|Born||May 28, 1936|
Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
|Died||June 23, 1997 (aged 61)|
Bronx, New York, U.S.
Dr. Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Betty Shabazz (born Betty Jean Sanders) (May 28, 1936 – June 23, 1997), also known as Betty X, was the wife of Malcolm X. Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19 1925 February 21 1965 also known as El-Hajj Malik El- Shabazz, was an African American
There is an air of uncertainty about Betty Shabazz's background and early life. Shabazz was born in Detroit, Michigan as Betty Sanders. She is reportedly the daughter of Shelman Sandlin and Ollie Mae Sanders. Shabazz was an illegitimate child and had a scattered childhood. In Common law, legitimacy is the status of a Child that is born to parents who are legally married to one another or that is born shortly after the Young Betty Shabazz was taken in by foster parents after her troubled childhood and grew up with them in a fairly sheltered, loving, middle-class household in Detroit. Foster care is a system by which a certified stand-in "parent(s" cares for minor Children or young peoples who have been removed from their birth parents Throughout her life, Shabazz devoted her life to black community affairs in the areas of childcare, health and sexual education.
After high school, Shabazz left the comfortable home of her adoptive parents in Detroit to study at the Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University), a well-known historically black college in Alabama. Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. It was at Alabama that she encountered her first racial hostilities. She did not understand the causes for the racial issues, and her parents refused to acknowledge these issues. She mentioned this in an autobiographical essay she wrote in 1992, published in Essence Magazine: "They thought [the problems] were my fault. Essence is an American Fashion, Lifestyle and Entertainment Magazine. "'
Shabazz moved to New York City to escape Southern racism, and enrolled as a nursing student at the Brooklyn State Hospital School of Nursing. The City of New York The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that While in New York, Shabazz's friend invited her to hear Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X from the Nation of Islam speak at an Islamic temple (Temple No. Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Poole, October 7 1897 - February 25 1975) is notable for his leadership of the Black Muslims The Nation of Islam ( NOI) (أمة الإسلام Ummah al-Islāmu) is a group founded in Detroit, Michigan, 7 in Harlem). Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major African American cultural and business center According to the Essence essay, Shabazz's friend offered to introduce her to Malcolm X after his speech. Betty's initial reaction was "big deal". She continues: "But then, I looked over and saw this man on the extreme right aisle sort of galloping to the podium. He was tall, he was thin, and the way he was galloping it looked as though he was going someplace much more important than the podium. . . Well, he got to the podium and I sat up straight. I was impressed with him. " They discussed the racism she encountered in Alabama, and she began to understand its causes, pervasiveness, and effects. Soon, Betty was attending all of Malcolm's lectures. By the time she graduated from nursing school in 1958, she was a member of the Nation of Islam. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Muhammad bestowed of his followers the last name "X", representing the African family name they would never know. She changed her name to "Betty X" a result of her Nation of Islam influence.
In her autobiographical essay for Essence Magazine in 1992, Shabazz said, "I never 'dated' Malcolm as we think of it because at the time single men and women in the Muslims did not 'fraternize' as they called it. Men and women always went out in groups. " In 1958, after she had completed nursing school, Malcolm X, who was traveling the country at the time, called her from Detroit and proposed marriage. Before the week was out, Betty aged 22 and Malcolm aged 33 were married.
After their split from The Nation of Islam in 1964, Malcolm and Betty X adopted the last name, Shabazz. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Together, they had six daughters — Attallah (b. 1958), Qubilah (b. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Qubilah Shabazz, the daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz, was born on December 25, 1960. 1960), Ilyasah (b. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Ilyasah Shabazz (born July 22, 1962) is the daughter of the late Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz. 1963), Gamilah (b. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 1964) and twins Malaak and Malikah (b. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. 1965, seven months after Malcolm X's death). Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar.
In February of 1965 their family survived the firebombing of their home. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. On February 21, 1965, Shabazz and her four young children witnessed the assassination of Malcolm X in the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. The Audubon Ballroom was a theatre and ballroom located in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan, north of Harlem. It was reported that Shabazz was in the audience and covered her girls with her own body on the ballroom floor as the assassins' bullets flew.
Alex Haley wrote in The Autobiography of Malcolm X, "Sister Betty came through the people, herself a nurse, and people recognizing her moved back; she fell on her knees, looking down on his bare, bullet-pocked chest, sobbing, 'They killed him!' "
One of the three assassins was captured at the scene, and all three were members of the Nation of Islam. Alexander Murray Palmer Haley (August 11 1921–February 10 1992 was an American Writer. The Autobiography of Malcolm X (ISBN 0-345-35068-5 was written by Alex Haley between 1964 and 1965 as told to him through conversations with Malcolm conducted shortly Later, each was convicted and sent to prison.
