The bicycle, cycle or bike, is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle Pedal is the part of a Bicycle that the rider pushes with his or her foot to propel the bicycle Human-powered transport is the Transport of person(s and/or goods using Human Muscle power Bicycle Wheel is a readymade by Marcel Duchamp consisting of a bicycle fork with front wheel mounted upside-down on a wooden stool A bicycle frame is the main component of a Bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted
First introduced in 19th-century Europe, bicycles now number approximately one billion worldwide, providing the principal means of transportation in many regions. They also provide a popular form of recreation, and have been adapted for use in many other fields of human activity, including children's toys, adult fitness, military and police applications, courier services, and cycle sports. Recreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one's Body or Mind. This article is about playthings For other uses of the term see Toy (disambiguation. Physical fitness is used in two close meanings general fitness (a state of Health and well-being and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force A courier is a Person or company employed to deliver Messages packages and Mail.
The basic shape and configuration of a typical bicycle has hardly changed since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885, although many important details have been improved, especially since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design. These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for particular types of cycling. Cycling is the use of Bicycles or - less commonly - Unicycles Tricycles Quadricycles and other similar wheeled Human powered vehicles
The bicycle has had a considerable effect on human society, in both the cultural and industrial realms. In its early years, bicycle construction drew on pre-existing technologies; more recently, bicycle technology has, in turn, contributed both to old and new areas.
Several innovators contributed to the history of the bicycle by developing precursor human-powered vehicles. A utility Bicycle (aka city bicycle or ute bicycle) is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to "sport bicycles" The ordinary, high wheel or penny-farthing was the first true Bicycle with which actual speed and distance could be achieved in a practical manner The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Vehicles for human Transport that have two wheels and require balancing by the rider date back to the early 19th century. The documented ancestors of today's modern bicycle were known as push bikes, Draisines or hobby horses. The dandy horse (also known as Laufmaschine (Drais own terminology German for "running machine" Velocipede, or Draisine To use the Draisine, first introduced to the public in Paris by the German Baron Karl von Drais in 1818, the operator sat astride a wooden frame supported by two in-line wheels and pushed the vehicle along with his/her feet while steering the front wheel. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Freiherr, a German word is a title of Nobility of lower Peerage rank in the former Holy Roman Empire (in German Heiliges Römisches Karl Drais ( April 29, 1785 – December 10, 1851) was a German Inventor and invented the Laufmaschine ("running
In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel. Pierre Michaux ( Bar le Duc June 25, 1813 - Paris - 1883 was a Blacksmith who furnished parts for the Carriage trade in Paris Pierre Lallement (born between August 30, 1843 and August 29, 1844; died August 29 1891 could be the inventor of the Bicycle. A crank is an arm at right angles to a shaft (an Axle or spindle by which motion is imparted to or received from the shaft it is also used to change circular into Reciprocating Several why-not-the-rear-wheel inventions followed, the best known being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall in 1869. Thomas McCall (1834-1904 was a Scottish Cartwright. He built in 1869 two versions of a two-wheeled Velocipede with levers and rods tossing a crank on the rear The French creation, wrought of iron and wood, developed into the "penny-farthing" (more formally an ordinary bicycle), featuring a tubular steel frame on which were mounted wire spoked wheels with solid rubber tires. The ordinary, high wheel or penny-farthing was the first true Bicycle with which actual speed and distance could be achieved in a practical manner The ordinary, high wheel or penny-farthing was the first true Bicycle with which actual speed and distance could be achieved in a practical manner Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a Wheel (the hub where the Axle connects connecting the hub with the round traction surface These bicycles were not, however, for the faint hearted, due to the very high seat and poor weight distribution.
The subsequent dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back, necessitating the addition of gearing, effected in a variety of ways, to attain sufficient speed. However, having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. Starley's nephew, J. K. Starley, J. John Kemp Starley (1854 - 1901 was an English inventor and industrialist who is widely considered to be the inventor of the modern Bicycle, and also originator of H. Lawson, and Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive connecting the pedals held with the frame to the back wheel. Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another These models were known as dwarf safeties, or safety bicycles, for their lower seat height and better weight distribution. Starley's 1885 Rover is usually described as the first recognizably modern bicycle. Soon, the seat tube was added, creating the double-triangle diamond frame of the modern bike.
