18 October 1785 – 1 December 1788
|Preceded by||John Dickinson|
|Succeeded by||Thomas Mifflin|
1765 – 1765
|Preceded by||Isaac Norris|
|Succeeded by||Isaac Norris|
1778 – 1785
|Appointed by||Congress of the Confederation|
|Preceded by||New office|
|Succeeded by||Thomas Jefferson|
1782 – 1783
|Appointed by||Congress of the Confederation|
|Preceded by||New office|
|Succeeded by||Jonathan Russell|
|Born||January 17, 1706|
|Died||April 17, 1790 (aged 84)|
Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1706] – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. Governors Pennsylvania was one of the original Thirteen colonies, and was admitted as a state on December 12 1787 Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 1785 ( MDCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap John Dickinson ( November 8 1732 – February 14 1808) was an American Lawyer and Politician from Philadelphia Thomas Mifflin (January 10 1744 &ndash January 20 1800 was an American Merchant and Politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The speaker of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives holds the oldest state-wide Elected office in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, also known as the Colonial Assembly the General Assembly or simply the Pennsylvania Assembly was the representative branch of government in the Isaac Norris (3 October 1701 – 13 June 1766 was a merchant and statesman in provincial Pennsylvania. Isaac Norris (3 October 1701 – 13 June 1766 was a merchant and statesman in provincial Pennsylvania. The United States has sent Ambassadors to France since the American Revolution. The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was the governing body of the United States of America from March 1, Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence The United States Ambassador to Sweden serves as the chief representative of the United States Foreign Service to the country of Sweden, and prior to 1905 also to The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was the governing body of the United States of America from March 1, Jonathan Russell ( February 27, 1771 – February 17, 1832 was a United States Representative from Massachusetts and diplomat Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Year 1706 ( MDCCVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Deborah Read ( February 14, 1708 &ndash December 24, 1774) was the spouse of Benjamin Franklin, a prominent inventor printer thinker A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices A writer is anyone who creates a written work although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally as well as those who have written in many different forms A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Year 1706 ( MDCCVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 1706 ( MDCCVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Founding Fathers of the United States are the Political leaders who signed the Declaration of Independence or otherwise participated in the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author and printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman and diplomat. A polymath ( Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής "having learned much" is a person whose knowledge is not restricted to one subject area An author is defined both as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created A printer is a company that provides commercial Printing services often also offering Typesetting and Book-binding services Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human This is a list of political philosophers, including some who may be better known for their work in other areas of philosophy A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method form device or other useful means Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change A statesman or stateswoman or statesperson is usually a Politician or other notable figure of State who has had a long and respected career in Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states As a scientist he was a major figure in the Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. The American Enlightenment is a term sometimes employed to describe the intellectual culture of the British North American colonies and the early United States (as they became The modern discipline of Physics emerged in the 17th century following in traditions of inquiry established by Galileo Galilei, René Descartes, Isaac He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and a musical instrument. A lightning rod (USA or lightning conductor (UK is a single component in a Lightning protection system. Bifocals are Eyeglasses whose Corrective lenses each contain regions with two distinct Optical powers Bifocals are most commonly prescribed to people with The Franklin stove (named after its inventor Benjamin Franklin) is a metal-lined Fireplace with Baffles in the rear to improve the airflow providing more An odometer (often known colloquially as a mileometer or milometer) is a device used for indicating Distance traveled by an Automobile or other The glass harmonica, also known as the glass armonica, hydrocrystalophone, or simply armonica (derived from "armonia" the Italian He formed both the first public lending library in America and first fire department in Pennsylvania. A public library (also called circulating library) is a Library which is accessible by the Public and is generally funded from public sources (such A fire station (also called stationhouse) is a structure or other area set aside for storage of firefighting apparatus (i He was an early proponent of colonial unity and as a political writer and activist he, more than anyone, invented the idea of an American nation and as a diplomat during the American Revolution, he secured the French alliance that helped to make independence possible. The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots"
Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Franklin learned printing from his older brother and became a newspaper editor, printer, and merchant in Philadelphia, becoming very wealthy, writing and publishing Poor Richard's Almanack and the Pennsylvania Gazette. The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony chartered October 7, 1691 in North America by William and Mary, the joint Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Poor Richard's Almanack (sometimes Almanac) was a yearly Almanack published by Benjamin Franklin, who adopted the Pseudonym of "Poor The Pennsylvania Gazette was one of the United States ' most prominent Newspapers from 1723, before the time period of the American Revolution Franklin was interested in science and technology, and gained international renown for his famous experiments. He played a major role in establishing the University of Pennsylvania and Franklin & Marshall College and was elected the first president of the American Philosophical Society. The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn) is a private University located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Franklin & Marshall College (abbreviated as " F&M " is a four-year private co-educational liberal arts college in Lancaster Pennsylvania. The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin as an offshoot of his earlier club the Junto. Franklin became a national hero in America when he spearheaded the effort to have Parliament repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. A hero (from Greek grc ἥρως hērōs) in Greek mythology and Folklore, was originally a Demigod, the offspring of a mortal and The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III c An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. From 1775 to 1776, Franklin was Postmaster General under the Continental Congress and from 1785 to 1788 was President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania. The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (also known as The Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania and where state affiliation was understood The Toward the end of his life, he became one of the most prominent abolitionists. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies
Franklin's colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, and status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, has seen Franklin honored on coinage and money; warships; the names of many towns, counties, educational institutions, namesakes, and companies; and more than two centuries after his death, countless cultural references.
Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was born at Ecton, Northamptonshire, England on December 23, 1657, the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith and farmer, and Jane White. Josiah Franklin (1657-1745 was the father of Benjamin Franklin. For the hamlet of Ecton in the Staffordshire Peak District see Ecton Staffordshire. Northamptonshire (or archaically the County of Northampton; abbreviated Northants England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 962 - Byzantine-Arab Wars: Under the future Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, Byzantine troops stormed the city blacksmith is a person who creates objects from Iron or Steel by Forging the Metal; i A farmer is a person who raises living organisms for food or raw materials His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher and his wife Mary Morrill, a former indentured servant. Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Mary Morrill (akas Morrel/Morrills/Morill (b Circa 1620 &ndash d An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to A descendant of the Folgers, J. A. Folger, founded Folgers Coffee in the 19th century. James Athearn ("JA" Folger ( June 17 1835 - June 26 1889) was the founder of the Folgers Coffee Company Folgers Coffee is a major brand of Coffee in the US, part of the food and beverage division of Procter & Gamble.
Josiah Franklin had seventeen children by his two wives. His first wife was Anne Child, who he married about 1677 in Ecton and immigrated to Boston with in 1683; they had three children before immigrating and four after. After her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9, 1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard. Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. The Old South Meeting House, in Boston, Massachusetts, gained fame as the organizing point for the Boston Tea Party on December 16, Reverend Samuel Willard ( January 31, 1640 - September 12, 1707) was a Colonial Clergyman He was born in Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin's fifteenth child and tenth and last son.
Josiah Franklin converted to the Puritan Church in the 1670's. Puritanism was a protestant movement in England to "purify" Anglicism from elements of the Roman Catholic religion, which they considered superstitious. Three things were important to the Puritans: that each congregation would be self-governing, that ministers gave sermons instead of performing rituals such as the mass, and individual Bible study so that each believer could develop a personal understanding and relationship with God. Puritanism appealed to smart, middle class people such as Benjamin Franklin's father, who enjoyed the governance meetings, discussion, study and personal independence. The roots of American democracy can be seen in these Puritan values, which were passed onto Benjamin Franklin and other founding fathers such as John Adams. 
Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street in Boston on January 17, 1706 and baptized at Old South Meeting House. The Old South Meeting House, in Boston, Massachusetts, gained fame as the organizing point for the Boston Tea Party on December 16, Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Year 1706 ( MDCCVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Infant baptism is the Christian religious practice of baptizing infants or young children His father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a maker of candles and soap, whose second wife, Abiah Folger, was Benjamin's mother. Tallow is a rendered form of Beef or Mutton Fat, processed from Suet. Josiah's marriages produced 17 children; Benjamin was the fifteenth child and youngest son. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy but only had enough money to send him to school for two years. He attended Boston Latin School but did not graduate; he continued his education through voracious reading. The Boston Latin School is a public exam school founded on April 23 1635, in Boston, Massachusetts, making it the Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" for Franklin, his schooling ended when he was ten. He then worked for his father for a time and at 12 he became an apprentice to his brother James, a printer. Apprenticeship is a system of Training a new generation of practitioners of a skill When Ben was 15, James created the New England Courant, the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies. The history of American newspapers goes back to the 17th century with the publication of the first colonial newspapers When denied the option to write to the paper, Franklin invented the pseudonym of Mrs. Silence Dogood, who was ostensibly a middle-aged widow. The letters were published in the paper and became a subject of conversation around town. Neither James nor the Courant's readers were aware of the ruse, and James was unhappy with Ben when he discovered the popular correspondent was his younger brother. Franklin left his apprenticeship without permission and in so doing became a fugitive. 
