In psychology, bicameralism is a controversial hypothesis which argues that the human brain once assumed a state known as a bicameral mind in which cognitive functions are divided between one part of the brain which appears to be "speaking," and a second part which listens and obeys. Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain
The term was coined by psychologist Julian Jaynes, who presented the idea in the 1976 book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, wherein he made the case that the bicameral mentality was the normal state of the human mind everywhere as recently as 3000 years ago. Mental health professional A psychologist is a practitioner of Psychology, the systematic investigation of the mind including Behavior, Cognition, Julian Jaynes ( February 27 1920 &ndash November 21 1997) was an American Psychologist, best known for his book The Origin MIND ( Moving In New Directions) (est 1975 is an alternative education high school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. He used governmental bicameralism metaphorically to describe this state, where the stored up experience of the right hemisphere was transmitted to the left hemisphere via auditory hallucinations. In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral This mental model was replaced by the conscious mode of thought, which Jaynes argues is based on metaphorical language. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them The idea that language is necessary for subjective consciousness or higher forms of thought has been gaining in acceptance in recent years, with proponents such as Daniel Dennett, William Calvin, Merlin Donald, John Limber, Howard Margolis, and Jose Luis Bermudez. 
According to Jaynes, ancient people in the bicameral state would function in a manner similar to that of a modern-day schizophrenic. Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn Rather than making conscious evaluations in novel or unexpected situations, the person would hallucinate a voice or "god" giving admonitory advice or commands, and obey these voices without question. Others have argued that this state of mind is recreated in members of cults. This article does not discuss "cult" in the original sense of "veneration" or "religious practice" for that usage see Cult (religious practice 
In his 1976 work The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, Julian Jaynes proposed that human brains existed in a bicameral state until as recently as 3000 years ago. Julian Jaynes ( February 27 1920 &ndash November 21 1997) was an American Psychologist, best known for his book The Origin Jaynes builds a case for this hypothesis by citing evidence from many diverse sources including historical literature. He took an interdisciplinary approach, drawing data from many different fields. In Academia, Pedagogy, Physical sciences, Earth sciences, Human sciences and Social sciences 
Jaynes asserts that until roughly the times written about in Homer's Iliad, humans did not generally have the self-awareness characteristic of consciousness as most people experience it today. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Consciousness has been defined loosely as a constellation of attributes of Mind such as Subjectivity, Self-awareness, Sentience, and the Rather, Jaynes argued that the bicameral individual was guided by mental commands believed to be issued by external "gods"—the commands which were so often recorded in ancient myths, legends and historical accounts; these commands were however emanating from individuals' own minds. See also List of deities A deity is a Postulated Preternatural or Supernatural Being, who is always The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" This is exemplified not only in the commands given to characters in ancient epics but also the very muses of Greek mythology which "sang" the poems: Jaynes argues that while later interpretations see the muses as a simple personification of creative inspiration, the ancients literally heard muses as the direct source of their music and poetry. In Greek mythology, the Muses ( Ancient Greek, hai moũsai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root * men- "think" are Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance Inspiration in artistic composition refers to an irrational and unconscious burst of Creativity. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time.
Jaynes inferred that these "voices" came from the right brain counterparts of the left brain language centres—specifically, the counterparts to Wernicke's area and Broca's area. A Longitudinal fissure separates the Human brain into two distinct Cerebral hemispheres connected by the Corpus callosum. A Longitudinal fissure separates the Human brain into two distinct Cerebral hemispheres connected by the Corpus callosum. Wernicke's area is a part of the Human cerebrum that forms part of the cortex, on the posterior section of the Superior temporal gyrus, encircling the Broca's area is a section of the human brain that is involved in Language processing, speech or sign production and comprehension These regions are somewhat dormant in the right brains of most modern humans, but Jaynes noted that some studies show that auditory hallucinations correspond to increased activity in these areas of the brain. 
For example, he asserts that, in The Iliad and sections of the Old Testament in The Bible, no mention is made of any kind of cognitive processes such as introspection, and he argues that there is no apparent indication that the writers were self-aware. The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Cognition is a concept used in different ways by different disciplines but is generally accepted to mean the process of awareness or thought Introspection is the self-observation and reporting of Conscious inner Thoughts desires and Sensations It is a conscious mental and usually According to Jaynes, the older portions of the Old Testament (such as the Book of Amos) have little or none of the features of some later books of the Old Testament (such as Ecclesiastes) as well as later works such as The Odyssey, which show indications of a profoundly different kind of mentality—an early form of consciousness. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. The Book of Amos is one of the books of the Nevi'im (Hebrew "prophets" and of the Christian Old Testament. Ecclesiastes (often abbreviated Ecc) (קֹהֶלֶת Kohelet, variously transliterated as Qoheleth, Göhalath, Koheles, Koheleth The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. 
Jaynes noted that in ancient societies, the corpses of the dead were often treated as though they were still alive (being seated on chairs, dressed in clothing, and even fed food) and he argued that the dead bodies were presumed to be still living and the source of auditory hallucinations (see ancestor worship).  This adaptation to the village communities of 100 individuals or more formed the core of religion. Unlike today's hallucinations, the voices of ancient times were structured by cultural norms to produce a seamlessly functioning society. In Ancient Greek culture there is often mention of the Logos, which is a very similar concept. grc-Latn Logos (ˈloʊːgɒs ( Greek, logos) is an important term in Philosophy, Analytical psychology, Rhetoric and Religion It was a type of guiding voice that was heard as from a seemingly external source.
In ancient times, Jaynes noted, gods were generally much more numerous and much more anthropomorphic than in modern times, and speculates that this was because each bicameral person had their own "god" who reflected their own desires and experiences. Anthropomorphism is the attribution of uniquely Human characteristics to non-human creatures and beings natural and supernatural phenomena material states and objects 
Even in modern times, Jaynes notes that there is no consensus as to the cause or origins of schizophrenia (the subject is still hotly debated). According to Jaynes, schizophrenia is simply a vestige of humanity's earlier state.  Recent evidence shows that many schizophrenics don't just hear random voices but experience "command hallucinations" instructing their behavior or urging them to commit certain acts. As support for Jaynes's argument, these command hallucinations are little different from the commands from gods which feature so prominently in ancient stories.  Indirect evidence supporting Jaynes's theory that hallucinations once played an important role in human mentality can be found in the recent book Muses, Madmen, and Prophets: Rethinking the History, Science, and Meaning of Auditory Hallucination by Daniel Smith. 
Jaynes theorized that a shift from bicameralism marked the beginning of introspection and consciousness as we know it today. Introspection is the self-observation and reporting of Conscious inner Thoughts desires and Sensations It is a conscious mental and usually Consciousness has been defined loosely as a constellation of attributes of Mind such as Subjectivity, Self-awareness, Sentience, and the According to Jaynes, this bicameral mentality began malfunctioning or "breaking down" during the second millennium BC. He speculates that primitive ancient societies tended to collapse periodically (as in Egypt's Old Kingdom and the periodically vanishing cities of the Mayas) due to increased societal complexity that could not be sustained by this bicameral mindset. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions The mass migrations of the second millennium BC created a rash of unexpected situations and stresses that required ancient minds to become more flexible and creative. Self-awareness, or consciousness, was the culturally evolved solution to this problem. Thus cultural necessity (that of interacting with migrating tribes, or surviving as a member of such) forced humanity to become self-aware or perish. Thus consciousness, like bicamerality, emerged as a neurological adaptation to social complexity.
Jaynes further argues that divination, prayer and oracles arose during this breakdown period, in an attempt to summon instructions from the "gods" whose voices could no longer be heard. Divination (from Latin divinare "to be inspired by a god" related to Divine, Diva and Deus) is the attempt of ascertaining Prayer is the act of attempting to communicate with a Deity or spirit An oracle is a person or agency considered to be a source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion an Infallible authority usually spiritual in nature  The consultation of special bicamerally operative individuals, or of casting lots and so forth, was a response to this loss, a transitional era depicted for example in the book of 1 Samuel. The Books of Samuel ( Hebrew: Sefer Sh'muel ספר שמואל are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaism 's Hebrew Bible) and also of It was also evidenced in children who could communicate with the gods, but as their neurology was set by language and society they gradually lost that ability. Those who continued prophesying, being bicameral according to Jaynes, could be killed. 
