically, a "replay" attack using the stored biometric is easily detected because it is too perfect a match.
The television program MythBusters attempted to break into a commercial security door equipped with biometric authentication as well as a personal laptop so equipped. MythBusters is a Popular science Television program produced by Australian firm Beyond Television Productions originally for the  While the laptop's system proved more difficult to bypass, the advanced commercial security door with "live" sensing was fooled with a printed scan of a fingerprint after it had been licked. There is no basis to assume that the tested security door is representative of the current typical state of biometric authentication, however. With careful matching of tested biometric technologies to the particular use that is intended, biometrics provide a strong form of authentication that effectively serves a wide range of commercial and government applications.
However, the clear concern is that the number of biometric samples of an individual are limited. If all samples are lost via compromise the legitimate owner will be unable to replace the old ones. Additionally, the limited number of samples means that there is a concern with secondary use of biometric data: a user who accesses two systems with the same fingerprint may allow one to masquerade is her to the other. Several solutions to this problem are actively being researched, such as Biometric Encryption or Cancelable Biometrics or Traceless Biometrics.
A concern is how a person's biometric, once collected, can be protected. Australia has therefore introduced a Biometrics Institute Privacy Code Biometrics Institute in order to protect consumer personal data beyond the current protections offered by the Australian Privacy Act.
Different sensors (hardware producers), generating different biometrics outcomes, different outcomes cannot be encryptedly compared (they will never match). It is very difficult to create standard on inidentical encryption paths. Biometrics standard can be obtained only if the common information is unconcealed. Currently each biometric scanner's vendor is responsible for generating his own encryption method. In order to unify the biometrics collection method(s) the Standardization procedure must force Biometrics exposure, however, exposed biometrics information present a serious threat to privacy rights.
Conclusions: There are no legal restrictions on biometrically identifying information, or biometric authentication systems. However: there are severe restrictions on collecting, creating, maintaining, using, or disseminating records of identifiable personal data. One immediate conclusion that we should draw is that biometrics authentication must be traceless.
Traceless Biometric System (TBS) was developed in order to avoid the need to collect biometrics and afterwards to search creative ways or alternative technologies to cancel delicate collection(s). Traceless Biometrics is a method that is able to authenticate innocent's strangers, even if they're not known to the biometric system. TBS does not require infrastructure (can work offline), redundant the need for proprietary or identical scanners/readers (any hardware mix fits), no need for central databases, or storage, or stored templates. Privacy friendly – not unique nor clonable, letting the subject to cancel/change his own biometric or key by himself anytime anywhere, comply with all privacy standards without secrets give-away - Can be spread anywhere (no single key) without risk of breach. Fast, reliable, anonymously, mobile, non-unique, irreversible, accurate, unidirectional, high entropy and most important able to authenticate anywhere across the globe! (Even in the desert or high seas) without communication.
Despite confirmed cases of defeating commercially available biometric scanners, many companies marketing biometric products (especially consumer-level products such as readers built into keyboards) claim the products as replacements, rather than supplements, for passwords. Furthermore, regulations regarding advertising and manufacturing of biometric products are (as of 2006) largely non-existent. Consumers and other end users must rely on published test data and other research that demonstrate which products meet certain performance standards and which are likely to work best under operational conditions. Given the ease with which other security measures such passwords and access tokens may be compromised, and the relative resistance of biometrics to being defeated through alteration and reverse engineering, large scale adoption of biometrics may offer significant protection against the economic and social problems associated with identity theft.
As technology advances, and time goes on, more private companies and public utilities may use biometrics for safe, accurate identification. These advances are likely to raise concerns such as:
When thieves cannot get access to secure properties, there is a chance that the thieves will stalk and assault the property owner to gain access. If the item is secured with a biometric device, the damage to the owner could be irreversible, and potentially cost more than the secured property. In 2005, Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger of a Mercedes-Benz S-Class owner when attempting to steal the car. The Mercedes-Benz S-Class is a series of the largest Sedans produced by Mercedes-Benz, a division of Daimler AG.
