Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. Rainforests are Forests characterized by high Rainfall with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Life is a state that distinguishes Organisms from non-living objects such as non-life and dead organisms being manifested by growth through Metabolism An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar climatic conditions such as communities of Plants Animals and EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems. In Biology, a system is a group of organs that work together to perform a certain task
Biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, which is the product of four billion years of evolution. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008
Biodiversity is a neologism and portmanteau word, from biology and diversity. A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles The Science Division of The Nature Conservancy used the term "natural diversity" in a 1975 study, "The Preservation of Natural Diversity. The Nature Conservancy is a US charitable Environmental organization working to preserve the Plants, Animals, and natural communities " The term biological diversity was used even before that by conservation scientists like Robert E. Jenkins and Thomas Lovejoy. Dr Thomas Eugene Lovejoy III is chief biodiversity adviser to the president of the World Bank, senior adviser to the president of the United Nations Foundation, and The word biodiversity itself may have been coined by W. G. Rosen in 1985 while planning the National Forum on Biological Diversity organized by the National Research Council (NRC) which was to be held in 1986, and first appeared in a publication in 1988 when entomologist E. O. Wilson used it as the title of the proceedings of that forum. The National Research Council (NRC of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the United States National Academy of Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist researcher ( Sociobiology, Biodiversity) theorist ( In academia proceedings are the collection of Academic papers that are published in the context of an Academic conference.  The word biodiversity was deemed more effective in terms of communication than biological diversity
Since 1986 the terms and the concept have achieved widespread use among biologists, environmentalists, political leaders, and concerned citizens worldwide. It is generally used to equate to a concern for the natural environment and nature conservation. This use has coincided with the expansion of concern over extinction observed in the last decades of the 20th century. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa.
The term "natural heritage" pre-dates "biodiversity", though it is a less scientific term and more easily comprehended in some ways by the wider audience interested in conservation. "Natural Heritage" was used when Jimmy Carter set up the Georgia Heritage Trust while he was governor of Georgia; Carter's trust dealt with both natural and cultural heritage. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 Cultural heritage ("national heritage" or just "heritage" is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or Society It would appear that Carter picked the term up from Lyndon Johnson, who used it in a 1966 Message to Congress. "Natural Heritage" was picked up by the Science Division of The Nature Conservancy when, under Jenkins, it launched in 1974 the network of State Natural Heritage Programs. The Nature Conservancy is a US charitable Environmental organization working to preserve the Plants, Animals, and natural communities When this network was extended outside the USA, the term "Conservation Data Center" was suggested by Guillermo Mann and came to be preferred. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
The most straightforward definition is "variation of life at all levels of biological organization".  A second definition holds that biodiversity is a measure of the relative diversity among organisms present in different ecosystems. "Diversity" in this definition includes diversity within a species and among species, and comparative diversity among ecosystems.
A third definition that is often used by ecologists is the "totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and present a unified view of the traditional three levels at which biodiversity has been identified:
The 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro defined "biodiversity" as "the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, 'inter alia', terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems". The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Rio de Janeiro ("River of January" ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in Brazilian Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English is the second largest city of Brazil An ecoregion ( ecological region) sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area smaller than a "realm" or " Marine is an Umbrella term. As an adjective it is usually applicable to things relating to the Sea or Ocean, such as Marine biology, Marine Marine biology is the scientific study of living Organisms in the Ocean or other marine or Brackish bodies of water This is, in fact, the closest thing to a single legally accepted definition of biodiversity, since it is the definition adopted by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity, known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is an international Treaty that was adopted in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992
If the gene is the fundamental unit of natural selection, according to E. Natural selection is the process by which favorable Heritable traits become more common in successive Generations of a Population of O. Wilson, the real biodiversity is genetic diversity. For geneticists, biodiversity is the diversity of genes and organisms. A geneticist is a scientist who studies Genetics, the science of Heredity and variation of Organisms A geneticist can be employed as a researcher They study processes such as mutations, gene exchanges, and genome dynamics that occur at the DNA level and generate evolution.