Leftovers of the bicameral mind today, according to Jaynes, include religion, hypnosis, possession, schizophrenia and the general sense of need for external authority in decision-making. Hypnosis is often thought to be a wakeful state of focused attention and heightened suggestibility with diminished peripheral awareness
Jaynes's hypothesis remains controversial and has lacked discussion by mainstream academics. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible The few criticisms that have been made include:
Others maintain that many of the most frequent criticisms of Jaynes' theory are either incorrect or reflect serious misunderstandings of Jaynes' theory, especially Jaynes' more precise definition of consciousness. Jaynes defines consciousness — in the tradition of Locke and Descartes — as "that which is introspectable. " Jaynes draws a sharp distinction between consciousness ('introspectable mind-space') and other mental processes such as cognition, learning, and sense and perception — which occur in all animals. This distinction is frequently not recognized by those offering critiques of Jaynes' theory. 
Richard Dawkins discussed Jaynes's theory in his recent book The God Delusion. Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS, FRSL (born 26 March 1941 is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and Popular science In his chapter on the roots of religion, Dawkins writes: "It is one of those books that is either complete rubbish or a work of consummate genius, nothing in between!" Many considered Jaynes's hypothesis worthy and offer conditional support, arguing the notion deserves further study. 
In a 1987 letter to the American Journal of Psychiatry, Dr. The American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP is the official journal of the American Psychiatric Association (APA and the most widely read and cited Psychiatric H. Steven Moffic questioned why Jaynes's theory was left out of a discussion on auditory hallucinations by Drs. Assad and Shapiro. In response, Drs. Assad and Shapiro wrote, "…Jaynes' hypothesis makes for interesting reading and stimulates much thought in the receptive reader. It does not, however, adequately explain one of the central mysteries of madness: hallucination. A hallucination, in the broadest sense is a Perception in the absence of a stimulus. "
Drs. Assad and Shapiro's comment that there is no evidence for involvement of the right temporal lobe in auditory hallucination was incorrect even at that time.  A number of more recent studies provide additional evidence to right hemisphere involvement in auditory hallucinations. Recent neuroimaging studies provide new evidence for Jaynes's neurological model, i. e. auditory hallucinations arising in the right temporal-parietal lobe and being transmitted to the left temporal-parietal lobe. This was pointed out by Dr. Robert Olin in Lancet and Dr. Leo Sher in the Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and further discussed in the book Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness. 
The philosopher Daniel Dennett, suggested that Jaynes may have been wrong about some of his supporting arguments, especially the importance he attached to hallucinations, but that these things are not essential to his main thesis. Daniel Clement Dennett (born March 28 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a prominent American philosopher whose research 
Gregory Cochran, a physicist and adjunct professor of anthropology at the University of Utah, wrote in a blog: "Genes affecting personality, reproductive strategies, cognition, are all able to change significantly over few-millennia time scales if the environment favors such change — and this includes the new environments we have made for ourselves, things like new ways of making a living and new social structures. Gregory Cochran is a physicist and adjunct professor of anthropology at the University of Utah who has developed some new ideas in Evolutionary medicine and Genetic . . . There is evidence that such change has occurred. . . . On first reading, Breakdown seemed one of the craziest books ever written, but Jaynes may have been on to something. " Author and historian of science Morris Berman writes, "[Jaynes's] description of this new consciousness is one of the best I have come across. Morris Berman (born 1944 was born in Rochester New York. He earned his BA in mathematics at Cornell University in 1966 and his Ph " Danish science writer Tor Nørretranders discusses Jaynes's theory favorably in his book The User Illusion: Cutting Consciousness Down to Size. Tor Nørretranders (born June 20, 1955) is a Danish Author of Popular science. 
Some argue that Jaynes's recent dating of the development of consciousness is contradicted by cave paintings that are 30,000 or more years old. Cave paintings are Paintings on Cave walls and ceilings and the term is used especially for those dating to Prehistoric times Mainstream theorists often cite cave art as evidence for the emergence of the modern mind. However, recent discussion by psychologist Nicholas Humphrey of an autistic child named Nadia who was capable of cave-art like drawings at the age of 3 calls this into question. 
Evidence taken to contradict Jaynes's proposed date of the transition from bicameralism is the Gilgamesh Epic: although the story of Gilgamesh was recorded centuries before the Old Testament, and though its setting is contemporaneous or earlier than the Old Testament stories, the Gilgamesh story describes such features as introspection. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. Jaynes himself, noting that the most complete version of the Gilgamesh epic dates to post-bicameral times (7th century BC), dismisses these instances of introspection as the result of rewriting and expansion by later conscious scribes, and points to differences between the more recent version of Gilgamesh and surviving fragments of earlier versions. ("The most interesting comparison is in Tablet X. " - detailed in The Origin of Consciousness, 1982 edition, p. 252f. ) Others, such as science fiction author Neal Stephenson, have since conjectured that heroic epics and myths may be rooted in isolated individuals who became self-aware early and could accordingly outmatch and manipulate their fellows. Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer known primarily for his Science fiction works in the Postcyberpunk genre
Some scholars suggest that the hypothesis describes a real event, but that Jaynes provides the wrong date. One hypothesis about pre-historic cave paintings, for example, is that they offer us a window into a time when consciousness was emerging, perhaps through the breakdown of bicameralism. Cave paintings are Paintings on Cave walls and ceilings and the term is used especially for those dating to Prehistoric times
A collection of Jaynes's essays on bicameralism combined with those of contemporary scholars was published in 2007, in a book entitled Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness: Julian Jaynes's Bicameral Mind Theory Revisited.  Included in this book is new support for Jaynes's theory by Marcel Kuijsten, psychological anthropologist Brian J. McVeigh, psychologists John Limber and Scott Greer, clinical psychologist John Hamilton, philosophers Jan Sleutels and David Stove, and an expert in ancient Chinese customs and linguistics, Michael Carr. Brian J McVeigh (BA MA PhD (born 1959 is a psychological and political anthropologist who received his doctorate in 1991 from Princeton University ’s Department of David Charles Stove ( September 15, 1927 - June 2, 1994) was an Australian philosopher of science, and essayist in the popular The book also contains an extensive biography of Julian Jaynes by historian of psychology William Woodward and June Tower, and a Foreword by neuroscientist Michael J. Persinger.
Additional essays on Jaynes's theory can be found in The Jaynesian, the newsletter of the Julian Jaynes Society.
The neuroscientist Michael Persinger studies the role of the right temporal lobe in the feeling of a sensed presence and god beliefs. Dr Michael A Persinger (born June 26, 1945) is a Cognitive neuroscience researcher and university professor He has worked at Laurentian University  The neuroscientist V.S. Ramachandran discusses cases of hyper religiousity in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Vilayanur S "Rama" Ramachandran is a neurologist best known for his work in the fields of Behavioral neurology and Psychophysics.  Other theorists have also made the claim that consciousness is a social construction, including Lev Vygotsky, Rom Harré, and George Herbert Mead. Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (Russian Лев Семёнович Выготский ( November 17 ( November 5 Old Style) 1896 – June 11, 1934 Horace Romano Harré (born 1927 in New Zealand) known widely as Rom Harré, is a distinguished Philosopher and Psychologist Studies George Herbert Mead ( February 27, 1863 – April 26, 1931) was an American Philosopher, Sociologist and Psychologist  Cognitive psychologist David R. Olson has written on the impact of reading and writing to cognition and the mind.  Lloyd deMause and the psychohistorians have advanced a model that aims to understand the ubiquity of the schizoid personality in the Old World. This article describes deMause's biography For his scholarly work see Psychohistory Lloyd deMause, pronounced de-Moss (born September Psychohistory is the study of the psychological motivations of historical events The main difference between psychohistorians and Julian Jaynes is that psychohistorians focus on childrearing modes as the main cause of the schizoid personality. 