Physical features, such as face, fingerprint, iris, retina, hand, or behavioral features, such as signature, voice, gait, must fulfill a certain criteria to qualify for use in recognition. They must be unique, universal, acceptable, collectable and convenient to the person, in addition, to reliability at recognition, performance and circumvention. Most importantly, however, permanence is a key feature for biometrics. They must retain all the above features in particular the uniqueness unchanged, or acceptably changed, over the lifetime of the individual. On the other hand, this fundamental feature has brought biometrics to challenge a new risk. If biometric data is obtained, for example compromised from a database, by unauthorized users, the genuine owner will lose control over them forever and lose his/her identity.
Previously, research was focusing on using biometrics to overcome the weakness in traditional authentication systems that use tokens, passwords or both. Weakness, such as sharing passwords, losing tokens, guessable passwords, forgetting passwords and a lot more, were successfully targeted by biometric systems, although accuracy still remains a great challenge for many different biometric data. But one ordinary advantage of password does not exist in biometrics. That is re-issue. If a token or a password is lost or stolen, they can be cancelled and replaced by a newer version i. e. reissued. On the other hand, this is not naturally available in biometrics. If someone’s face is compromised from a database, they cannot cancel it neither reissue it. All data, including biometrics is vulnerable whether in storage or in processing state. It is relatively recently research has been undertaken to consider protection of biometric data more seriously. Cancelable biometrics is a way in which to inherit the protection and the replacement features into biometrics. It was first proposed by Ratha et al. Besides reliable accuracy performance and the replacement policy cancellable biometric has to be non-revisable in order to fulfill the aim.
Several methods for generating cancellable biometrics have been proposed. Essentially, cancelable biometrics perform a distortion of the biometric image or features before matching. The variability in the distortion parameters provides the cancelable nature of the scheme. Some of the proposed techniques operate using their own recognition engines, such as Teoh et al and Savvides et al, whereas other methods, such as Dabbah et al, take the advantage of the advancement of the well-established biometric research for their recognition front-end to conduct recognition. Although this increases the restrictions on the protection system, it makes the cancellable templates more accessible for available biometric technologies.
In general, cancelable biometrics may be seen to represent a promising approach to address biometric security and privacy vulnerabilities. However, there are several concerns about the security of such schemes. First, there is very little work analysing their security, except for an analysis of biohashing . Secondly, while distortion schemes should be preferably non-invertible, no detailed proposed scheme has this property. In fact, it would appear to be trivial to undistort the template given knowledge of the distortion key in most cases. Third, cancelable biometrics would appear to be difficult to implement in the untrusted scenarios for which they are proposed: if the user does not trust the owner of the biometric sensor to keep the biometric private, how can they enforce privacy on the distortion parameters used? This last concern is perhaps the most serious: the security of cancelable biometrics depends on secure management of the distortion parameters, which must be used for enrollment and made available at matching. Furthermore, such keys may not be much better protected than current passwords and PINs. In summary, cancelable biometrics offer a possible solution to certain serious security and privacy concerns of biometric technology; however, current schemes leave a number of important issues unaddressed. Research is very active in this subject, and may succeed in addressing these concerns.
Visitors intending to visit Australia may soon have to submit to biometric authentication as part of the Smartgate system, linking individuals to their visas and passports. Smartgate is an automated border processing system being introduced by the Australian Customs Service. Biometric data are already collected from some visa applicants by Immigration. Australia is the first country to introduce a Biometrics Privacy Code, which is established and administered by the Biometrics Institute. The Biometrics Institute Privacy Code Biometrics Institute forms part of Australian privacy legislation. The Code includes privacy standards that are at least equivalent to the Australian National Privacy Principles (NPPs) in the Privacy Act and also incorporates higher standards of privacy protection in relation to certain acts and practices. Only members of the Biometrics Institute are eligible to subscribe to this Code. Biometrics Institute membership, and thus subscription to this Code, is voluntary.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, Brazilian citizens have had user ID cards. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The decision by the Brazilian government to adopt fingerprint-based biometrics was spearheaded by Dr. Felix Pacheco at Rio de Janeiro, at that time capital of the Federative Republic. Rio de Janeiro ("River of January" ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in Brazilian Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English is the second largest city of Brazil Dr. Pacheco was a friend of Dr. Juan Vucetich, who invented one of the most complete tenprint classification systems in existence. Juan Vucetich ( July 20, 1858 &ndash January 25, 1925) was a Croatian born Argentine Anthropologist and The Vucetich system was adopted not only in Brazil, but also by most of the other South American countries. The oldest and most traditional ID Institute in Brazil (Instituto de Identificação Félix Pacheco) was integrated at DETRAN  (Brazilian equivalent to DMV) into the civil and criminal AFIS system in 1999. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar)
Each state in Brazil is allowed to print its own ID card, but the layout and data are the same for all of them. The ID cards printed in Rio de Janeiro are fully digitized using a 2D bar code with information which can be matched against its owner off-line. The 2D bar code encodes a color photo, a signature, two fingerprints, and other citizen data. This technology was developed in 2000 in order to enhance the safety of the Brazilian ID cards.