New innovations increased comfort, and ushered in a second bicycle craze, the 1890s' Golden Age of Bicycles. Bicycle craze refers to several different times when for a period of a few years many people all over the world wanted to buy and ride a Bicycle. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop introduced the pneumatic tire, which soon became universal. John Boyd Dunlop ( February 5, 1840 &ndash October 23, 1921) born in Scotland, was the inventor This article is about tires used on road Vehicles including pneumatic tires and solid tires. Soon after, the rear freewheel was developed, enabling the rider to coast. In mechanical or Automotive engineering, a freewheel or overrunning clutch is a device in a transmission that disengages the Driveshaft This refinement led to the 1898 invention of coaster brakes. Derailleur gears and hand-operated cable-pull brakes were also developed during these years, but were only slowly adopted by casual riders. Derailleur gears are a variable-ratio transmission system commonly used on Bicycles consisting of a chain, multiple Sprockets and a Bicycle brake systems are used to slow down or Brake a Bicycle. By the turn of the century, cycling clubs flourished on both sides of the Atlantic, and touring and racing were soon extremely popular. A cycling club is a society for cyclists It can be local or national general or specialised
Bicycles and horse buggies were the two mainstays of private transportation just prior to the automobile, and the grading of smooth roads in the late 19th century was stimulated by the wide use of these devices.
Bicycles have been and are employed for many uses:
Cycling has many health benefits and does not directly contribute to global warming or environmental pollution.
Since the first bicycle, many important details have been improved, especially with the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design. Trailer bike (also known as trailer cycle, Trailerbike, Trail-a-bike, Half wheeler, and other trademarked names is a one-wheeled Bicycle The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension Bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized bicycle types.
Bicycles can be categorized in different ways: e. This list gives an overview of different types of Bicycles categorized by function (racing recreation etc number of riders (one two or more by construction or frame type (upright g. by function, by number of riders, by general construction, by gearing or by means of propulsion. The more common types include utility bicycles, mountain bicycles, racing bicycles, touring bicycles, cruiser bicycles, and BMX bicycles. A utility Bicycle (aka city bicycle or ute bicycle) is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to "sport bicycles" A mountain bike or mountain bicycle (abbreviated MTB or ATB (all terrain bicycle is a Bicycle designed for off-road cycling including A racing bicycle is a Bicycle designed for road cycling according to the rules of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI A touring bicycle is a bicycle either specially designed for or modified to handle Bicycle touring. Cruiser bicycles are balloon-tired bikes with heavy duty frames and were America’s standard bike from the early 1930s right through the 1950s BMX ( Bicycle Motocross) is a form of Cycling on specially designed bicycles which usually have 20 inch wheels Less common are tandems, lowriders, tall bikes, fixed gear, folding models and recumbents (one of which was used to set the IHPVA Hour record). The tandem bicycle or twin is a form of Bicycle (occasionally a Tricycle) designed to be ridden by more than one person A lowrider bicycle is a highly customized bike with stylings inspired by Lowrider cars A tall bike is an unusually tall Bicycle, typically built for the purpose of fun and recreation though with occasional practical use A fixed-gear bicycle or fixed wheel bicycle, is a Bicycle without the ability to coast A folding bicycle or folder is a type of Bicycle that incorporates Hinges or joints in the frame and handlebar stem that permit it to be CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle The hour record for Bicycles is the record for the longest distance cycled in one Hour on a bicycle
Unicycles, tricycles and quadracycles are not strictly bicycles, as they have respectively one, three and four wheels, but are often referred to informally as "bikes". A unicycle is a one-wheeled Human-powered vehicle. Unicycles are similar to but less complex than Bicycles History The unicycle's history began A tricycle (often abbreviated to trike) is a three-wheeled vehicle A Quadricycle is a four-wheeled human-powered vehicle. It is also referred to as a quadracycle, quadcycle, quadrocycle or as a four-wheel
A bicycle stays upright by being steered so as to keep its center of gravity over its wheels. Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics is the Science of the motion of Bicycles and Motorcycles and their components due to the Forces acting This steering is usually provided by the rider, but under certain conditions may be provided by the bicycle itself.
A bicycle must lean in order to turn. This lean is induced by a method known as countersteering, which can be performed by the rider turning the handlebars directly with the hands or indirectly by leaning the bicycle. Countersteering is the technique used by cyclists and motorcyclists to initiate turning toward a given direction by first steering counter to the desired direction
Short-wheelbase or tall bicycles, when braking, can generate enough stopping force at the front wheel in order to flip longitudinally. A tall bike is an unusually tall Bicycle, typically built for the purpose of fun and recreation though with occasional practical use This action, especially if performed on purpose, is known as a stoppie, endo or front wheelie. The stoppie, also incorrectly called endo, is a Motorcycle and Bicycle trick in which the back wheel is lifted and the bike is ridden on
In both biological and mechanical terms, the bicycle is extraordinarily efficient. A bicycle's performance, in both biological and mechanical terms is extraordinarily efficient An upright bicycle is a Bicycle on which the rider sits astride the saddle and stands on the pedals this is the most common type of bicycle In terms of the amount of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance, investigators have calculated it to be the most efficient self-powered means of transportation.  From a mechanical viewpoint, up to 99% of the energy delivered by the rider into the pedals is transmitted to the wheels, although the use of gearing mechanisms may reduce this by 10-15%.  In terms of the ratio of cargo weight a bicycle can carry to total weight, it is also a most efficient means of cargo transportation.