For ecologists, biodiversity is also the diversity of durable interactions among species. Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of It not only applies to species, but also to their immediate environment (biotope) and their larger ecoregion. Biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals. An ecoregion ( ecological region) sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area smaller than a "realm" or " In each ecosystem, living organisms are part of a whole, interacting with not only other organisms, but also with the air, water, and soil that surround them. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel .
Biodiversity is a broad concept, so a variety of objective measures have been created in order to empirically measure biodiversity. A central concept in Science and the Scientific method is that all Evidence must be empirical, or empirically based that is dependent on evidence Each measure of biodiversity relates to a particular use of the data.
For practical conservationists, this measure should quantify a value that is broadly shared among locally affected people. The conservation movement also known as nature conservation is a political social and to some extent scientific movement that seeks to protect natural resources including For others, a more economically defensible definition should allow the ensuring of continued possibilities for both adaptation and future use by people, assuring environmental sustainability. Sustainability, in a general sense is the capacity to maintain a certain process or state indefinitely
As a consequence, biologists argue that this measure is likely to be associated with the variety of genes. Since it cannot always be said which genes are more likely to prove beneficial, the best choice for conservation is to assure the persistence of as many genes as possible. Conservation can be confused with Conversation and vice versa For ecologists, this latter approach is sometimes considered too restrictive, as it prohibits ecological succession. Ecological succession, a fundamental concept in Ecology, refers to more-or-less predictable and orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological community
Biodiversity is usually plotted as taxonomic richness of a geographic area, with some reference to a temporal scale. Whittaker described three common metrics used to measure species-level biodiversity, encompassing attention to species richness or species evenness:
There are three other indices which are used by ecologists:
Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth. It is consistently richer in the tropics and in other localized regions such as the California Floristic Province. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 The California Floristic Province (CFP is a Floristic province with Mediterranean climate located on the Pacific Coast of North America with As one approaches polar regions one generally finds fewer species. Flora and fauna diversity depends on climate, altitude, soils and the presence of other species. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel In the year 2006 large numbers of the Earth's species were formally classified as rare or endangered or threatened species; moreover, many scientists have estimated that there are millions more species actually endangered which have not yet been formally recognized. A rare species is an Organism which is very uncommon or scarce An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation Threatened species are any species (including Animals Plants fungi, etc About 40 percent of the 40,177 species assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria, are now listed as threatened species with extinction - a total of 16,119 species. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List) created in 1963 is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global Threatened species are any species (including Animals Plants fungi, etc 
A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species. A biodiversity hotspot is a Biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere These biodiversity hotspots were first identified by Dr. Norman Myers in two articles in the scientific journal The Environmentalist. Norman Myers CMG ( 24 August, 1934 -) is a British environmentalist and authority on Biodiversity.  Dense human habitation tends to occur near hotspots. Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. Most hotspots are located in the tropics and most of them are forests. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23
Brazil's Atlantic Forest is considered a hotspot of biodiversity and contains roughly 20,000 plant species, 1350 vertebrates, and millions of insects, about half of which occur nowhere else in the world. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Atlantic Forest ( Mata Atlântica in Portuguese) is a region of tropical and subtropical moist forest, tropical dry forest, tropical The island of Madagascar including the unique Madagascar dry deciduous forests and lowland rainforests possess a very high ratio of species endemism and biodiversity, since the island separated from mainland Africa 65 million years ago, most of the species and ecosystems have evolved independently producing unique species different from those in other parts of Africa. Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern The Madagascar dry deciduous forests represent a tropical dry forest Ecoregion generally situated in the western part of Madagascar. Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere
Many regions of high biodiversity (as well as high endemism) arise from very specialized habitats which require unusual adaptation mechanisms. Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere A habitat (which is Latin for "it inhabits" is an Ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular Species. For example the peat bogs of Northern Europe and the alvar regions such as the Stora Alvaret on Oland, Sweden host a large diversity of plants and animals, many of which are not found elsewhere. A bog or mire is a Wetland type that accumulates Acidic Peat, a deposit of dead plant material &ndash usually Mosses but also The Stora Alvaret is a limestone barren plain on the island of Öland, Sweden. is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional Provinces of Sweden. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