By the end of 2005, the Brazilian government started the development of its new passport. The new documents started to be released by the beginning of 2007, at Brasilia-DC. The new passport included several security features, like Laser perforation, UV hidden symbols, security layer over variable data and etc. . Brazilian citizens will have their signature, photo, and 10 rolled fingerprints collected during passport requests. All of the data is planned to be stored in ICAO E-passport standard. The International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO) an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation See also Passport A biometric passport is a combined paper and electronic identity document that uses Biometrics to authenticate the identity of travelers This allows for contactless electronic reading of the passport content and Citizens ID verification since fingerprint templates and token facial images will be available for automatic recognition.
The biometrics market in Germany will experience enormous growth until 2009. “The market size will increase from approximately 12 million € (2004) to 377 million €” (2009). “The federal government will be a major contributor to this development”.  In particular, the biometric procedures of fingerprint and facial recognition can profit from the government project.  In May 2005 the German Upper House of Parliament approved the implementation of the ePass, a passport issued to all German citizens which contain biometric technology. The ePass has been in circulation since November 2005, and contains a chip that holds a digital photograph and one fingerprint from each hand, usually of the index fingers, though others may be used if these fingers are missing or have extremely distorted prints. “A third biometric identifier – iris scans – could be added at a later stage”.  An increase in the prevalence of biometric technology in Germany is an effort to not only keep citizens safe within German borders but also to comply with the current US deadline for visa-waiver countries to introduce biometric passports.  In addition to producing biometric passports for German citizens, the German government has put in place new requirements for visitors to apply for visas within the country. “Only applicants for long-term visas, which allow more than three months' residence, will be affected by the planned biometric registration program. The new work visas will also include fingerprinting, iris scanning, and digital photos”. 
Germany is also one of the first countries to implement biometric technology at the Olympic Games to protect German athletes. “The Olympic Games is always a diplomatically tense affair and previous events have been rocked by terrorist attacks - most notably when Germany last held the Games in Munich in 1972 and 11 Israeli athletes were killed”. 
Biometric technology was first used at the Olympic Summer Games in Athens, Greece in 2004. “On registering with the scheme, accredited visitors will receive an ID card containing their fingerprint biometrics data that will enable them to access the 'German House'. Accredited visitors will include athletes, coaching staff, team management and members of the media”. 
As a protest against the increasing use of biometric data, the influential hacker group Chaos Computer Club published a fingerprint of German Minister of the Interior Wolfgang Schäuble in the March 2008 edition of its magazine Datenschleuder. The Chaos Computer Club (CCC is one of the biggest and most influential hacker organizations A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges of all or any part of the finger The Federal Ministry of the Interior (in German, Bundesministerium des Innern or BMI is a ministry of the German federal government The magazine also included the fingerprint on a film that readers could use to fool fingerprint readers. 
Biometrics are being used extensively in Iraq to catalog as many Iraqis as possible providing Iraqis with a verifiable identification card, immune to forgery. During account creation, the collected biometrics information is logged into a central database which then allows a user profile to be created. Even if an Iraqi has lost their ID card, their identification can be found and verified by using their unique biometric information. Additional information can also be added to each account record, such as individual personal history. This can help American forces determine whether someone has been causing trouble in the past. One major system in use in Iraq is called BISA.  This system uses a smartcard and a user's biometrics (fingerpint, iris, and face photos) to ensure they are authorized access to a base or facility.  Another is called BAT for Biometric Automated Tool. 