A human being traveling on a bicycle at low to medium speeds of around 10-15 mph (15-25 km/h), using only the energy required to walk, is the most energy-efficient means of transport generally available. CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle Air drag, which is proportional to the square of speed, requires dramatically higher power outputs as speeds increase. A bicycle which places the rider in a seated position, supine position or, more rarely, prone position, and which may be covered in an aerodynamic fairing to achieve very low air drag, is referred to as a recumbent bicycle or human powered vehicle. The supine position is a position of the body; lying down with the Face up as opposed to the Prone position, which is face down Word history The word prone meaning "naturally inclined to something apt liable" is recorded in English since 1382 the meaning "lying face-down" is first CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle Human-powered transport is the Transport of person(s and/or goods using Human Muscle power On an upright bicycle, the rider's body creates about 75% of the total drag of the bicycle/rider combination.
In addition, the carbon dioxide generated in the production and transportation of the food required by the bicyclist, per mile traveled, is less than 1/10th that generated by energy efficient cars. 
In its early years, bicycle construction drew on pre-existing technologies; more recently, bicycle technology has, in turn, contributed ideas in both old and new areas.
The great majority of today's bicycles have a frame with upright seating which looks much like the first chain-driven bike.  Such upright bicycles almost always feature the diamond frame, a truss consisting of two triangles: the front triangle and the rear triangle. An upright bicycle is a Bicycle on which the rider sits astride the saddle and stands on the pedals this is the most common type of bicycle In Architecture and Structural engineering, a truss is a structure comprising one or more triangular units constructed with straight slender members whose A triangle is one of the basic Shapes of Geometry: a Polygon with three corners or vertices and three sides or edges which are Line The front triangle consists of the head tube, top tube, down tube and seat tube. The head tube contains the headset, the set of bearings that allows the fork to turn smoothly for steering and balance. The headset is the set of components on a Bicycle which provide a rotatable interface between the Bicycle fork and the Bicycle frame itself A bicycle fork is the portion of a Bicycle that holds the front wheel and allows the rider to steer and balance the bicycle The top tube connects the head tube to the seat tube at the top, and the down tube connects the head tube to the bottom bracket. The bottom bracket on a Bicycle connects the Crankset to the bicycle and allows the crankset to rotate freely The rear triangle consists of the seat tube and paired chain stays and seat stays. The chain stays run parallel to the chain, connecting the bottom bracket to the rear dropouts. A bicycle chain is a Roller chain that transfers power from the pedals to the drive- wheel of a Bicycle thus propelling it A bicycle dropout (or frame end and fork end) is a slot in a frame or fork where the axle of the wheel is attached The seat stays connect the top of the seat tube (at or near the same point as the top tube) to the rear dropouts.
Historically, women's bicycle frames had a top tube that connected in the middle of the seat tube instead of the top, resulting in a lower standover height at the expense of compromised structural integrity, since this places a strong bending load in the seat tube, and bicycle frame members are typically weak in bending. This design, referred to as a step-through frame, allows the rider to mount and dismount in a dignified way while wearing a skirt or dress. A step-through frame (aka low-step frame) is a type of safety Bicycle frame with a low top tube (crossbar in comparison to a Diamond frame, While some women's bicycles continue to use this frame style, there is also a variation, the mixte, which splits the top tube into two small top tubes that bypass the seat tube and connect to the rear dropouts. A step-through frame (aka low-step frame) is a type of safety Bicycle frame with a low top tube (crossbar in comparison to a Diamond frame, The ease of stepping through is also appreciated by those with limited flexibility or other joint problems. Because of its persistent image as a "women's" bicycle, step-through frames are not common for larger builds.