At age 17, Franklin ran away to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, seeking a new start in a new city. When he first arrived he worked in several printer shops around town. However, he was not satisfied by the immediate prospects. After a few months, while working in a printing house, Franklin was convinced by Pennsylvania Governor Sir William Keith to go to London, ostensibly to acquire the equipment necessary for establishing another newspaper in Philadelphia. William Keith (1669-1749 was a lieutenant-governor of colonial Pennsylvania and Delaware. Finding Keith's promises of backing a newspaper to be empty, Franklin worked as a compositor in a printer's shop in what is now the Church of St Bartholomew-the-Great in the Smithfield area of London. Compositing is the combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene The Priory Church of St Bartholomew-the-Great is an Anglican church located at West Smithfield in the City of London, founded as an Augustinian Smithfield (also known as West Smithfield) is an area in the north-west part of the City of London, mostly known for its centuries-old meat market and its bloody history Following this, he returned to Philadelphia in 1726 with the help of a merchant named Thomas Denham, who gave Franklin a position as clerk, shopkeeper, and bookkeeper in Denham's merchant business. 
In 1727, Benjamin Franklin, 21, created the Junto, a group of "like minded aspiring artisans and tradesmen who hoped to improve themselves while they improved their community. This is about the Philadelphia club c 1730 For other uses see Junto (disambiguation. " The Junto was a discussion group for issues of the day; it subsequently gave rise to many organizations in Philadelphia.
Reading was a great pastime of the Junto, but books were rare and expensive. The members created a library, and initially pooled their own books together. This did not work, however, and Franklin initiated the idea of a subscription library, where the members pooled their monetary resources to buy books. This idea was the birth of the Library Company, with the charter of the Library Company of Philadelphia created in 1731 by Franklin. The Library Company of Philadelphia ( LCP) is a Philadelphia Pennsylvania -based Non-profit organization.
Originally, the books were kept in the homes of the first librarians, but in 1739 the collection was moved to the second floor of the State House of Pennsylvania, now known as Independence Hall. Independence In 1791, a new building was built specifically for the library. The Library Company flourished with no competition and gained many priceless collections from bibliophiles such as James Logan and his physician brother William. The Library Company is now a great scholarly and research library with 500,000 rare books, pamphlets, and broadsides, more than 160,000 manuscripts, and 75,000 graphic items.
Upon Denham's death, Franklin returned to his former trade. By 1730, Franklin had set up a printing house of his own and had contrived to become the publisher of a newspaper called The Pennsylvania Gazette. The Gazette gave Franklin a forum for agitation about a variety of local reforms and initiatives through printed essays and observations. Over time, his commentary, together with a great deal of savvy about cultivating a positive image of an industrious and intellectual young man, earned him a great deal of social respect; though even after Franklin had achieved fame as a scientist and statesman, he habitually signed his letters with the unpretentious 'B. Franklin, Printer. '
In 1731, Franklin was initiated into the local Freemason lodge, becoming a grand master in 1734, indicating his rapid rise to prominence in Pennsylvania.  That same year, he edited and published the first Masonic book in the Americas, a reprint of James Anderson's Constitutions of the Free-Masons. There are a number of manuscripts that are historically important in the development of Freemasonry. Franklin remained a Freemason throughout the rest of his life. 
In 1724, while a boarder in the Read home, Franklin had courted Deborah Read before going to London at Governor Keith's request. At that time, Miss Read's mother was wary of allowing her daughter to wed a seventeen-year old who was on his way to London. Her own husband having recently died, Mrs. Read declined Franklin's offer of marriage. 