She performed the Hajj in Mecca and considered herself a Sunni Muslim. The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Shabazz held her conviction about the role of the Nation of Islam's role in Malcolm X's assassination until 1995 when she had a public reconciliation with Louis Farrakhan, the head of the Nation of Islam. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Louis Farrakhan (born Louis Eugene Walcott, May 11, 1933) is the Supreme Minister of the Nation of Islam as the National Representative
In the essay for Essence Magazine in 1992, Shabazz confessed, I really don't know where I'd be today if I had not gone to Mecca to make Hajj shortly after Malcolm was assassinated. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) . And that is what helped put me back on track. I remembered one of the things Malcolm always said to me is, 'Don't be bitter. Remember Lot's wife when they kill me, and they surely will. According to the Bible and the Quran, Lot ( Arabic: لوط, Lūṭ |; "Hidden covered" was the Nephew You have to use all of your energy to do what it is you have to do. '
When Malcolm X was assassinated in 1965, the couple had four daughters. Shabazz was pregnant with twins at the time of his assassination. She was a registered nurse, having earned a Bachelor of Science degree from the Brooklyn State Hospital School of Nursing in 1958. She continued her education by enrolling in Jersey City State College. New Jersey City University (NJCU is a Public university in Jersey City, New Jersey. Shabazz was determined to provide for her family and serve as a role model for her children. She received a Bachelor of Arts in public health education from Jersey City State College. She returned to pursue her Master of Arts in public health education from Jersey City State College in 1970. In 1975, she received her Ph. D. in education administration at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. The University of Massachusetts Amherst (otherwise known as UMass Amherst, Massachusetts, or UMass) is a research and Land-grant university in She was a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. Delta Sigma Theta ( ΔΣΘ) Sorority is a Non-profit Greek letter organization of college educated women who perform public service placing emphasis on the
Betty Shabazz raised her six daughters, Attallah, Qubilah, Ilyasah, Gamilah, and twins Malikah and Malaak, in the Islamic faith.
According to daughter Ilyasah Shabazz's autobiography, Growing Up X (2002), after Malcolm X's demise, Betty Shabazz got help from wealthy close friends and celebrities to acquire a large, beautiful home in Mount Vernon, New York for her family. Growing Up X is a 2002 book by Ilyasah Shabazz, a daughter of Malcolm X In the book she talks about growing up as the daughter of an important Mount Vernon is a city in Westchester County New York. It lies on the border of the New York City Borough of the Bronx. Malcolm and Betty had split from The Nation of Islam in 1964 and in turn, the Nation had recently evicted Malcolm and family from the small house it had provided during Malcolm X's ministry, just before the assassination. In her book, Ilyasah writes that Betty Shabazz worked very hard to ensure that her daughters were well provided for. They led sheltered, comfortable, upper middle-class lives, complete with the luxury of housekeepers, chauffeured cars, exclusive social clubs, and expensive, predominantly white private schools, private tutors and summer camps.
In 1976, Shabazz worked at New York's Medgar Evers College as an assistant professor. Medgar Evers College (MEC is a college campus (offering baccalaureate and associate degrees of The City University of New York. She taught health sciences and then became head of public relations at Medgar Evers College. She traveled widely, speaking on topics such as civil rights and racial tolerance. She became a great advocate for the goal of self-determination for African Americans. She also served on many boards, including the African-American Foundation, the Women's Service League and the Day Care Council of Westchester County, New York. Westchester County is a primarily Suburban county located in the U
In 1994, Shabazz spoke out for the first time against the Nation of Islam and linked its current leader, Louis Farrakhan, to Malcolm X's assassination. Farrakhan denied the allegations. He blamed the turbulent and racially hostile atmosphere of the 1960s as the root causes for Malcolm's death.