A more recent development is the recumbent bicycle. CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle These are inherently more aerodynamic than upright versions, as the rider may lean back onto a support and operate pedals that are on about the same level as the seat. The world's fastest bicycle is a recumbent bicycle but this type was banned from competition in 1934 by the Union Cycliste Internationale. CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI is a Cycling association that oversees competitive cycling events internationally
Historically, materials used in bicycles have followed a similar pattern as in aircraft, the goal being high strength and low weight. Since the late 1930s alloy steels have been used for frame and fork tubes in higher quality machines. Celluloid found application in mudguards, and aluminum alloys are increasingly used in components such as handlebars, seat post, and brake levers. Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from Nitrocellulose and Camphor, plus dyes and other agents In the 1980s aluminum alloy frames became popular, and their affordability now makes them common. WikipediaNaming More expensive carbon fiber and titanium frames are now also available, as well as advanced steel alloys and even bamboo. Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22 Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily
Since cyclists' legs are most efficient over a narrow range of cadences, a variable gear ratio is helpful to maintain an optimum pedalling speed while covering varied terrain. Cadence in Cycling is the number of revolutions of the crank per minute roughly speaking this is the speed at which a Cyclist is pedalling/turning the The gear ratio is the relationship between the number of teeth on two Gears that are meshed or two Sprockets connected with a common Roller chain, or the
The drivetrain begins with pedals which rotate the crank arms, which are held in axis by the bottom bracket. A bicycle Pedal is the part of a Bicycle that the rider pushes with his or her foot to propel the bicycle The crankset, or chainset, is the component of a Bicycle Drivetrain that converts the reciprocating motion of the rider's Legs into rotational The bottom bracket on a Bicycle connects the Crankset to the bicycle and allows the crankset to rotate freely On a bicycle with shaft drive, a gear set at the bottom bracket turns the shaft, which then turns the rear wheel via a gear set connected to the wheel's hub. The rear hub may provide several different gear ratios.
On a bicycle with chain drive, a crank arm may have one or more chainrings or sprockets attached. A chainring drives the chain, which in turn rotates the rear wheel via the rear sprockets (cassette or freewheel). A bicycle chain is a Roller chain that transfers power from the pedals to the drive- wheel of a Bicycle thus propelling it A sprocket is a profiled Wheel with teeth that meshes with a chain, track or other perforated or indented material A gearing system is used to vary the number of rear wheel revolutions produced by each turn of the pedals. Shimano xt rear derailleurjpg|right|thumb|Shimano XT rear derailleur on a mountain bike]]The gearing on a Bicycle is the selection of appropriate gear ratios for optimum efficiency
When the bicycle chain shifts to a larger rear sprocket, or to a smaller front sprocket (a lower gear) every turn of the pedal leads to fewer rotations in the freewheel (and hence the rear wheel). A shaft-driven bicycle is a Chainless bicycle that uses a Driveshaft instead of a chain to transmit power from the pedals to the wheel This allows the force required to move the same distance to be distributed over more pedal cycles, reducing fatigue when riding uphill, with a heavy load, or against strong winds. The reverse process allows the cyclist to make fewer pedal cycles to maintain a higher speed, but with more effort per cycle.
Road bicycles have close set multi-step gearing, which allows fine control of cadence, while utility bicycles offer fewer, more widely spaced speeds. road bicycle is a Bicycle designed for use primarily on paved Roads as opposed to Off-road terrain A utility Bicycle (aka city bicycle or ute bicycle) is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to "sport bicycles" Mountain bikes, touring bikes and many entry-level racing bicycles offer an extremely low gear to facilitate climbing slowly on steep hills. A mountain bike or mountain bicycle (abbreviated MTB or ATB (all terrain bicycle is a Bicycle designed for off-road cycling including A touring bicycle is a bicycle either specially designed for or modified to handle Bicycle touring. A racing bicycle is a Bicycle designed for road cycling according to the rules of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI Single-speed bicycles have only one gear. A single-speed bicycle is a type of Bicycle with a single Gear ratio.
The handlebars turn the fork and the front wheel via the stem, which rotates within the headset. Bicycle handlebar or often bicycle handlebars refers to the steering mechanism for Bicycles the equivalent of a Steering wheel. Bicycle handlebar or often bicycle handlebars refers to the steering mechanism for Bicycles the equivalent of a Steering wheel. A bicycle fork is the portion of a Bicycle that holds the front wheel and allows the rider to steer and balance the bicycle The stem, also called a goose neck, is the component on a Bicycle that connects the Handlebars to the steer tube of a Bicycle fork. The headset is the set of components on a Bicycle which provide a rotatable interface between the Bicycle fork and the Bicycle frame itself Three styles of handlebar are common. Upright handlebars, the norm in Europe and elsewhere until the 1970s, curve gently back toward the rider, offering a natural grip and comfortable upright position. Drop handlebars are "dropped", offering the cyclist either an aerodynamic "crouched" position or a more upright posture in which the hands grip the brake lever mounts. Mountain bikes feature a straight handlebar which can provide better low-speed handling due to the wider nature of the bars.
