|- Density||2,481 /km² (6,427 /sq. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The coat of arms of Berne, which is used by the City, the canton and the district of Berne is on a red field a yellow diagonal band charged The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the states of the Federal state of Switzerland. The Swiss Canton of Berne is Bilingual (Kanton Bern Canton de Berne and has a population of about 958000 In contrast to centrally organised States in the federally constituted Switzerland each Canton iscompletely free to decide its own The District of Berne (German Amtsbezirk Bern) is an administrative district in the canton of Berne, Switzerland. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume mi. )|
|Area||51.6 km² (19.9 sq mi)|
|Elevation||542 m (1,778 ft)|
|- Highest||674 m - Könizberg|
|- Lowest||480 m - Aar|
Aerial view of the Old City of Berne. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare sizes of different geographic regions we list here Areas between 10 km² (1000 Hectares and 100 km² (10000 hectares The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The Aar ( German Aare) a tributary of the Rhine, is the longest River that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. | The Old City of Berne is the Medieval City center of Berne, Switzerland.
|Mayor (list)||Alexander Tschäppät (as of 2008) SPS/PSS|
|Bremgarten bei Bern, Frauenkappelen, Ittigen, Kirchlindach, Köniz, Mühleberg, Muri bei Bern, Neuenegg, Ostermundigen, Wohlen bei Bern, Zollikofen|
|Twin towns||Salzburg (Austria)|
The city of Berne or Bern (German: [b̥ɛrn], French: Berne [bɛʀn], Italian: Berna [ˈbɛrna], Romansh: Berna [ˈbɛrnə], Bernese German: Bärn [b̥æːrn]), is the Bundesstadt (federal city, de facto capital) of Switzerland and, with 128,041 people (agglomeration: 344,000), the fourth most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Romansh or Romansch may refer to Romansh language Romansh people Bernese German is the Dialect of High Alemannic German spoken in the Swiss plateau (Mittelland part of the Canton of Bern and in some neighbouring The term Federal City ( Bundesstadt in German) is a title for certain cities in Germany, Switzerland and Russia, and a historic term Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly.
Most of Berne's residents speak German, or more specifically, Bernese German, which is a high-Alemannic dialect. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Bernese German is the Dialect of High Alemannic German spoken in the Swiss plateau (Mittelland part of the Canton of Bern and in some neighbouring Alemannic German ( Alemannisch) is a group of Dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. The Canton of Berne has a French-speaking part. The Swiss Canton of Berne is Bilingual (Kanton Bern Canton de Berne and has a population of about 958000 French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Very few people still speak the Mattenenglisch, a language game used in the former workers' quarter of Matte, but several words have found their way into Bernese German. Mattenenglisch ( German for 'meadow English' or in Bernese German, Mattenänglisch, is a name for the varieties traditionally spoken in the Matte A language game (also called secret language or ludling) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear
Berne also functions as the capital of the Canton of Berne, the second most populous of Switzerland's cantons. The Swiss Canton of Berne is Bilingual (Kanton Bern Canton de Berne and has a population of about 958000
Illustrious Bernese include the reformer Albrecht von Haller, the poet Albert Bitzius and the painters Hans Fries, Ferdinand Hodler and Paul Klee. Albrecht von Haller ( October 16, 1708 &ndash December 12, 1777) was a Swiss anatomist, Physiologist, Naturalist Albert Bitzius ( October 4, 1797 &ndash October 22, 1854) Swiss Novelist, best known by his pen name of Jeremias Hans Fries (c 1465 in Fribourg, Switzerland – c 1523 in Berne, Switzerland) was a Swiss painter before the Reformation. Ferdinand Hodler ( March 14 1853 &ndash May 19 1918) was one of the best-known Swiss Painters of the 19th century The German-born physicist Albert Einstein worked out his theory of relativity while employed as a clerk at the Berne patent office. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical This page is about the scientific concept of relativity for philosophical or sociological theories about relativity see Relativism. A patent examiner or patent clerk is an Employee, usually a civil servant, working within a Patent office. A culturally important person was Mani Matter, a songwriter performing in Bernese German. Mani Matter ( August 4, 1936 in Herzogenbuchsee &ndash November 24, 1972, officially Hans-Peter Matter) was a popular Bernese German is the Dialect of High Alemannic German spoken in the Swiss plateau (Mittelland part of the Canton of Bern and in some neighbouring
Duke Berchtold V of Zähringen founded the city on the River Aare in 1191 and allegedly named it after a bear (Bär in German) he had killed. A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom Berchtold V of Zähringen (1160 – February 18, 1218 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was Duke of Zähringen until his death succeeding his father The Aar ( German Aare) a tributary of the Rhine, is the longest River that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. It was made an Imperial Free City by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in 1218 after Berthold died without an heir. In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a City formally ruled by the Emperor only &mdash The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Frederick II ( December 26, 1194 &ndash December 13, 1250) of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was a Pretender to the title In 1353 Berne joined the young Swiss Confederation, becoming a leading member of the new state. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation It invaded and conquered Aargau in 1415 and Vaud in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, thereby becoming the largest city-state north of the Alps. Aargau ( German; rarely anglicized Argovia) is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland. The Canton of Vaud ( French pronunciation) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and is located in Romandy, the southwestern part of the A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. It was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars, when it was stripped of most of its territories. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1792 until 1802 fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states In 1831 the city became the capital of the Canton of Berne and in 1848 it additionally became the Swiss capital.
