The word berry has two meanings: one based on a botanical definition, the other on common identification. Concord grapes are a Cultivar derived from the Grape species Vitis labrusca (a This article refers to the edible fruit For the British construction company see Persimmon plc; for the racehorse see Persimmon (horse. The gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa ( syn R grossularia) is a species of Ribes, native to Europe, northwestern Africa The Red currant ( Ribes rubrum) is a member of the genus Ribes in the Gooseberry family Grossulariaceae, native to parts of western Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life True berries are a simple fruit having seeds and edible pulp produced from a single ovary. A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored In general terms eating (formally ingestion) is the process of consuming Food to provide for the Nutritional needs of an Animal, particularly In the Flowering plants an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or Gynoecium. In common parlance, however, berries are more broadly recognized as small, round or semi-oblong, usually brightly colored, sweet or sour fruit desirable in a healthy diet.
In botany, the berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. In the Flowering plants an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or Gynoecium. A Fruit in Botany refers to a mature ovary. In fleshy fruits the outer often edible layer is the pericarp, which is the tissue that develops The flowers of these plants have a superior ovary and one or more carpels within a thin covering and fleshy interiors. In the Flowering plants an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or Gynoecium. A gynoecium (from Ancient Greek gyne, "woman" is the Female reproductive part of a Flower. The seeds are embedded in the common flesh of the ovary. A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored Examples of botanical berries include the tomato, grape, lychee, loquat, lucuma, plantain, avocado, persimmon, eggplant, guava, uchuva (ground cherry), and chili pepper. The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is The Lychee ( Litchi chinensis) also spelled Litchi (the US FDA spelling or Laichi and Lichu, Chinese: 荔枝 The loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica) is a fruit tree in the subfamily Maloideae of the family Rosaceae, indigenous to southeastern China. The lúcuma ( Pouteria lucuma) is a Subtropical Fruit of Andean origin (sometimes known as lucmo or eggfruit in English native The plantain is a crop in the genus Musa and is generally used for cooking in contrast to the soft sweet Banana (which is sometimes called the The avocado ( Persea americana) (from Nahuatl āhuacatl) also known as aguacate ( Spanish) butter pear or This article refers to the edible fruit For the British construction company see Persimmon plc; for the racehorse see Persimmon (horse. The eggplant, aubergine, or brinjal ( Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades Guava is a Genus of about 100 Species of Tropical Shrubs and small Trees in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. Physalis peruviana, commonly known as Physalis, is indigenous to South America, but was cultivated in South Africa in the region The chili pepper, chilli pepper, or chili, is the fruit of the plants from the Genus Capsicum, which are members of the nightshade
The fruit of citrus, such as the orange, kumquat and lemon, is a modified berry called a hesperidium. Citrus is a common term and Genus of Flowering plants in the family Rutaceae, originating in tropical and subtropical southeast regions of An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn The kumquats or cumquats are a group of small fruit-bearing Trees in the genus Fortunella related to the Citrus in the Flowering The lemon ( Citrus × limon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants A hesperidium (plural hesperidia) is a modified Berry with a tough leathery rind
The fruit of cucumbers and their relatives are modified berries called "pepoes". The cucumber ( Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the Gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same An epigynous berry or false berry is an Accessory fruit found in certain Plant species with an inferior ovary, distinguishing it from A plant that bears berries is referred to as bacciferous.
True berries are distinguishable from false berries like blueberries and cranberries for which the fruit is formed from other parts of the flower, not just the ovary. An epigynous berry or false berry is an Accessory fruit found in certain Plant species with an inferior ovary, distinguishing it from Blueberries are Flowering plants in the genus Vaccinium, sect Cranberries are a group of Evergreen dwarf Shrubs or trailing vines in the genus Vaccinium subgenus Oxycoccos Also not true berries, aggregate fruits like raspberries are collections of small fruits, and accessory fruits like strawberries are formed from parts of the plant other than the flower. A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single Flower or multiple flowers The raspberry (plural raspberries) is the edible Fruit of a multitude of plant species in the subgenus Idaeobatus of the genus Rubus An accessory fruit, false fruit, spurious fruit, epigynous fruit, syconium or pseudocarp is a Fruit where the fleshy Garden strawberries are a common variety of strawberry cultivated worldwide As explained below, none of these is a true berry.
In common parlance, berry refers to any small, sweet, juicy and brightly-colored fruit. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. By contrasting in color with their background, berries are more attractive to animals that eat them, aiding in the dispersal of the plant's seeds. Biological dispersal refers to those processes by which a Species maintains ecosystem Most berries are edible, but some are poisonous. In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by
Berry colors are due to natural pigments synthesized by the plant. For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. Medical research has uncovered medicinal properties of pigmented polyphenols, such as flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins and other phytochemicals localized mainly in berry skins and seeds. Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants characterized by the presence of more than one Phenol unit or building block per molecule The term flavonoid (or bioflavonoid refers to a class of Plant Secondary metabolites According to the IUPAC nomenclature they can be classified into Not to be confused with Anthocyanidin, their sugar free counterparts Tannins are Astringent, bitter plant Polyphenols that either bind and Precipitate or shrink Proteins The astringency from the tannins is what Phytochemicals are plant-derived chemical compounds under scientific research for their potential health-promoting properties but with unproved benefits The skin is the outer covering of living tissue of an animal (or plant A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored Berry pigments are usually antioxidants and thus have oxygen radical absorbance capacity ("ORAC") that is high among plant foods. An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity ( ORAC) is a method of measuring Antioxidant capacities of different foods  Together with good nutrient content, ORAC distinguishes several berries within a new category of functional foods called "superfruits", a rapidly-growing multi-billion dollar industry that began in 2005 and is identified by DataMonitor as one of the top 10 food categories for growth in 2008. Functional food or medicinal food is any fresh or processed Food claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing property beyond the basic Nutritional Superfruit, a marketing term first used in the food and beverage industry in 2005 refers to
A 2007 report combined four criteria — nutrient content, antioxidant qualities, medical research intensity and commercial success — giving an approximate rank of commercial activity for six exotic superfruits, including three berries — wolfberry, sea buckthorn and açaí — as the highest rated. The sea-buckthorns ( Hippophae L are Deciduous Shrubs in the genus Hippophae, family Elaeagnaceae. The açaí palm ( is a member of the genus Euterpe, which contains 7 species of palms native to tropical Central and South America, from
Many "berries" are not actual berries by the scientific definition, but fall into one of these categories:
|True berry||Pepo||Hesperidium||False berry (Epigynous)||Aggregate fruit||Multiple fruit||Other accessory fruit|
|Common parlance||Berry||Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Gooseberry||Cranberry, Blueberry||Blackberry, Raspberry, Boysenberry||Mulberry||Strawberry|
|Not a berry||Tomato, Eggplant, Guava, Lucuma, Chili pepper, Pomegranate, Avocado, Kiwifruit, Grape||Pumpkin, Gourd, Cucumber, Melon||Orange, Lemon, Lime, Grapefruit||Banana||Hedge apple||Pineapple, Fig||Apple, Peach, Cherry, Green bean, Sunflower seed|