Saddles also vary with rider preference, from the cushioned ones favored by short-distance riders to narrower saddles which allow more room for leg swings. A bicycle saddle is one of three contact points on an Upright bicycle, the others being the pedals and the handlebars. Comfort depends on riding position. With comfort bikes and hybrids the cyclist sits high over the seat, their weight directed down onto the saddle, such that a wider and more cushioned saddle is preferable. For racing bikes where the rider is bent over, weight is more evenly distributed between the handlebars and saddle, and the hips are flexed, and a narrower and harder saddle is more efficient. Differing saddle designs exist for male and female cyclists, accommodating the genders' differing anatomies, although bikes typically are sold with saddles most appropriate for males.
A recumbent bicycle has a reclined chair-like seat that some riders find more comfortable than a saddle, especially riders who suffer from certain types of seat, back, neck, shoulder, or wrist pain. CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle A bicycle seat, unlike a saddle is designed to support 100% of the riders weight and is found attached to a Recumbent bicycle. Recumbent bicycles may have either under-seat or over-seat steering. CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle
Modern bicycle brakes are either rim brakes, in which friction pads are compressed against the wheel rims, internal hub brakes, in which the friction pads are contained within the wheel hubs, or disc brakes. Bicycle brake systems are used to slow down or Brake a Bicycle. A mountain bike or mountain bicycle (abbreviated MTB or ATB (all terrain bicycle is a Bicycle designed for off-road cycling including Disc brakes are common on off-road bicycles, tandems and recumbent bicycles. The disc brake or disk brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of a Wheel. The tandem bicycle or twin is a form of Bicycle (occasionally a Tricycle) designed to be ridden by more than one person CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle
With hand-operated brakes, force is applied to brake levers mounted on the handlebars and transmitted via Bowden cables or hydraulic lines to the friction pads. A bicycle fork is the portion of a Bicycle that holds the front wheel and allows the rider to steer and balance the bicycle For the character in the Thursday Next Series see Characters in the Thursday Next Series. A rear hub brake may be either hand-operated or pedal-actuated, as in the back pedal coaster brakes which were popular in North America until the 1960s, and are still common in children's bicycles.
Track bicycles do not have brakes. A track bicycle or track bike is a bicycle designed for racing at a Velodrome. Brakes are not required for riding on a track because all riders ride in the same direction around a track which does not necessitate sharp deceleration. Track riders are still able to slow down because all track bicycles are fixed-gear, meaning that there is no freewheel. A fixed-gear bicycle or fixed wheel bicycle, is a Bicycle without the ability to coast In mechanical or Automotive engineering, a freewheel or overrunning clutch is a device in a transmission that disengages the Driveshaft Without a freewheel, coasting is impossible, so when the rear wheel is moving, the crank is moving. To slow down one may apply resistance to the pedals.
Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle. Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle in order to protect them from the roughness of the terrain over A mountain bike or mountain bicycle (abbreviated MTB or ATB (all terrain bicycle is a Bicycle designed for off-road cycling including This serves two purposes:
Bicycle suspensions are used primarily on mountain bicycles, but are also common on hybrid bicycles, and can even be found on some road bicycles, as they can help deal with problematic vibration. A mountain bike or mountain bicycle (abbreviated MTB or ATB (all terrain bicycle is a Bicycle designed for off-road cycling including For motorized-pedal hybrids see Motorized bicycle A hybrid bicycle is a bicycle designed for use on roads and bike paths combining in highly variable road bicycle is a Bicycle designed for use primarily on paved Roads as opposed to Off-road terrain Suspension is especially important on recumbent bicycles, since while an upright bicycle rider can stand on the pedals to achieve some of the benefits of suspension, a recumbent rider cannot. CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle
A bicycle wheel is almost always built up from a hub, rim, and spokes, and fitted with rubber pneumatic tires. Bicycle Wheel is a readymade by Marcel Duchamp consisting of a bicycle fork with front wheel mounted upside-down on a wooden stool A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines This article is about tires used on road Vehicles including pneumatic tires and solid tires.