The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aar. The Aar ( German Aare) a tributary of the Rhine, is the longest River that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. Initially, the Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345, which, in turn, was then succeeded by the Christoffelturm (located close to today's train station) until 1622. The Zytglogge tower is a Landmark medieval Tower in Berne, Switzerland. During the time of the Thirty Years' War two new fortifications, the so-called big and small Schanze (entrenchment), were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. The protection by these edifices was sufficient for the prosperous growth of the city of Berne up to the 19th century.
A number of congresses of the socialist First and Second Internationals were held in Berne, particularly during World War I when Switzerland was neutral. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All (See Berne International. The term Berne International refers to the skeleton continuation formally called the International Socialist Commission (ISC of the Socialist Second International )
Berne lies in the Swiss plateau part of the Canton of Berne, somewhat west of the center of Switzerland and 20 km north of the Alps. The Swiss Plateau ( plateau suisse in French, Schweizer Mittelland in German) constitutes one of the three major landscapes in The Swiss Canton of Berne is Bilingual (Kanton Bern Canton de Berne and has a population of about 958000 The Swiss Alps (Schweizer Alpen Alpes suisses Alpi svizzere Alps svizras are the central portion of the Alps Mountain range that lies within The landscape around Berne was formed by glaciers in the last ice age. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets The two mountains closest to Berne are the Gurten with a height of 858 meters and the Bantiger with a height of 947 meters. The site of the old observatory in Berne is the origin (600 000/200 000) of the CH1903 coordinate system, its international coordinates are . The Swiss coordinate system (or Swiss grid) is a Geographic coordinate system used in Switzerland for maps and Surveying by the Swiss Federal
The city was originally built on a mountain engulfed by the river Aar but outgrew the natural boundaries of the river in the 19th century. The Aar ( German Aare) a tributary of the Rhine, is the longest River that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. The following bridges were built to allow the city to grow outside of the boundaries imposed by the river:
The city is built on very uneven ground. There are several dozens of meters in height difference from the quarters down at the Aar (e. g. Matte, Marzili) to the higher ones (e. g. Kirchenfeld, Länggasse).
Berne is governed by an 80-member legislative council (Stadtrat) and a 5-member executive council (Gemeinderat).
As of 2005, the representatives of the Social Democratic Party and of the three Green parties hold a majority in both councils (3 to 2 and 43 to 37, respectively). The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Socialist Party of Switzerland Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz (SP Parti socialiste suisse (PS Partito Socialista The Green Party of Switzerland (Grüne Partei der Schweiz Les verts Parti écologiste suisse I Verdi Partito ecologista svizzero La Verda Partida ecologica svizra "The Greens Swiss For this reason, it is they, collectively referred to as "Red-Green-Center" (Rot-Grün-Mitte), who mostly determine City policy, although no formal coalition agreement exists and, under the system of direct democracy that prevails in Switzerland, most important issues are settled by general referendum. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita The other major political parties of Berne are the Free Democratic Party (FDP, free-market liberal) and the Swiss People's Party (SVP, nationalist, conservative). Political parties in Switzerland lists political parties in Switzerland. The Free Democratic Party of Switzerland (Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz (FDP Parti radical-démocratique suisse (PRD Partito liberale radicale svizzero (PLR Partida The Swiss People's Party (SVP also known as the Democratic Union of the Centre (UDC is a Political party in Switzerland.
The office of mayor (Stadtpräsident), as a primus inter pares (First among equals) in the executive council, is mostly representative. As of 2005, the mayor of Berne is Alexander Tschäppät of the Social Democrats. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Socialist Party of Switzerland Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz (SP Parti socialiste suisse (PS Partito Socialista
Berne's city center is largely medieval and has been recognised by UNESCO as a Cultural World Heritage Site. | The Old City of Berne is the Medieval City center of Berne, Switzerland. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Perhaps its most famous sight is the Zytglogge, an elaborate medieval clock tower with moving puppets. The Zytglogge tower is a Landmark medieval Tower in Berne, Switzerland. It also has an impressive 15th century Gothic cathedral, the Münster, and a 15th century town hall. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. The Münster of Berne (German Berner Münster) is the Gothic Cathedral (or minster) in the old city of Berne, Switzerland Thanks to 6 kilometers of arcades, the old town boasts one of the longest covered shopping promenades in Europe.