Biodiversity found on Earth today is the result of 4 billion years of evolution. The Phanerozoic (occasionally Phanaerozoic) Eon is the current eon in the Geologic timescale, and the one during which abundant animal life has existed EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 The origin of life has not been definitely established by science, however some evidence suggests that life may already have been well-established a few hundred million years after the formation of the Earth. In the Natural sciences, Abiogenesis, or origin of life, is the study of how Life on Earth emerged from Inanimate Organic Modern geologists and Geophysicists consider the age of Earth to be around 4 Until approximately 600 million years ago, all life consisted of bacteria and similar single-celled organisms. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have
The history of biodiversity during the Phanerozoic (the last 540 million years), starts with rapid growth during the Cambrian explosion—a period during which nearly every phylum of multicellular organisms first appeared. The Phanerozoic (occasionally Phanaerozoic) Eon is the current eon in the Geologic timescale, and the one during which abundant animal life has existed The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was the seemingly rapid appearance of most major groups of complex Animals around, as evidenced by the A phylum ( Plural: phyla) is a Taxonomic rank between Kingdom and above Class. Multicellular organisms are Organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having Differentiated cells that perform specialized functions Over the next 400 million years or so, global diversity showed little overall trend, but was marked by periodic, massive losses of diversity classified as mass extinction events. An extinction event (also known as mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE is a sharp decrease in the number of Species in a relatively short period
The apparent biodiversity shown in the fossil record suggests that the last few million years include the period of greatest biodiversity in the Earth's history. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. The history of Earth covers approximately 46 billion years (4567000000 years from Earth ’s formation out of the Solar nebula to the present However, not all scientists support this view, since there is considerable uncertainty as to how strongly the fossil record is biased by the greater availability and preservation of recent geologic sections. Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Some (e. g. Alroy et al. 2001) argue that corrected for sampling artifacts, modern biodiversity is not much different from biodiversity 300 million years ago.  Estimates of the present global macroscopic species diversity vary from 2 million to 100 million species, with a best estimate of somewhere near 13-14 million, the vast majority of them arthropods. Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " 
Most biologists agree however that the period since the emergence of humans is part of a new mass extinction, the Holocene extinction event, caused primarily by the impact humans are having on the environment. The Holocene extinction event is the widespread ongoing Mass extinction of Species during the modern Holocene epoch. It has been argued that the present rate of extinction is sufficient to eliminate most species on the planet Earth within 100 years. 
New species are regularly discovered (on average between 5-10,000 new species each year, most of them insects) and many, though discovered, are not yet classified (estimates are that nearly 90% of all arthropods are not yet classified). Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint "  Most of the terrestrial diversity is found in tropical forests. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF also known as tropical moist forests, are a Tropical and Subtropical Forest
There are a multitude of anthropocentric benefits of biodiversity in the areas of agriculture, science and medicine, industrial materials, ecological services, in leisure, and in cultural, aesthetic and intellectual value. Anthropocentrism (from Greek άνθρωπος anthropos, "human being" and κέντρον kentron, "center" Anthropos (the term Biodiversity is also central to an ecocentric philosophy. Ecocentrism is a philosophy that recognizes that the Ecosphere, rather than any individual organism is the source and support of all life and as such advises a holistic and It is important for contemporary audiences to understand the reasons for believing in conservation of biodiversity. One way to identify the reasons why we believe in it is to look at what we get from biological diversity and the things that we lose as a result of species extinction, which has taken place over the last 600 years. Mass extinction is the direct result of human activity and not of natural phenomena which is the perception of many modern day thinkers. There are many benefits that are obtained from natural ecosystem processes. Some ecosystem services that benefit society are air quality, climate (both global Co2 sequestration and regional and local), water purification, disease control, biological pest control, pollination and prevention of erosion. Along with those come non- material benefits that are obtained from ecosystems which are spiritual and aesthetic values, knowledge systems and the value of education that we obtain today. However, the public remains unaware of the crisis in sustaining biodiversity. Biodiversity takes a look into the importance to life and provides modern audiences with a clear understanding of the current threat to life on Earth.