Spokes are steel or stainless steel, and can be replaced if broken. Hubs and rims can be aluminum or steel, but steel wheels are becoming rare in most countries. Aluminum rims are lighter and give much better braking in wet conditions. Typically they are anodized except for the braking surfaces. Anodizing, or anodising, is an electrolytic Passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural Oxide layer on the surface of metal With disc brakes, the whole rim can be anodized, usually in black or silver. Wheels may also be cast or molded in one piece from aluminum alloy, plastic, and carbon fiber for various specialty bikes; plastic, for example, was once favored for BMX bikes. BMX ( Bicycle Motocross) is a form of Cycling on specially designed bicycles which usually have 20 inch wheels
The wheel axle fits into dropouts in the frame and forks. A bicycle dropout (or frame end and fork end) is a slot in a frame or fork where the axle of the wheel is attached A bicycle frame is the main component of a Bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted A bicycle fork is the portion of a Bicycle that holds the front wheel and allows the rider to steer and balance the bicycle A pair of wheels may be called a wheelset, especially in the context of ready-built "off the shelf", performance-oriented wheels. Bicycle Wheel is a readymade by Marcel Duchamp consisting of a bicycle fork with front wheel mounted upside-down on a wooden stool
Tires vary enormously. Skinny, road-racing tires may be completely smooth, or (slick). On the opposite extreme, off-road tires are wider and thicker, and usually have a deep tread for gripping in muddy conditions.
Some components, which are often optional accessories on sports bicycles, are standard features on utility bicycles to enhance their usefulness and comfort. A utility Bicycle (aka city bicycle or ute bicycle) is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to "sport bicycles" Mudguards, or fenders, protect the cyclist and moving parts from spray when riding through wet areas and chainguards protect clothes from oil on the chain. Fender is the US English term for the part of an Automobile, Motorcycle or other Vehicle body that frames a wheel well Fender is the US English term for the part of an Automobile, Motorcycle or other Vehicle body that frames a wheel well A gear case, also known as a chain case, is an enclosure for the Bicycle chain and Sprocket assemblages commonly employed by Utility bicycles Kick stands keep a bicycle upright when parked. A kickstand is a device on a Bicycle or Motorcycle that allows the bike to be kept upright without leaning against another object or the aid of a person Front-mounted baskets for carrying goods are often used. A bicycle basket allows a Bicycle rider to carry cargo or objects without using their hands Luggage carriers and panniers can be used to carry equipment or cargo. A luggage carrier, also commonly called a rack, is a device attached to a Bicycle to which cargo or Panniers can be attached This is about a type of luggage For other uses of the word see Pannier (disambiguation. Parents sometimes add rear-mounted child seats and/or an auxiliary saddle fitted to the crossbar to transport children.
Toe-clips and toestraps and clipless pedals help to keep the foot planted firmly in the proper position on the pedals, and enable the cyclist to pull as well as push the pedals. A bicycle Pedal is the part of a Bicycle that the rider pushes with his or her foot to propel the bicycle Technical accessories include cyclocomputers for measuring speed and distance. A cyclocomputer is a device mounted on a Bicycle that calculates and displays trip information similar to the instruments in the Dashboard of a car Other accessories include lights, reflectors, security lock, mirror, water bottles and cages, and bell. Bicycle lighting has two purposes seeing and being seen There are many types of Bicycle lights available each with its own advantages and disadvantages A bicycle lock is a Physical security device used on a bicycle to prevent Theft. A bottle cage is device used to affix a Water bottle to a Bicycle. 
Bicycle helmets may help reduce injury in the event of a collision or accident, and a certified helmet is legally required for some riders in some jurisdictions. A bicycle helmet is a Helmet intended to be worn while riding a Bicycle. Helmets are classified as an accessory or an item of clothing by others. 
Many cyclists carry tool kits. These may include a tire patch kit (which, in turn, may contain any combination of a tire pump or CO2 cartridges, tire levers, spare tubes, self-adhesive patches, or tube-patching material, an adhesive, a piece of sandpaper or a metal grater to clean off a section of the tube, and sometimes even a block of French chalk. A bicycle pump is a type of positive-displacement Pump specifically designed for inflating Bicycle tires Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single A tire iron ( tyre iron, or tyre lever, in British English is a specialized metal Tool used in working with Tires that have Inner tubes This article is about tires used on road Vehicles including pneumatic tires and solid tires. French chalk is a type of Talc used by tailors for marking Cloth, by cleaners for removing grease from cloth and as a dry Lubricant in its powdered ), wrenches, hex keys, screwdrivers, and a chain tool. A wrench or spanner is a Tool used to provide a Mechanical advantage in applying Torque to turn bolts, nuts or A hex key, also known as an Allen, Alum, hex-head, or zeta key or wrench is a Tool used to drive Screws and bolts The screwdriver is a device specifically designed to insert and tighten or to loosen and remove Screws The screwdriver comprises a head or tip which engages with A chain tool is a small mechanical device used to "break" a Bicycle chain in such a way that it can be mended with the same tool There are also cycling specific multi-tools that combine many of these implements into a single compact device. A multi-tool is a portable versatile Hand tool that combines several individual tool functions in a single grip or in the shape of a Credit card. More specialized bicycle components may require more complex tools, including proprietary tools specific for a given manufacturer.
Some bicycle parts, particularly hub-based gearing systems, are complex, and many cyclists prefer to leave maintenance and repairs to professional bicycle mechanics. Maintenance repair and operations or maintenance repair and overhaul (MRO is fixing any sort of mechanical or Electrical device should it A bicycle mechanic is a Mechanic who can perform a wide range of repairs on Bicycles A person who works in a cycling store is usually only considered a bike mechanic In some areas it is possible to purchase road-side assistance from companies such as the Better World Club. The Better World Club provides services to motorists in the USA, and supports organizations seeking to reduce the environmental damage done by Other cyclists maintain their own bicycles, perhaps as part of their enjoyment of the hobby of cycling or simply for economic reasons. A hobby is a spare-time Recreational pursuit Etymology A Hobby horse is a wooden or Wickerwork toy made to be
A number of formal and industry standards exist for bicycle components, to help make spare parts exchangeable:
For details on specific bicycle parts, see list of bicycle parts and category:bicycle parts. ISO 5775 is an international standard for labeling the size of Bicycle tires and rims. This is a list of bicycle parts. Axle Ball bearing Bar ends - extensions at the
The bicycle has had a considerable effect on human society, in both the cultural and industrial realms.
Around the turn of the 20th century, bicycles helped reduce crowding in inner-city tenements by allowing workers to commute from more spacious dwellings in the suburbs. Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Bicycle commuting is the act of Commuting to work or school by bicycle a common form of Utility cycling. They also reduced dependence on horses, with all the knock-on effects this brought to society. Bicycles allowed people to travel for leisure into the country, since bicycles were three times as energy efficient as walking, and three to four times as fast.
Recently, several European cities have implemented successful schemes, known as Community bicycle programs or bike-sharing schemes. Community bicycle programs (also known as Yellow bicycle programs White bicycle programs bike sharing public bike or free bike are one element of an international movement to build Bicing is the name of a Community bicycle program in Barcelona inaugurated in March 2007, similar to the Vélô service in Toulouse Vélo'v Community bicycle programs (also known as Yellow bicycle programs White bicycle programs bike sharing public bike or free bike are one element of an international movement to build These initiatives are designed to complement a city's public transport system and offer an alternative to motorized traffic to help reduce congestion and pollution. Users can take a bicycle at a parking station, use it for a limited amount of time, and then return it to the same, or a different, station. Examples of such schemes are Bicing in Barcelona, Vélo'v in Lyon and Vélib' in Paris. Bicing is the name of a Community bicycle program in Barcelona inaugurated in March 2007, similar to the Vélô service in Toulouse Vélo'v Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia Vélo'v is Bicycle rental service run by the city of Lyon, France, in conjunction with the Advertising company JCDecaux. ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Vélib’ (“vélo libre” or “vélo liberté” free bicycle or bicycle freedom is a public bicycle rental programme in Paris, France. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
In cities where the bicycle is not an integral part of the planned transportation system, commuters often use bicycles as elements of a mixed-mode commute, where the bike is used to travel to and from train stations or other forms of rapid transit. Ouagadougou (ˌwɑgəˈduːguː Mossi wɑgədəgə is the Capital of Burkina Faso and the administrative Mixed-mode commuting refers to the practice of using two or more modes of transportation A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway Folding bicycles are useful in these scenarios, as they are less cumbersome when carried aboard. A folding bicycle or folder is a type of Bicycle that incorporates Hinges or joints in the frame and handlebar stem that permit it to be
Bicycles also offer an important mode of transport in many developing contries. Until recently, bicycles have been a staple of everyday life throughout Asian countries. They are the most frequently used method of transport for commuting to work, school, shopping, and life in general. Bicycle commuting is the act of Commuting to work or school by bicycle a common form of Utility cycling. As a result bicycles there are almost always equipped with baskets and back seats.