Since the 16th century, the city has had a bear pit (the Bärengraben), which can be visited off the far end of the Nydeggbrücke. The Bärengraben, or Bear Pit is a well-known tourist attraction an enclosure housing Bears just at the eastern edge of the Altstadt of Berne, next to The Federal Palace (Bundeshaus), dating from 1902, which houses the national parliament and part of the federal administration, can also be visited. The Federal Palace of Switzerland ( German: Bundeshaus, French: Palais fédéral, Italian: Palazzo federale; Latin The Federal Assembly (in German, Bundesversammlung; in French, Assemblée fédérale; in Italian, Assemblea federale
Einstein lived in an apartment at the Kramgasse 49, the site of the Einsteinhaus, from 1903 to 1905, the year in which the Annus Mirabilis Papers were published. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical The Kramgasse ("Grocers Alley" is one of the principal streets in the Old City of Berne, the medieval city center of Berne, Switzerland. The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin, Annus mirabilis, for 'extraordinary year' are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the "
The Garden of Roses (Rosengarten), from where a scenic panorama view of the medieval city core can be enjoyed, is a well-kept Rosary on a hill, converted into a park from a former cemetery in 1913. A rose is a perennial flowering Shrub or vine of the Genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae, that contains over 100 species A park is a protected area of Land and Water, usually in its natural or semi-natural (landscaped state and set aside for some purpose often to do with human
Berne's most recent sight is the set of fountains in front of the Federal Palace. It was inaugurated on August 1, 2004. Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
Berne features many heritage sites of national significance. The Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance (Schweizerisches Inventar der Kulturgüter von nationaler und regionaler Bedeutung Inventaire suisse  Apart from the entire Old Town and many sites within it, these include the Bärengraben, the Gewerbeschule Bern (1937), the Eidgenössisches Archiv für Denkmalpflege, the Kirchenfeld mansion district (after 1881), the Thunplatzbrunnen, the Federal Mint building, the Federal Archives, the Swiss National Library, the Historical Museum (1894), Alpine Museum, Museum of Communication and Natural History Museum. | The Old City of Berne is the Medieval City center of Berne, Switzerland. The Bärengraben, or Bear Pit is a well-known tourist attraction an enclosure housing Bears just at the eastern edge of the Altstadt of Berne, next to This article is about the official Swiss mint Unrelated thereto "Swissmint" is also the name of a Canadian financial services company The Swiss National Library is the National library of Switzerland. The Historical Museum of Bern is the second largest historical Museum in Switzerland.
Berne features numerous museums including:
Berne is rich of cultural offerings for every taste.
Berne has several dozens of movie theaters. Berne Theatre known in the city as Stadttheater Bern is an Opera house and Theatre in Berne, Switzerland. The Tojo Theater is a Theater in Berne, Switzerland. As is customary in Switzerland, movies are generally shown in their original language (e. g. , English) with subtitling in German and French. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Only a small number of screenings are dubbed in German. Program information is available through e. g. the Cineman website.
The football team BSC Young Boys is based in Berne at the Stade de Suisse Wankdorf, which also is one of the venues for the European football championship. BSC Young Boys (officially Berner Sport Club Young Boys 1898 is a Swiss sports club based in Berne. The Stade de Suisse Wankdorf is a football stadium in Bern, Switzerland. The 2008 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as Euro 2008, was the 13th UEFA European Football Championship, a quadrennial football
SC Bern is the major ice hockey team of Berne who plays at the PostFinance Arena. History The ice hockey section of the Bern Sports Club which was established on November 3, 1930, officially began playing on January 1, 1931 PostFinance-Arena (originally known as Eisstadion Allmend and Bern Arena) is an Arena in Bern, Switzerland.
Berne has a University, a University of Applied Science and several vocational schools. The University of Berne is a University in the Swiss capital of Berne.
The University of Berne is spread over several buildings which are mainly located in the Länggasse quarter. The University of Berne is a University in the Swiss capital of Berne.
The University of Applied Science (Fachhochschule) is also located in Berne.
Public transport works well in Bern, with tram and bus lines which connect the different parts of the City. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train Bern Rail Station connects the City to the national and international train network. Bern is a Swiss Federal Railways station in Berne, Switzerland. A funicular leads from the Marzili quarter to the Bundeshaus. This funicular is, with a length of 106 m, the shortest public railway in Europe. The Drahtseilbahn Marzili-Stadt Bern (short form Marzilibahn) is a Funicular in Bern, the capital of Switzerland. Several Aar bridges connect the old parts of the city with the newer quarters outside of the peninsula. This is a list of the 18 Bridges spanning the river Aar on the territory of the city of Berne, Switzerland.
Berne is served by Berne Airport, located outside the city near the village of Belp. Berne Airport, which serves Berne, Switzerland, is actually closer to the village of Belp. Belp is a municipality in the district of Seftigen in the canton of Berne in Switzerland. The regional airport, colloquially called Bern-Belp or Belpmoos, is connected to several Swiss and European cities.
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