In January 1995, Betty and Malcolm X's daughter Qubilah Shabazz were charged in Minneapolis with trying to hire an assassin to murder Farrakhan in retaliation for the murder of her father. The assassin turned out to be a government informant. Farrakhan surprised everyone by defending Qubilah. He claimed that she had been manipulated by government agents who wanted to breed ill feelings within the Nation of Islam and throughout the African American community. In May 1995, Shabazz eventually reconciled with Farrakhan, shaking his hand on the stage of Harlem's Apollo Theater at a fundraiser for her daughter's defense. The fundraiser had been arranged by Farrakhan to help pay for Qubilah's legal fees. Betty Shabazz spoke at Farrakhan's Million Man March in October 1995. The Million Man March was a Political march convened by Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan in Washington DC on October 16
Qubilah was not imprisoned for her plot to assassinate Farrakhan. However, she was required to undergo psychological counseling and treatment for drug and alcohol abuse for a two-year period. During this period, Qubilah's 12-year-old son, Malcolm, was sent to live with Shabazz at her apartment in Yonkers, New York. Yonkers is the fourth largest city in the US State of New York (behind Rochester, Buffalo, and New York City) and the largest city in
On June 1, 1997, Betty Shabazz's grandson, Malcolm, set fire to her apartment. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Malcolm Lateef Shabazz ( October 8, 1984) is the only child of Qubilah Muhammad and first grandchild of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz Malcolm Shabazz had been living with Shabazz for a few months at the time of the incident and it was reported that he was unhappy he had been sent to live with his grandmother in Yonkers and that he had wanted to re-join his mother Qubilah in Texas. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Shabazz suffered burns over 80 percent of her body and remained in intensive care for three weeks at the Jacobi Medical Center in Bronx, New York. Jacobi Medical Center is a municipal hospital located in the Morris Park section of the Bronx, New York located at 1400 Pelham Parkway South  She underwent five skin-replacement operations as doctors struggled to replace damaged skin and save her life. Skin grafting is a type of Medical grafting involving the transplantation of Skin.  At the time, doctors had forewarned that patients with her severity of injuries usually had less than a 10 percent chance of survival. Rita Connelly of the Jacobi Medical Center stated that doctors removed 72% of her burned tissue by June 9. Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits Supporters of Shabazz held a blood drive to help her. 
Shabazz died of third degree burns on June 23, 1997, at the age of 61. A burn is a type of Injury that may be caused by Heat, cold, Electricity, Chemicals, Light, Radiation, or Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar 
Police arrested Malcolm Shabazz within hours of the fire being started and accused of setting the blaze.  He was later sentenced to eighteen months in juvenile detention for manslaughter. Manslaughter is a legal term for the killing of a human being in a manner considered by law as less culpable than Murder.
At the time of her death, Betty Shabazz headed the Office of Institutional Advancement and Public Relations at Medgar Evers College in Brooklyn (part of the City University of New York). Medgar Evers College (MEC is a college campus (offering baccalaureate and associate degrees of The City University of New York. The City University of New York (CUNY Acronym ˈkjuːni is the public University system of New York City. More than 2,000 mourners attended a memorial service for Shabazz at New York City's Riverside Church. Many prominent leaders including Coretta Scott King (widow of Martin Luther King, Jr.), Myrlie Evers-Williams (widow of Medgar Evers), poet Maya Angelou, actor-activist Ossie Davis, four New York City mayors—Rudolph Giuliani, David Dinkins, Edward Koch and Abraham Beame; U. Coretta Scott King (April 27 1927 January 30 2006 was an American Author and Activist, perhaps most recognized as the wife of Martin Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader Myrlie Evers-Williams (born March 17, 1933, nee Myrlie Beasley in Vicksburg Mississippi) is an African American activist Medgar Willy Evers ( July 2, 1925 June 12, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist from Mississippi Maya Angelou (ˈmaɪə ˈændʒəloʊ (born Marguerite Ann Johnson on April 4, 1928) is an American Poet, Memoirist Ossie Davis ( December 18 1917 – February 4 2005) was an American Film Actor, director, KBE Per, "Postnominal letters should be included when they are issued by a country or organization the subject has been closely associated with David Norman Dinkins (born July 10 1927 was the Mayor of New York City from 1990 through 1993 being the first and to date only African American to hold that office Edward Irving Koch (born December 12, 1924;) was a United States Congressman from 1969 to 1977 and the Mayor of New York City from 1978 to 1989 Abraham David "Abe" Beame (March 20 1906 – February 10 2001 was Mayor of New York City from 1974 to 1977 S. Representative Maxine Waters and New York Governor George Pataki were present for her memorial service. Maxine Waters (born Maxine Moore Carr on August 15 1938) has served as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is an American politician who was the 53rd Governor of New York serving three consecutive U. S. Secretary of Labor Alexis Herman delivered a tribute from President Bill Clinton. Alexis Margaret Herman (born July 16, 1947 in Mobile Alabama) served as the 23rd U The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States In a statement released after Shabazz's death, black civil rights leader Jesse Jackson said, "She never stopped giving and she never became cynical. Jesse Louis Jackson Sr (born October 8 1941 is an American Civil rights activist and Baptist minister. She leaves today the legacy of one who epitomized hope and healing. "
Shabazz's funeral service was held at the Islamic Cultural Center in New York City. Her wake was at the Unity Funeral Home in Harlem (the same location where Malcolm X's wake was held 32 years before). A wake is a Ceremony associated with death Traditionally a wake takes place in the house of the deceased with the body present however modern wakes are often performed at Betty Shabazz was buried next to her husband, Malcolm X, at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum is located on Secor Road in the hamlet of Hartsdale, town of Greenburgh, Westchester County, New York, about Hartsdale is a hamlet and a census-designated place (CDP located in the town of Greenburgh, Westchester County New York. 
There is a major mosque in Harlem named after Shabazz. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger