|Trumpet Creeper family|
Bigleaf Black Calabash (Amphitecna macrophylla)
|Tribes and Genera|
The Bignoniaceae, or Trumpet Creeper Family, is a family of flowering plants comprising of about 650-750 species in 116-120 genera. In Biological classification, family ( Latin The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic Members of the family are mostly trees and shrubs, and more rarely lianas (Podranea and Macfadyena) and herbaceous plants in 116-120 genera. A tree is a perennial Woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or A shrub or Bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of Woody plant, distinguished from a Tree The liana is any of various long-stemmed usually woody vines that are rooted in the soil at ground level and use trees as well as other means of vertical support to climb up to A herbaceous plant (or in botanical use a Herb) is a Plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic As shrubs, they are twine climbers or tendril climbers, and rarely root climbers.
Other common names for this family include jacaranda family, bignonia family or catalpa family. This family is commonly found as ornamental plants due to their large and often colorful flowers. Ornamental plants are typically grown in the flower Garden or as House plants Most commonly they are grown for the display of their Flowers Other common Important members include the calabash tree (Crescentia cujete) and many genera cultivated in horticulture: Campsis, Catalpa, Jacaranda, Kigelia, Pandorea, Spathodea, and Tabebuia. Crescentia ( Calabash tree, huingo, krabasi, or kalebas, not to be confused with the calabash vine) is a genus of six Horticulture is the art and science of plant cultivation Horticulturists (or horticuluralists) work and conduct research in the fields of Plant propagation Campsis is a Genus of two species of Plants both Vines with large Flowers Campsis radicans For the historical incident involving a ship of this name see Catalpa rescue. Jacaranda (pronounced,, or) is a Genus of 49 species of Flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical Kigelia is a genus of Flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae. Pandorea is a Genus of 6 species of woody climbing Vines and creepers in the family Bignoniaceae. Spathodea is a Monotypic Genus in the Flowering plant family Bignoniaceae. Tabebuia is a Neotropical Genus of about 100 Species in the tribe Tecomeae of the family Bignoniaceae.
The family, cosmopolitan, is present in both the Old World and the New World, with Catalpa the only genus common to both. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. For the historical incident involving a ship of this name see Catalpa rescue. Members are distributed mostly in the Tropics and subtropics, with the center of diversity in South America. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a A number of temperate species are found, mainly in North America and East Asia. 13 species in 8 genera (including 2 naturalised) are present in southern Africa. Southern Africa is the Southernmost Region of the African Continent, variably defined by Geography or Geopolitics. 12 genera and 35 species are present in China, 21 of which are endemic to China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere In Australia, 10 genera and 17 species are present, only in the mainland states. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. In India, the family is represented by 15 genera and 40 species, which mostly occur in Western and Southern India and a few species in the Himalayas. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country History (For detailed history please read the respective articles of the three western states Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat) Parts of Gujarat South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union
In twining members, the stem is characterized by anomalous secondary thickening: in some segments xylem is added in much greater quantity than phloem and in other segments the reverse is observed. In Vascular plants xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue Phloem being the other In Vascular plants phloem is the living tissue that carries organic Nutrients (known as photosynthate particularly Sucrose, a sugar to
Members of this family commonly have pinnately compound or multiply compound leaves. Palmately compound leaves are rare. Simple leaves are also rare and, when observed, are often dissected in pinnatifid or palmatifid fashion. Pinnate is a term used to describe Feather -like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis in Plant or Animal structures and comes Leaves are typically in opposite but whorled (in Kigelia) or spiral arrangements are also found. Kigelia is a genus of Flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae. Leaves are petiolate and exstipulate (but pseudostipules are present in the genus Markhamia). In Botany, the petiole is the small stalk attaching the Leaf blade to the stem. In Botany, stipule ( Latin stipula: straw stalk is a term coined by Linnaeus Domatia occur in at least 14 genera. Domatia (singular domatium, from the Latin "domus" meaning home are tiny chambers produced by plants that house arthropods
Flowers are bisexual, hypogynous and zygomorphic, either solitary or aggregated into racemes or cymes (dichasium or helicoid cyme). Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of Sexual reproduction systems found across the Plant kingdom In the Flowering plants an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or Gynoecium. Floral symmetry refers to whether and how a Flower can be divided into two or more identical or mirror-image parts A raceme is a type of Inflorescence that is unbranched and indeterminate and bears pedicellate Flowers &mdash flowers having short Inflorescence, when it occurs, might be axillary or terminal. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of Flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main Branch or a complicated arrangement of branches Bracts and bractlets are present and sometimes deciduous. In Botany, a bract is a modified or specialized Leaf. Bracts are ordinarily associated with reproductive structures (subtending Flowers Inflorescence
The sepals are fused, forming a synsepalous calyx either entire or toothed in 5 lobes. A sepal (from Latin separatus "separate" + petalum "petal" is a part of the flower of Angiosperms or flower plants A synsepal is a floral structure formed by the partial or complete fusion of two or more Sepals Such sepals are said to be gamosepalous. A sepal (from Latin separatus "separate" + petalum "petal" is a part of the flower of Angiosperms or flower plants The petals are equally fused into a sympetalous campanulate corolla that also has 5 lobes. A petal (from Ancient Greek petalon "leaf" "thin plate" regarded as a highly modified leaf is one member or part of the corolla A petal (from Ancient Greek petalon "leaf" "thin plate" regarded as a highly modified leaf is one member or part of the corolla These lobes are often clearly shorter than the tube. The corolla and calyx are distinct from each other. Sometimes, a 2-lipped (bilabiate) corolla is observed. In bud, the lobes are imbricate and more rarely valvate (such as in Pyrostegia). In Botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic Shoot and normally occurs in the Axil of a Leaf or at the tip of the stem
The androecium is didynamous, i. The stamen ( Plural stamina or stamens, from Latin stamen meaning "thread of the warp " is the male e. there are 4 stamens occurring in 2 pairs of different lengths. The stamen ( Plural stamina or stamens, from Latin stamen meaning "thread of the warp " is the male The stamens are inserted epigynously and alternate with the corolla lobes. In the Flowering plants an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or Gynoecium. The anthers are often connivent but also separate from one another sometimes. The stamen ( Plural stamina or stamens, from Latin stamen meaning "thread of the warp " is the male One staminode may be present. In Botany, a staminode is an often rudimentary sterile or abortive Stamen.
The gynoecium is stylate and median. A gynoecium (from Ancient Greek gyne, "woman" is the Female reproductive part of a Flower. It consists of one compound pistil with 2 carpels, a single style, and a superior ovary with typically 2 locules (more rarely 1 or 4), each bearing numerous axile ovules. A gynoecium (from Ancient Greek gyne, "woman" is the Female reproductive part of a Flower. A gynoecium (from Ancient Greek gyne, "woman" is the Female reproductive part of a Flower. A gynoecium (from Ancient Greek gyne, "woman" is the Female reproductive part of a Flower. "Ovaria" redirects here This is also a proposed section and a Synonym of Solanum. A locule (pl loculi; from Latin loculus, meaning "little place" is a small cavity or compartment within an organ or part of an organism ( Ovule literally means "small egg." In Seed plants the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells An annular or cupular nectary disk usually occurs around the ovary base. Ovules are anatropous, with micropyles directed downward. Ovule literally means "small egg." In Seed plants the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells
The fruit is typically an elongated dehiscent capsule that opens loculicidally or septicidally. Dehiscence is the spontaneous opening at maturity of a plant structure such as a Fruit, Anther, or Sporangium, to release its contents In Botany a capsule is a type of simple dry Fruit produced by many species of Flowering plants A capsule is a dehiscent structure composed of two The fruit can sometimes be an indehiscent berry. Dehiscence is the spontaneous opening at maturity of a plant structure such as a Fruit, Anther, or Sporangium, to release its contents The word berry has two meanings one based on a botanical definition the other on common identification
The seeds, numerous, are usually winged and wind-dispersed but occasionally also comose and wingless. Arils are absent. Distinguish from Aryl, which is a type of organic chemical radical Seeds do not have endosperms. Endosperm is the tissue produced in the Seeds of most Flowering plants around the time of fertilization There are 2 cotyledons. A cotyledon ("seed leaf" from Greek: κοτυληδών kotylēdōn, from κοτύλη ''kotýlē'', "cup bowl" Germination is either phanerocotylar or cryptocotylar. Germination is the process whereby growth emerges from a period of dormancy
Pollination is either entomophilous (via insects), ornithophilous (via birds), or cheiropterophilous (via bats). Pollination in angiosperms and Gymnosperms is the process that transfers pollen grains, which contain the male Gametes (sperm to where the female See also Pollination syndrome Entomophily is a form of pollination whereby Pollen is distributed by Insects particularly Bees Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Biologists that study Plant morphology use a number of different terms to describe plant organs and parts that can be observed with the human eye using no more than a hand held magnifying Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs.
Besides their use ase ornamental plants, some members also provide timber, such as the West Indian boxwood (Tabebuia), Catalpa, Oroxylum, Haplophragma, Spathodea, Meliosma, Stereospermum. Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or For the historical incident involving a ship of this name see Catalpa rescue. Spathodea is a Monotypic Genus in the Flowering plant family Bignoniaceae. Meliosma is a Genus of Flowering plants in the family Sabiaceae, native to tropical to warm temperate regions of southern and eastern Stereospermum is a genus of trees The calabash tree's fruit is used in the Tropics as a water container. The fruit of the African sausage tree (Kigelia africana) is used in Africa as a laxative and for dysentery. Laxatives (or purgatives) are foods compounds or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool most often taken to treat Constipation. Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe Diarrhea containing mucus and blood The jacaranda is common as an avenue tree. Jacaranda (pronounced,, or) is a Genus of 49 species of Flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical
Compounds detected from this family include arthroquinones (found in 4 genera), verbascosides (found in 8 genera), cornoside (found in Eccremocarpus), quercetin, ursolic acid and, more rarely, saponins. Eccremocarpus ( syn Calampelis DDon) is a genus of five species of Flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae Quercetin is a Flavonoid and to be more specific a flavonol. It is the Aglycone form of a number of other flavonoid Glycosides, such as Ursolic acid is a pentacyclic Triterpene acid used in cosmetics that is also capable of inhibiting various types of cancer cells by inhibiting the STAT3 activation Saponins are a class of chemical compounds one of very many Secondary metabolites found in natural sources with saponins found in particular abundance in various plant
The following classification systems acknowledge family Bignoniaceae with the same circumscription as the APG II system classification: Cronquist's system, Dahlgren's classification, Reveal's classification, Stevens's classification, Takhtajan's classification and Thorne's classification. A system of plant taxonomy, the Cronquist system is a scheme for the classification of flowering plants (or Angiosperms) One of the modern systems of plant taxonomy, the Dahlgren system was published by monocot specialist Rolf Dahlgren. A modern system of plant taxonomy, the Reveal system of plant classification was drawn up by the botanist J A system of plant taxonomy, the Takhtajan system of plant classification was published by Armen Takhtajan, in several versions from the 1950's onwards
Bentham and Hooker's classification placed this family under group Gamopetalae, series Bicarpellatae, order Personales. An early taxonomic system, the Bentham & Hooker system for seed plants was published in: (available online at Gallica The system recognises the Engler and Prantl's classification placed the family under class Dicotyledoneae, subclass Sympetalae, order Tubiflorae. Dicotyledons, or "dicots", is a name for a group of Flowering plants whose Seed typically has two embryonic leaves or Cotyledons There Sympetalae, meaning “with fused petals” is a descriptive botanical name, used in the Engler system (and derived systems such as the Wettstein Tubiflorae is a Botanical name, meaning “with tubular flowers” The Hutchinson system placed the family under phylum Angiospermae, subphylum Dicotyledones, division Lignosae, order Bignoniales. A system of plant taxonomy, the Hutchinson system was published in This classification is according to the 1st Edition in 2 volumes 1926–1934 Volume 1 The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group Dicotyledons, or "dicots", is a name for a group of Flowering plants whose Seed typically has two embryonic leaves or Cotyledons There
The family was previously placed under the order Scrophulariales. The order Lamiales is a Taxon in the asterid group of dicotyledonous Flowering plants. Genera formerly placed under this family are Exarata, Gibsoniothamnus, Schlegelia and Synapsis, all of which now form family Schlegeliaceae. Synapsis (also called syndesis) is the pairing of two Homologous chromosomes that occurs during Meiosis. Schlegeliaceae is a family of plants native to tropical America.