For some foodcrops and other economic crops, wild varieties of the domesticated species can be reintroduced to form a better variety than the previous (domesticated) species. The economic impact is gigantic, for even crops as common as the potato (which was bred through only one variety, brought back from the Inca), a lot more can come from these species. Wild varieties of the potato will all suffer enormously through the effects of climate change. A report by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) describes the huge economic loss. Rice, which has been improved for thousands of years by humans, can through the same process regain some of its nutritional value that has been lost since (a project is already being carried out to do just this).
Crop diversity is also necessary to help the system recover when the dominant crop type is attacked by a disease:
Monoculture, the lack of biodiversity, was a contributing factor to several agricultural disasters in history, including the Irish Potato Famine, the European wine industry collapse in the late 1800s, and the US Southern Corn Leaf Blight epidemic of 1970. Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area  See also: Agricultural biodiversity
Higher biodiversity also controls the spread of certain diseases as pathogens will need adapt to infect different species. Agricultural biodiversity is a sub-set of general Biodiversity including all cultivated varieties
Biodiversity provides food for humans. Although about 80 percent of our food supply comes from just 20 kinds of plants, humans use at least 40,000 species of plants and animals a day. Many people around the world depend on these species for their food, shelter, and clothing. There is untapped potential for increasing the range of food products suitable for human consumption, provided that the high present extinction rate can be stopped. 
A significant proportion of drugs are derived, directly or indirectly, from biological sources; in most cases these medicines can not presently be synthesized in a laboratory setting. About 40% of the pharmaceuticals used in the US are manufactured using natural compounds found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Moreover, only a small proportion of the total diversity of plants has been thoroughly investigated for potential sources of new drugs. Many drugs are also derived from microorganisms. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually
Through the field of bionics, considerable technological advancement has occurred which would not have without a rich biodiversity. Bionics (also known as biomimetics, biognosis, Biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering) is the application of biological . .
A wide range of industrial materials are derived directly from biological resources. These include building materials, fibers, dyes, resins, gums, adhesives, rubber and oil. There is enormous potential for further research into sustainably utilizing materials from a wider diversity of organisms.
Biodiversity provides many ecosystem services that are often not readily visible. Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural Ecosystems. It plays a part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere and water supply. An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users Biodiversity is directly involved in recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils. A nutrient is food or chemicals that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment Experiments with controlled environments have shown that humans cannot easily build ecosystems to support human needs; for example insect pollination cannot be mimicked by human-made construction, and that activity alone represents tens of billions of dollars in ecosystem services per annum to humankind. See also Pollination syndrome Entomophily is a form of pollination whereby Pollen is distributed by Insects particularly Bees Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural Ecosystems.
Many people derive value from biodiversity through leisure activities such as hiking in the countryside, birdwatching or natural history study. The word 'hiking' is understood in all English-speaking countries but there are differences in usage Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of Birds with the naked eye or through a visual enhancement device like Binoculars.
Biodiversity has inspired musicians, painters, sculptors, writers and other artists. A musician is a person who plays or writes Music. Musicians can be classified by their roles in creating or performing music An instrumentalist plays a Many cultural groups view themselves as an integral part of the natural world and show respect for other living organisms.
Popular activities such as gardening, caring for aquariums and collecting butterflies are all strongly dependent on biodiversity. The number of species involved in such pursuits is in the tens of thousands, though the great majority do not enter mainstream commercialism.
The relationships between the original natural areas of these often 'exotic' animals and plants and commercial collectors, suppliers, breeders, propagators and those who promote their understanding and enjoyment are complex and poorly understood. It seems clear, however, that the general public responds well to exposure to rare and unusual organisms-- they recognize their inherent value at some level, even if they would not want the responsibility of caring for them. A family outing to the botanical garden or zoo is as much an aesthetic or cultural experience as it is an educational one. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of Plants primarily to categorize and document for scientific purposes
Philosophically it could be argued that biodiversity has intrinsic aesthetic and/or spiritual value to mankind in and of itself. This idea can be used as a counterweight to the rather notion that tropical forests and other ecological realms are only worthy of conservation because they may contain medicines or useful products. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF also known as tropical moist forests, are a Tropical and Subtropical Forest
Humans have generally expanded and developed their territory throughout history. An active approach is the only way to halt the expansion but this often requires funds or wise stewardship. Currently the United States Environmental Protection Agency has an annual budget of $7. 3 billion (2007). 