Biometrics have been used extensively in Israel for several years.
The border crossing points from Israel to the Gaza Strip and West Bank are controlled by gates through which authorized Palestinians may pass. Thousands of Palestinians (upwards of 90,000) pass through the turnstiles every day to work in Israel, and each of them has an ID card which has been issued by the Israeli Military at the registration centers. At peak periods more than 15,000 people an hour pass through the gates. The ID card is a smartcard with stored biometrics of fingerprints, facial geometry and hand geometry. In addition there is a photograph printed on the card and a digital version stored on the smartcard chip.
Tel Aviv Ben Gurion Airport has a frequent flyer's fast check-in system which is based on the use of a smartcard which holds information relating to the holders hand geometry and fingerprints. For a traveller to pass through the fast path using the smartcard system takes less than 10 seconds.
The Immigration Police at Tel Aviv Airport use a system of registration for foreign workers that utilizes fingerprint, photograph and facial geometry which is stored against the Passport details of the individual. There is a mobile version of this which allows the police to check on an individual's credentials at any time.
Several banks in Japan have adopted palm vein authentication technology on their ATMs. This technology which was developed by Fujitsu, among other companies, proved to have low false rejection rate (around 0. 01%) and a very low false acceptance rate (less than 0. 00008%). 
The Nigerian Government has now rolled out fingerprint recognition throughout its airports in fights to reduce passport fraud. All new passports distributed now have a biometric chip containing the individuals characteristic in encrypted template form.
The United States government has become a strong advocate of biometrics with the increase in security concerns in recent years, since September 11, 2001. Starting in 2005, US passports with facial (image-based) biometric data were scheduled to be produced. Privacy activists in many countries have criticized the technology's use for the potential harm to civil liberties, privacy, and the risk of identity theft. Currently, there is some apprehension in the United States (and the European Union) that the information can be "skimmed" and identify people's citizenship remotely for criminal intent, such as kidnapping. There also are technical difficulties currently delaying biometric integration into passports in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the rest of the EU. These difficulties include compatibility of reading devices, information formatting, and nature of content (e. g. the US currently expect to use only image data, whereas the EU intends to use fingerprint and image data in their passport RFID biometric chip(s)). Radio-frequency identification ( RFID) is an automatic identification method relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or
The speech made by President Bush on May 15, 2006, live from the Oval Office, was very clear: from now on, anyone willing to go legally in the United States in order to work there will be card-indexed and will have to communicate his fingerprints while entering the country.
"A key part of that system [for verifying documents and work eligibility of aliens] should be a new identification card for every legal foreign worker. This card should use biometric technology, such as digital fingerprints, to make it tamper-proof. " President George W Bush (Addresses on Immigration Reform, May 15, 2006)
The US Department of Defense (DoD) Common Access Card, is an ID card issued to all US Service personnel and contractors on US Military sites. This card contains biometric data and digitized photographs. It also has laser-etched photographs and holograms to add security and reduce the risk of falsification. There have been over 10 million of these cards issued.
According to Jim Wayman, director of the National Biometric Test Center at San Jose State University, Walt Disney World is the nation's largest single commercial application of biometrics. San José State University, commonly shortened to San José State and SJSU, is the founding campus of what became the California State University system Walt Disney World Resort is the most visited and largest recreational resort in the world containing four Theme parks two Water parks twenty-three themed hotels  However, the US Visit program will very soon surpass Walt Disney World for biometrics deployment. US-VISIT (United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology is a U
On February 6, 2008, West Virginia University, in Morgantown, West Virginia, became the national academic leader for the FBI's biometric research. West Virginia University is a Coeducational public Research university in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Morgantown is a city in and the County seat of Monongalia County, West Virginia, United States, on the banks of the Monongahela River  The university was the first in the world to establish a Bachelor of Science Degree in Biometric Systems; WVU also offers a graduate level certificate and Master’s degree emphasis in Biometrics.