The diamond-frame safety bicycle gave women unprecedented mobility, contributing to their emancipation in Western nations. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate As bicycles became safer and cheaper, more women had access to the personal freedom they embodied, and so the bicycle came to symbolize the New Woman of the late nineteenth century, especially in Britain and the United States. For Bolesław Prus 's 1893 novel see The New Woman. The New Woman was a feminist ideal that emerged in the final decades
The bicycle was recognized by nineteenth-century feminists and suffragists as a "freedom machine" for women. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally American Susan B. Anthony said in a New York World interview on February 2, 1896: "Let me tell you what I think of bicycling. Susan Brownell Anthony ( February 15, 1820 &ndash March 13, 1906) was a prominent American Civil rights leader who played The New York World was a Newspaper published in New York from 1860 until 1931 Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year I think it has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. It gives women a feeling of freedom and self-reliance. I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel. . . the picture of free, untrammeled womanhood. " In 1895 Frances Willard, the tightly-laced president of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, wrote a book called How I Learned to Ride the Bicycle, in which she praised the bicycle she learned to ride late in life, and which she named "Gladys", for its "gladdening effect" on her health and political optimism. Willard used a cycling metaphor to urge other suffragists to action, proclaiming, "I would not waste my life in friction when it could be turned into momentum. "
Male anger at the freedom symbolized by the New (bicycling) Woman was demonstrated when the male undergraduates of Cambridge University showed their opposition to the admission of women as full members of the university by hanging a woman bicyclist in effigy in the main town square. Pope Manufacturing Company is a manufacturing company started by Albert Augustus Pope in Hartford CT. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the This was as late as 1897.  The bicycle craze in the 1890s also led to a movement for so-called rational dress, which helped liberate women from corsets and ankle-length skirts and other restrictive garments, substituting the then-shocking bloomers. Bicycle craze refers to several different times when for a period of a few years many people all over the world wanted to buy and ride a Bicycle. During the middle and late '''Victorian''' period, various reformers proposed designed and wore clothing supposedly more rational and comfortable than the fashions of the time Bloomers is a word which has been applied to several types of divided women's garments for the lower body at various times
Bicycle manufacturing proved to be a training ground for other industries and led to the development of advanced metalworking techniques, both for the frames themselves and for special components such as ball bearings, washers, and sprockets. A bearing is a device to permit constrained relative motion between two parts typically rotation or linear movement A washer is a thin plate (typically disk-shaped with a hole (typically in the middle that is normally used to distribute the load of a threaded fastener. A sprocket is a profiled Wheel with teeth that meshes with a chain, track or other perforated or indented material These techniques later enabled skilled metalworkers and mechanics to develop the components used in early automobiles and aircraft. J. K. Starley's company became the Rover Cycle Company Ltd. in the late 1890s, and then simply the Rover Company when it started making cars. The Rover Company was a British Motor vehicle manufacturing company originating in Coventry in 1904 which moved to Solihull after World War II The Morris Motor Company (in Oxford) and Škoda also began in the bicycle business, as did the Wright Brothers. Morris Commercial Cars The Morris Motor Company was a British car manufacturing company Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, Škoda Auto ( is an automobile manufacturer in the Czech Republic. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout  Alistair Craig whose company eventually emerged to become the engine manufacturers Ailsa Craig also started from manufacturing bicycles in Glasgow in March 1885. Alisa Craig Engines was a manufacturer of marine and specialist made to order Engines from 1891 to 1972
In general, U. S. and European cycle manufacturers used to assemble cycles from their own frames and components made by other companies, although very large companies (such as Raleigh) used to make almost every part of a bicycle (including bottom brackets, axles, etc. ) In recent years, those bicycle makers have greatly changed their methods of production. Now, almost none of them produce their own frames.
Many newer or smaller companies only design and market their products; the actual production is done by Asian companies. Goa ( Konkani: गोंय /ɡɔ̃j/ is India 's smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country For example, some sixty percent of the world's bicycles are now being made in China. Despite this shift in production, as nations such as China and India become more wealthy, their own use of bicycles has declined due to the increasing affordability of cars and motorcycles. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country One of the major reasons for the proliferation of Chinese-made bicycles in foreign markets is the lower cost of labour in China. 
The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic of the United Nations considers a bicycle to be a vehicle, and a person controlling a bicycle is considered a driver. The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic is an international Treaty designed to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety by standardising the uniform The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The traffic codes of many countries reflect these definitions and demand that a bicycle satisfy certain legal requirements, sometimes even including licensing, before it can be used on public roads. In many jurisdictions it is an offence to use a bicycle that is not in roadworthy condition.
In most jurisdictions, bicycles must have functioning front and rear lights when ridden after dark. In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority Bicycle lighting has two purposes seeing and being seen There are many types of Bicycle lights available each with its own advantages and disadvantages As some generator or dynamo-driven lamps only operate while moving, rear reflectors are frequently also mandatory. A retroreflector (sometimes called a retroflector) is a device or surface that reflects light back to its source with a minimum scattering of light Since a moving bicycle makes little noise, some countries insist that bicycles have a warning bell for use when approaching pedestrians, equestrians and other bicyclists.
Special uses and related vehicle types