Biodiversity is most well known to the public as a loss of animals with a backbone, when in fact there exist 20 times that number of insects and five times as many flowering plants. While many of these species may be highly valuable to the human race for the above reasons, the vast majority are often completely unknown to anyone but specialists. In fact it is often estimated that less than half and perhaps less than two-thirds of earth organisms have even been identified.
As a soft guide, however, the numbers of identified modern species as of 2004 can be broken down as follows:
However the total number of species for some phyla may be much higher:
During the last century, erosion of biodiversity has been increasingly observed. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Mites, along with Ticks belong to the subclass Acarina (also known as Acari and the class Arachnida Mites are among the most diverse and successful Some studies show that about one eighth known plant species is threatened with extinction. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. Some estimates put the loss at up to 140,000 species per year (based on Species-area theory) and subject to discussion. In Ecology, the species-area curve is a Graph showing the number of Species found in a defined Area of a particular habitat or of habitats  This figure indicates unsustainable ecological practices, because only a small number of species come into being each year. Sustainability, in a general sense is the capacity to maintain a certain process or state indefinitely Almost all scientists acknowledge that the rate of species loss is greater now than at any time in human history, with extinctions occurring at rates hundreds of times higher than background extinction rates. Background extinction rate, also known as ‘normal extinction rate’ refers to the standard rate of Extinction in earth’s geological and biological history before humans
The factors that threaten biodiversity have been variously categorized. Jared Diamond describes an "Evil Quartet" of habitat destruction, overkill, introduced species, and secondary extensions. Edward O. Wilson prefers the acronym HIPPO, standing for Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Pollution, Population, and Overharvesting. Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist researcher ( Sociobiology, Biodiversity) theorist ( Acronyms, initialisms, and alphabetisms are Abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name 
Most of the species extinctions from 1000 AD to 2000 AD are due to human activities, in particular destruction of plant and animal habitats. A habitat (which is Latin for "it inhabits" is an Ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular Species. Raised rates of extinction are being driven by human consumption of organic resources, especially related to tropical forest destruction. Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an Organism. In Animals it normally is accomplished by taking in the substance through the Mouth into the Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF also known as tropical moist forests, are a Tropical and Subtropical Forest  While most of the species that are becoming extinct are not food species, their biomass is converted into human food when their habitat is transformed into pasture, cropland, and orchards. Biomass, in Ecology, is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or Ecosystem at a given time Pasture is land with Herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of Ungulate Livestock as part of a Farm or Ranch. A farm is an area of land including various structures devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing food ( Produce, Grains, or Livestock An orchard is an intentional planting of Trees or Shrubs maintained for Food production. It is estimated that more than 40% of the Earth's biomass is tied up in only the few species that represent humans, livestock and crops. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Because an ecosystem decreases in stability as its species are made extinct, these studies warn that the global ecosystem is destined for collapse if it is further reduced in complexity. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Factors contributing to loss of biodiversity are: overpopulation, deforestation, pollution (air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination) and global warming or climate change, driven by human activity. Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Water pollution is the contamination of Water bodies such as Lakes Rivers Oceans and Groundwater caused by human activities Soil contamination is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the These factors, while all stemming from overpopulation, produce a cumulative impact upon biodiversity.
There are systematic relationships between the area of a habitat and the number of species it can support, with greater sensitivity to reduction in habitat area for species of larger body size and for those living at lower latitudes or in forests or oceans.  Some characterize loss of biodiversity not as ecosystem degradation but by conversion to trivial standardized ecosystems (e. g. , monoculture following deforestation). Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland In some countries lack of property rights or access regulation to biotic resources necessarily leads to biodiversity loss (degradation costs having to be supported by the community).
A September 14, 2007 study conducted by the National Science Foundation found that biodiversity and genetic diversity are dependent upon each other--that diversity within a species is necessary to maintain diversity among species, and vice versa. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The National Science Foundation (NSF is a United States Government agency that supports fundamental Research and Education in all the non-medical Genetic diversity is a level of Biodiversity that refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species According to the lead researcher in the study, Dr. Richard Lankau, "If any one type is removed from the system, the cycle can break down, and the community becomes dominated by a single species. "
The rich diversity of unique species across many parts of the world exist only because they are separated by barriers, particularly large rivers, seas, oceans, mountains and deserts from other species of other land masses, particularly the highly fecund, ultra-competitive, generalist "super-species". An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but These are barriers that could never be crossed by natural processes, except for many millions of years in the future through continental drift. Continental drift is the movement of the Earth 's Continents relative to each other However humans have invented ships and airplanes, and now have the power to bring into contact species that never have met in their evolutionary history, and on a time scale of days, unlike the centuries that historically have accompanied major animal migrations.
The widespread introduction of exotic species by humans is a potent threat to biodiversity. An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but When exotic species are introduced to ecosystems and establish self-sustaining populations, the endemic species in that ecosystem, that have not evolved to cope with the exotic species, may not survive. The exotic organisms may be either predators, parasites, or simply aggressive species that deprive indigenous species of nutrients, water and light. Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between Organisms of different Species. These exotic or invasive species often have features, due to their evolutionary background and new environment, that make them highly competitive; able to become well-established and spread quickly, reducing the effective habitat of endemic species. Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere
As a consequence of the above, if humans continue to combine species from different ecoregions, there is the potential that the world's ecosystems will end up dominated by relatively a few, aggressive, cosmopolitan "super-species". In Biogeography, a Biological category of living things is said to have cosmopolitan distribution if this category can be found almost anywhere around the world
Declines in amphibian populations have been observed since 1980s. Dramatic declines in Amphibian populations, including Population crashes and mass localized Extinctions have been noted since the 1980s from locations all Because of the sensitivity of these organisms, they are regarded by many scientists as a marker for the overall health of an ecosystem. Their decline has led to concern about the general current state of biodiversity.
Purebred naturally evolved region specific wild species can be threatened with extinction in a big way through the process of genetic pollution i. Genetic pollution is undesirable Gene flow into wild populations In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. Genetic pollution is undesirable Gene flow into wild populations e. uncontrolled hybridization, introgression and Genetic swamping which leads to homogenization or replacement of local genotypes as a result of either a numerical and/or fitness advantage of introduced plant or animal. Introgression, in Genetics (particularly plant genetics is the movement of a Gene ( Gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by backcrossing The genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell an organism or an individual (i Fitness (often denoted w in Population genetics models is a central concept in evolutionary theory.  Nonnative species can bring about a form of extinction of native plants and animals by hybridization and introgression either through purposeful introduction by humans or through habitat modification, bringing previously isolated species into contact. These phenomena can be especially detrimental for rare species coming into contact with more abundant ones where the abundant ones can interbreed with them swamping the entire rarer gene pool creating hybrids thus driving the entire original purebred native stock to complete extinction. Attention has to be focused on the extent of this under appreciated problem that is not always apparent from morphological (outward appearance) observations alone. The term morphology in Biology refers to the outward appearance ( Shape, Structure, Colour, Pattern) of an Organism Some degree of gene flow may be a normal, evolutionarily constructive process, and all constellations of genes and genotypes cannot be preserved however, hybridization with or without introgression may, nevertheless, threaten a rare species' existence. In Population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of Alleles of Genes from one Population to another History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance The genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell an organism or an individual (i 
In agriculture and animal husbandry, green revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield many folds by creating "high-yielding varieties". Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Animal husbandry, also called Animal science, stockbreeding or simple husbandry, is the agricultural practice of breeding The Green Revolution refers to the transformation of Agriculture that began in 1945 at the request of the Mexican government to establish an agricultural research station to In Biology, hybrid has two meanings The first meaning is the result of interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa. High-yielding varieties (HYVs are any of a group of genetically enhanced Cultivars of crops such as Rice, Maize and Wheat that have an increased Often the handful of breeds of plants and animals hybridized originated in developed countries and were further hybridized with local varieties, in the rest of the developing world, to create high yield strains resistant to local climate and diseases. Local governments and industry since have been pushing hybridization with such zeal that several of the wild and indigenous breeds evolved locally over thousands of years having high resistance to local extremes in climate and immunity to diseases etc. have already become extinct or are in grave danger of becoming so in the near future. Due to complete disuse because of un-profitability and uncontrolled intentional and unintentional cross-pollination and crossbreeding (genetic pollution) formerly huge gene pools of various wild and indigenous breeds have collapsed causing widespread genetic erosion and genetic pollution resulting in great loss in genetic diversity and biodiversity as a whole. Genetic pollution is undesirable Gene flow into wild populations Genetic erosion is a process whereby an already limited Gene pool of an Endangered species of plant or animal diminishes even more when individuals from the surviving Genetic diversity is a level of Biodiversity that refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species 
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using the genetic engineering techniques generally known as recombinant DNA technology. This article is about organisms which have been genetically modified History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance Genetic engineering, Recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct Genetic engineering, Recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct Recombinant DNA is a form of synthetic DNA that is engineered through the combination or insertion of one or more DNA strands thereby combining DNA sequences Genetically Modified (GM) crops today have become a common source for genetic pollution, not only of wild varieties but also of other domesticated varieties derived from relatively natural hybridization. 
It is being said that genetic erosion coupled with genetic pollution is destroying that needed unique genetic base thereby creating an unforeseen hidden crisis which will result in a severe threat to our food security for the future when diverse genetic material will cease to exist to be able to further improve or hybridize weakening food crops and livestock against more resistant diseases and climatic changes. Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it 
The conservation of biological diversity has become a global concern. "Conservation Biology" redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Conservation Biology (journal. "Conservation Biology" redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Conservation Biology (journal. Although not everybody agrees on extent and significance of current extinction, most consider biodiversity essential. There are basically two main types of conservation options, in-situ conservation and ex-situ conservation. In-situ conservation means "on-site conservation " It is the process of protecting an endangered Plant or Animal Species Ex-situ conservation means literally "off-site conservation " In-situ is usually seen as the ideal conservation strategy. However, its implementation is sometimes infeasible. For example, destruction of rare or endangered species' habitats sometimes requires ex-situ conservation efforts. Ex-situ conservation means literally "off-site conservation " Furthermore, ex-situ conservation can provide a backup solution to in-situ conservation projects. Some believe both types of conservation are required to ensure proper preservation. An example of an in-situ conservation effort is the setting-up of protection areas. Examples of ex-situ conservation efforts, by contrast, would be planting germplasts in seedbanks, or growing the Wollemi Pine in nurseries. A seedbank stores Seeds as a source for planting in case seed reserves elsewhere are destroyed Such efforts allow the preservation of large populations of plants with minimal genetic erosion.
At national levels a Biodiversity Action Plan is sometimes prepared to state the protocols necessary to protect an individual species. This article is about a conservation biology topic For other uses of BAP see BAP (disambiguation. Usually this plan also details extant data on the species and its habitat. In the USA such a plan is called a Recovery Plan. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Recovery Plan is a program in the USA to develop protocols for protecting and enhancing rare and Endangered species populations
The threat to biological diversity was among the hot topics discussed at the UN World Summit for Sustainable Development, in hope of seeing the foundation of a Global Conservation Trust to help maintain plant collections.
Biodiversity is beginning to be evaluated and its evolution analysed (through observations, inventories, conservation. . . ) as well as being taken into account in political and judicial decisions: .
The 1972 UNESCO convention established that biological resources, such as plants, were the common heritage of mankind. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 These rules probably inspired the creation of great public banks of genetic resources, located outside the source-countries.
New global agreements (e. g. Convention on Biological Diversity), now give sovereign national rights over biological resources (not property). The Convention on Biological Diversity, known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is an international Treaty that was adopted in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 The idea of static conservation of biodiversity is disappearing and being replaced by the idea of dynamic conservation, through the notion of resource and innovation.
The new agreements commit countries to conserve biodiversity, develop resources for sustainability and share the benefits resulting from their use. Under new rules, it is expected that bioprospecting or collection of natural products has to be allowed by the biodiversity-rich country, in exchange for a share of the benefits. Biopiracy is a negative term for the appropriation generally by means of Patents, of legal rights over indigenous knowledge - particularly indigenous biomedical knowledge
Sovereignty principles can rely upon what is better known as Access and Benefit Sharing Agreements (ABAs). The Convention on Biodiversity spirit implies a prior informed consent between the source country and the collector, to establish which resource will be used and for what, and to settle on a fair agreement on benefit sharing. The Convention on Biological Diversity, known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is an international Treaty that was adopted in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given Consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts implications Bioprospecting can become a type of biopiracy when those principles are not respected. Biopiracy is a negative term for the appropriation generally by means of Patents, of legal rights over indigenous knowledge - particularly indigenous biomedical knowledge
Uniform approval for use of biodiversity as a legal standard has not been achieved, however. At least one legal commentator has argued that biodiversity should not be used as a legal standard, arguing that the multiple layers of scientific uncertainty inherent in the concept of biodiversity will cause administrative waste and increase litigation without promoting preservation goals. See Fred Bosselman, A Dozen Biodiversity Puzzles, 12 N.Y.U. Environmental Law Journal 364 (2004)
Many have challenged the notion that there is 'vast untapped potential' for reducing humankind's dependence on a relatively small number of domesticated plant and animal species. Jared Diamond argued, based on studies of the domestication of plants and animals, that the rarity of species suitable for domestication and their occurrence in just a few parts of the world, determined the limited number of locations in which major civilizations could arise. TemplateInfobox writer --> Jared Mason Diamond (b 10 September, 1937) is an American Evolutionary biologist In recent times there have been many studies of minor food sources, but none of these sources have subsequently become major food crops.
The field of biodiversity research (inevitably) suffers from natural human egocentric "myopic" cognitive biases. In Psychology, egocentrism is defined as a the incomplete differentiation of the self and the world including other people and b the tendency to perceive understand and interpret Myopia (from Greek: μυωπία myopia "near-sightedness" also called near- or short-sightedness, is a refractive defect For an article about the conceptual problems of the mind see Cognitive closure (philosophy. It has often been criticized for being overly defined by the personal interests of the founders (i. e. terrestrial mammals) giving a narrow focus, rather than extending to other areas where it could be useful. This is termed the founder effect by Norse and Irish, (1996).  (This was a play on words: the founder effect in ecology typically refers to the genetic outcome when a small population establishes an isolated breeding group). In Population genetics, the founder effect refers to the loss of genetic variation when a new colony is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger France and Rigg reviewed the biodiversity literature in 1998 and found that there was a significant lack of papers studying marine ecosystems, leading them to dub marine biodiversity research the sleeping hydra. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( More work has been carried out for accessible, diverse coastal systems such as coral reefs than for inaccessible, species-poor deep sea areas. Coral reefs are Aragonite structures produced by living organisms found in marine waters with little to no nutrients in the water
It has been easier to mobilise public opinion and national legislation for the terrestrial realm, which has higher visibility and falls within countries' territorial boundaries. Marine conservation involves having to pioneer new and international mechanisms of protection as well as solving methodological problems in marine biology relating to marine ecosystem classification and data-gathering on some of the earth's most difficult species to access and monitor. Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of Ecosystems in Oceans and Seas Marine conservation Marine biology is the scientific study of living Organisms in the Ocean or other marine or Brackish bodies of water
Biodiversity researcher Sean Nee points out that the vast majority of Earth's biodiversity is microbial, and that contemporary biodiversity physics is "firmly fixated on the visible world" (Nee uses "visible" as a synonym for macroscopic).  For example, microbial life is very much more metabolically and environmentally diverse than multicellular life (see extremophile). An extremophile is an Organism that thrives in and may even require Physically or Geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to the Nee has stated: "On the tree of life, based on analyses of small-subunit ribosomal RNA, visible life consists of barely noticeable twigs. Ribosomal RNA ( rRNA) is the central component of the Ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells.
The size bias is not restricted to consideration of microbes. Entomologist Nigel Stork states that "to a first approximation, all multicellular species on Earth are insects". 
A reply to this, however, is that biodiversity conservation has never focused exclusively on visible (in this sense) species. From the very beginning, the classification and conservation of natural communities or ecosystem types has been a central part of the effort. The thought behind this has been that since invisible (in this sense) diversity is, due to lack of taxonomy, impossible to treat in the same manner as visible diversity, the best that can be done is to preserve a diversity of ecosystem types, thereby preserving as well as possible the diversity of invisible organisms.