The ideas set forth in Jaynes' book have been great fodder for cyberpunk authors; Neal Stephenson's first several books (The Big U, Zodiac, Snow Crash) involve the bicameral mind theory, as does Bruce Sterling's Distraction. Cyberpunk is a Science fiction genre noted for its focus on " High tech and low life. Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer known primarily for his Science fiction works in the Postcyberpunk genre The Big U ( 1984) is Neal Stephenson 's first published Novel, a Satire of campus life Zodiac An Eco-Thriller (1988 is Neal Stephenson 's second Novel, which tells the story of an Environmentalist, Sangamon Taylor uncovering Snow Crash is Neal Stephenson 's third Novel, published in 1992 Michael Bruce Sterling (born April 14, 1954) is an American Science fiction author, best known for his novels and his seminal work on the Mirrorshades The book has been highly influential in a neo-objectivist philosophy called Neo-Tech. Neo-Objectivism covers a large family of philosophical viewpoints and cultural values derived from but not necessarily in agreement with Objectivist philosophy. Dr Frank R Wallace (pen name of Dr Wallace Ward) (1932&ndash2006 was an American author publisher mail-order magnate and convicted Jaynes' hypothesis is referenced, at least in passing, in the cyberpunk comic Transmetropolitan. Transmetropolitan is a Postcyberpunk Comic book series written by Warren Ellis with art by Darick Robertson and published by
Bicameralism is central to the plot of Sebastian Faulks' novel Human Traces, and is referred to in the novel's appendices. Sebastian Faulks CBE FRSL (born 20 April 1953) is an acclaimed English Novelist. Human Traces is a 2005 Novel by Sebastian Faulks, best known as the British author of Birdsong and The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind plays a role in Paul Levinson's 2002 novel The Consciousness Plague, appears in the Recommended Reading section of Robert J. Sawyer's 2005 novel Mindscan, and was mentioned as reading material by Leopold Cain, shortly before his kidnap in NBC-TV's Kidnapped, in the September 2006 premier broadcast of the series. Paul Levinson (born 1947 is an American Author and Professor of Communications and Media studies at Fordham University Dr Phil D’Amato is a fictional NYPD Forensic Detective who has a penchant for strange cases Robert J Sawyer is a Canadian Science fiction writer born in Ottawa in 1960 and now resident in Mississauga. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Kidnapped is a short-lived American television drama series from Sony Pictures Television which aired on NBC from September 20 The Beast, Henry McCoy, can be seen reading a copy of The Origin in issue 134 of the Uncanny X-men, during the heart of what was to become known as The Dark Phoenix Saga. Uncanny X-Men, first published as simply The X-Men, is the flagship Marvel Comics Comic book series for the X-Men franchise The Dark Phoenix Saga is an extended X-Men storyline in the fictional Marvel Comics Universe, focusing on Jean Grey and the Phoenix Force In Fifty Degrees Below, one of Kim Stanley Robinson's characters states that they don't play disc golf, but rather "the gods play through us," and another character describes him as being "pre-breakdown of the bicameral mind. Fifty Degrees Below (2005 is the second book in the Hard science fiction Science in the Capital Trilogy by Kim Stanley Robinson Kim Stanley Robinson (born March 23 1952) is an American Science fiction Writer, probably best known for his award-winning " Bicameralism is also briefly mentioned in From Hell by Alan Moore as well as American Gods by Neil Gaiman, although it is never referred to by name in either work (although Moore's lengthy annotations to From Hell do specifically credit Jaynes' book). From Hell is a Graphic novel by writer Alan Moore and artist Eddie Campbell speculating upon the identity and motives of Jack the Ripper Alan Moore (born November 18 1953 in Northampton) is an English Writer most famous for his influential work in Comics, including the acclaimed American Gods is a Novel by Neil Gaiman. The novel is a blend of Americana, Fantasy, and various strands of ancient and modern Neil Richard Gaiman (ˈgeɪmən (born November 10, 1960) is an English author of Science fiction and Fantasy short stories and
"Your Bicameral Mind. . . Mind Your Bicameral. " is etched into onto the 7" vinyl pressing of David Bowie's 1979 single, 'Boys Keep Swinging'. David Bowie (ˈboʊiː born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 is an English Musician, actor producer, and arranger. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) " Boys Keep Swinging " was a single by David Bowie. It previewed his album Lodger in the UK being released on 27 April 1979
The Origin of Consciousness was financially successful, and has been reprinted several times. The book was originally published in 1976 (ISBN 0-395-20729-0) and was nominated for the National Book Award in 1978. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The National Book Awards are among the most eminent literary prizes in the United States. It has since been reissued (ISBN 0-618-05707-2). A new edition, with an afterword that addressed some criticisms and restated the main themes, was published in the US in 1990. This version was published in the UK by Penguin Books in 1993 (ISBN 0-14-017491-5). It has been translated into Italian, Spanish, German, and French.