While Franklin was in London, Deborah married a man named John Rodgers. This proved to be a regrettable decision. Rodgers shortly avoided his debts and prosecution by fleeing to Barbados, leaving Deborah behind. Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation With Rodgers' fate unknown, and bigamy illegal, Deborah was not free to formally remarry.
In 1730, Franklin acknowledged an illegitimate son named William, who would eventually become the last Loyalist governor of New Jersey. William Franklin (1731- November 17, 1813) was the last Colonial Governor of New Jersey. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. While the identity of William's mother remains unknown, perhaps the responsibility of an infant child gave Franklin a reason to take up residence with Deborah Read. William was raised in the Franklin household but eventually broke with his father over the treatment of the colonies at the hands of the crown. However, he was not above using his father's fame to enhance his own standing.
Franklin established a common-law marriage with Deborah Read on September 1, 1730. Common-law marriage (or Common law marriage) sometimes called de facto marriage, informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1730 ( MDCCXXX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In addition to raising William, Benjamin and Deborah Franklin had two children together. The first, Francis Folger Franklin, born October 1732, died of smallpox in 1736. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. Sarah Franklin, nicknamed Sally, was born in 1743. Sarah Franklin Bache ( September 11, 1743 - October 5, 1808) was the daughter of Benjamin Franklin and Deborah Read. She eventually married Richard Bache, had seven children, and cared for her father in his old age. Richard Bache (1737–1811 born in Yorkshire England, married the only daughter of Benjamin Franklin in 1767 having immigrated to New York City in 1765
Deborah's fear of the sea meant that she never accompanied Franklin on any of his extended trips to Europe, despite his repeated requests.
In 1733, Franklin began to publish the famous Poor Richard's Almanack (with content both original and borrowed) under the pseudonym Richard Saunders, on which much of his popular reputation is based. Poor Richard's Almanack (sometimes Almanac) was a yearly Almanack published by Benjamin Franklin, who adopted the Pseudonym of "Poor A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) Franklin frequently wrote under pseudonyms. Although it was no secret that Franklin was the author, his Richard Saunders character repeatedly denied it. "Poor Richard's Proverbs," adages from this almanac, such as "A penny saved is twopence dear" (often misquoted as "A penny saved is a penny earned"), "Fish and visitors stink in three days" remain common quotations in the modern world. Wisdom in folk society meant the ability to provide an apt adage for any occasion, and Franklin's readers became well prepared. He sold about ten thousand copies per year (a circulation equal to nearly three million today). 
In 1758, the year in which he ceased writing for the Almanack, he printed Father Abraham's Sermon, also known as The Way to Wealth. "The Way to Wealth" is an essay written by Benjamin Franklin in 1758 Franklin's autobiography, published after his death, has become one of the classics of the genre.
Franklin was a prodigious inventor. Among his many creations were the lightning rod, the glass harmonica, the Franklin stove, bifocal glasses, and the flexible urinary catheter. A lightning rod (USA or lightning conductor (UK is a single component in a Lightning protection system. The glass harmonica, also known as the glass armonica, hydrocrystalophone, or simply armonica (derived from "armonia" the Italian The Franklin stove (named after its inventor Benjamin Franklin) is a metal-lined Fireplace with Baffles in the rear to improve the airflow providing more Bifocals are Eyeglasses whose Corrective lenses each contain regions with two distinct Optical powers Bifocals are most commonly prescribed to people with In urinary catheterization, a plastic tube known as a urinary Catheter (such as a Foley catheter) is inserted into a patient's bladder via their Franklin never patented his inventions; in his autobiography he wrote, ". . . as we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours; and this we should do freely and generously. " His inventions also included social innovations, such as paying forward. Social innovation refers to new Strategies, Concepts, Ideas and Organizations that meet Social needs of all kinds - from working ----The expression " pay it forward " is used to describe the concept of Third party beneficiary in which a creditor who offers the debtor the option of "paying"
As deputy postmaster, Franklin became interested in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation patterns which carried mail ships. Franklin worked with Timothy Folger, his cousin and experienced Nantucket whaler captain, and other experienced ship captains, learning enough to chart the Gulf Stream, giving it the name by which it's still known today. The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful warm and swift Atlantic Ocean current that It took many years for British sea captains to follow Franklin's advice on navigating the current, but once they did, they were able to gain two weeks in sailing time. 
In 1743, Franklin founded the American Philosophical Society to help scientific men discuss their discoveries and theories. The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin as an offshoot of his earlier club the Junto. He began the electrical research that, along with other scientific inquiries, would occupy him for the rest of his life, in between bouts of politics and moneymaking. 
In 1748, he retired from printing and went into other businesses. He created a partnership with his foreman, David Hall, which provided Franklin with half of the shop's profits for 18 years. This lucrative business arrangement provided leisure time for study, and in a few years he had made discoveries that gave him a reputation with the educated throughout Europe and especially in France.
His discoveries included his investigations of electricity. Franklin proposed that "vitreous" and "resinous" electricity were not different types of "electrical fluid" (as electricity was called then), but the same electrical fluid under different pressures. See also the disambiguation page for Aether. Alchemy, Natural philosophy, and early modern Physics proposed the existence He was the first to label them as positive and negative respectively, and he was the first to discover the principle of conservation of charge. Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some Subatomic particles which determines their Electromagnetic interaction. Charge conservation is the principle that Electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed  In 1750, he published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is electricity by flying a kite in a storm that appeared capable of becoming a lightning storm. A kite is a flying tethered object that depends upon the tension of a tethering system A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical body's atmosphere, especially affecting its surface and strongly implying Severe weather. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or On May 10, 1752, Thomas-François Dalibard of France conducted Franklin's experiment (using a 40-foot-tall iron rod instead of a kite) and extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Year 1752 ( MDCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar for European countries but not Great Britain) of Thomas-François Dalibard was born in Crannes-en-Champagne, France in 1709 and died in 1799 On June 15, Franklin may have possibly conducted his famous kite experiment in Philadelphia and also successfully extracted sparks from a cloud, although there are theories that suggest he never performed the experiment. Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history St Stephen's Episcopal Church is an historic Parish of the Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania, founded in 1822 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. Franklin's experiment was not written up until Joseph Priestley's 1767 History and Present Status of Electricity; the evidence shows that Franklin was insulated (not in a conducting path, since he would have been in danger of electrocution in the event of a lightning strike). Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 ( Old "Electrocute" redirects here For the band see Electrocute (band. (Others, such as Prof. Georg Wilhelm Richmann of Saint Petersburg, Russia, were electrocuted during the months following Franklin's experiment. Georg Wilhelm Richmann (Russian Георг Вильгельм Рихман (July 22 1711 ( old style: July 11 1711 &ndash August 6 1753 (old style July 26 1753 Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River ) In his writings, Franklin indicates that he was aware of the dangers and offered alternative ways to demonstrate that lightning was electrical, as shown by his use of the concept of electrical ground. In Electrical engineering, the term ground or earth has several meanings depending on the specific application areas If Franklin did perform this experiment, he did not do it in the way that is often described, flying the kite and waiting to be struck by lightning, as it would have been fatal.  Instead, he used the kite to collect some electric charge from a storm cloud, which implied that lightning was electrical.
On October 19 in a letter to England explaining directions for repeating the experiment, Franklin wrote:
"When rain has wet the kite twine so that it can conduct the electric fire freely, you will find it streams out plentifully from the key at the approach of your knuckle, and with this key a phial, or Leiden jar, maybe charged: and from electric fire thus obtained spirits may be kindled, and all other electric experiments [may be] performed which are usually done by the help of a rubber glass globe or tube; and therefore the sameness of the electrical matter with that of lightening completely demonstrated. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. "
Franklin's electrical experiments led to his invention of the lightning rod. He noted that conductors with a sharp rather than a smooth point were capable of discharging silently, and at a far greater distance. He surmised that this knowledge could be of use in protecting buildings from lightning, by attaching "upright Rods of Iron, made sharp as a Needle and gilt to prevent Rusting, and from the Foot of those Rods a Wire down the outside of the Building into the Ground;. . . Would not these pointed Rods probably draw the Electrical Fire silently out of a Cloud before it came nigh enough to strike, and thereby secure us from that most sudden and terrible Mischief!" Following a series of experiments on Franklin's own house, lightning rods were installed on the Academy of Philadelphia (later the University of Pennsylvania) and the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall) in 1752. 
In recognition of his work with electricity, Franklin received the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1753, and in 1756 he became one of the few eighteenth century Americans to be elected as a Fellow of the Society. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 The Copley Medal is a scientific award for distinguished achievement in any field of Science established by the Royal Society of London in 1731 The cgs unit of electric charge has been named after him: one franklin (Fr) is equal to one statcoulomb. The centimetre-gram-second system ( CGS) is a system of physical units. The statcoulomb ( statC) or franklin ( Fr) or electrostatic unit of charge ( esu) is the physical unit for Electrical
On October 21, 1743, according to popular myth, a storm moving from the southwest denied Franklin the opportunity of witnessing a lunar eclipse. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 1743 ( MDCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earth's shadow Franklin was said to have noted that the prevailing winds were actually from the northeast, contrary to what he had expected. The prevailing winds are the trends in speed and direction of Wind over a particular point on the Earth 's surface In correspondence with his brother, Franklin learned that the same storm had not reached Boston until after the eclipse, despite the fact that Boston is to the northeast of Philadelphia. He deduced that storms do not always travel in the direction of the prevailing wind, a concept which would have great influence in meteorology. Meteorology (from Greek grc μετέωρος metéōros, "high in the sky" and grc -λογία -logia) is the Interdisciplinary 
Franklin noted a principle of refrigeration by observing that on a very hot day, he stayed cooler in a wet shirt in a breeze than he did in a dry one. Refrigeration is the process of removing Heat from an enclosed space or from a substance and moving it to a place where it is unobjectionable To understand this phenomenon more clearly Franklin conducted experiments. On one warm day in Cambridge, England, in 1758, Franklin and fellow scientist John Hadley experimented by continually wetting the ball of a mercury thermometer with ether and using bellows to evaporate the ether. The city of Cambridge (ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒ is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England The thermometer is a device that measures Temperature or Temperature gradient using a variety of different principles it comes from the Greek roots Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear colorless and highly Flammable liquid with a low Boiling point and a A bellows is a device for delivering pressurized Air in a controlled quantity to a controlled location With each subsequent evaporation, the thermometer read a lower temperature, eventually reaching 7 °F (-14 °C). Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e Another thermometer showed the room temperature to be constant at 65 °F (18 °C). Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature In his letter "Cooling by Evaporation," Franklin noted that "one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer’s day. Evaporative coolers (also called swamp, desert, or air coolers) are devices that cool air through the simple Evaporation of water "
Franklin is known to have played the violin, the harp, and the guitar. The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member The harp is a Stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles He also composed music, notably a string quartet in early classical style, and invented a much-improved version of the glass harmonica, in which each glass was made to rotate on its own, with the player's fingers held steady, instead of the other way around; this version soon found its way to Europe. A string quartet is a Musical ensemble of four String instruments &mdash usually two Violins a Viola and Cello &mdash or a piece The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as 1750 to 1810 The glass harmonica, also known as the glass armonica, hydrocrystalophone, or simply armonica (derived from "armonia" the Italian 
In 1736, Franklin created the Union Fire Company, one of the first volunteer fire fighting companies in America. The Union Fire Company, whose volunteers provided firefighting services to Philadelphia Pennsylvania, from 1736 to 1871 was one of the first organized fire brigade in what Distinguish from a Firefight, which means a battle with firearms In the same year, he printed a new currency for New Jersey based on innovative anti-counterfeiting techniques which he had devised. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. A counterfeit is an imitation that is made usually with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins
As he matured, Franklin began to concern himself more with public affairs. In 1743, he set forth a scheme for The Academy and College of Philadelphia. The Academy and College of Philadelphia in Philadelphia Pennsylvania, USA, is considered by many to have been the first American Academy. He was appointed president of the academy in November 13, 1749, and it opened on August 13, 1751. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St Year 1749 ( MDCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1751 ( MDCCLI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a At its first commencement, on May 17, 1757, seven men graduated; six with a Bachelor of Arts and one as Master of Arts. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1757 ( MDCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a A Master of Arts ( Latin: Magister Artium) is a Postgraduate academic Master's degree awarded by universities in a large It was later merged with the University of the State of Pennsylvania to become the University of Pennsylvania.
In 1751, Franklin and Dr. Thomas Bond obtained a charter from the Pennsylvania legislature to establish a hospital. Thomas Bond ( May 2, 1712 – March 26, 1784) was an American Physician and surgeon. Pennsylvania Hospital was the first hospital in what was to become the United States of America. Pennsylvania Hospital ("Pennsy" is a Hospital in Center City Philadelphia currently affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania Health System
Franklin became involved in Philadelphia politics and rapidly progressed. In October 1748, he was selected as a councilman, in June 1749 he became a Justice of the Peace for Philadelphia, and in 1751 he was elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly. A Justice of the Peace ( JP) is a Puisne Judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace The Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, also known as the Colonial Assembly the General Assembly or simply the Pennsylvania Assembly was the representative branch of government in the On August 10, 1753, Franklin was appointed joint deputy postmaster-general of North America. Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire Year 1753 ( MDCCLIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year His most notable service in domestic politics was his reform of the postal system, but his fame as a statesman rests chiefly on his subsequent diplomatic services in connection with the relations of the colonies with Great Britain, and later with France. 
In 1754, he headed the Pennsylvania delegation to the Albany Congress. This meeting of several colonies had been requested by the Board of Trade in England to improve relations with the Indians and defense against the French. The Board of Trade is a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, originating as a committee of inquiry in the 17th century and evolving gradually into a government Franklin proposed a broad Plan of Union for the colonies. While the plan was not adopted, elements of it found their way into the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, also the Articles of Confederation was the governing Constitution of the alliance of thirteen independent and
In 1757, he was sent to England by the Pennsylvania Assembly as a colonial agent to protest against the political influence of the Penn family, the proprietors of the colony. He remained there for five years, striving to end the proprietors' prerogative to overturn legislation from the elected Assembly, and their exemption from paying taxes on their land. His lack of influential allies in Whitehall led to the failure of this mission. Whitehall is a road in Westminster in London, England. It is the main artery running north from Parliament Square, towards traditional In 1759, the University of St Andrews awarded him an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree. The University of St Andrews is the oldest University in Scotland and third oldest in the English-speaking world, having been founded between In 1762, Oxford University awarded Franklin an honorary doctorate for his scientific accomplishments and from then on he went by "Doctor Franklin. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the " He also managed to secure a post for his illegitimate son, William Franklin, as Colonial Governor of New Jersey. The Governor of New Jersey is the Chief executive of the US state of New Jersey. 
During his stay in London, Franklin became involved in radical politics. He was a member of the Club of Honest Whigs, alongside thinkers such as Richard Price. Richard Price ( February 23, 1723 &ndash April 19, 1791) was a Welsh moral and political philosopher
In 1756, Franklin became a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce (now Royal Society of Arts or RSA, which had been founded in 1754), whose early meetings took place in coffee shops in London's Covent Garden district, close to Franklin's main residence in Craven Street (the only one of his residences to survive and which opened to the public as the Benjamin Franklin House museum on January 17, 2006). The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts Manufactures and Commerce ( RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution based in London. Covent Garden (Pronunciation kɒvʌnt is a district in London, England, located on the easternmost parts of the City of Westminster and the southwest Benjamin Franklin House is a museum in a terraced house in Craven Street London, close to Trafalgar Square. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. After his return to America, Franklin became the Society's Corresponding Member and remained closely connected with the Society. The RSA instituted a Benjamin Franklin Medal in 1956 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of Franklin's birth and the 200th anniversary of his membership of the RSA.
During his stays at Craven Street in London between 1757 and 1775, Franklin developed a close friendship with his landlady, Margaret Stevenson and her circle of friends and relations, in particular her daughter Mary, who was more often known as Polly.
In 1759, he visited Edinburgh with his son, and recalled his conversations there as "the densest happiness of my life. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. "
He also joined the influential Birmingham based Lunar Society with whom he regularly corresponded and on occasion, visited in Birmingham in the West Midlands. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um The Lunar Society was a dinner club and informal Learned society of prominent Industrialists natural philosophers and intellectuals who met regularly between
In 1763, soon after Franklin returned to Pennsylvania, the western frontier was engulfed in a bitter war known as Pontiac's Rebellion. Pontiac's Rebellion was a war launched in 1763 by North American Indians who were dissatisfied with British policies in the Great Lakes region after The Paxton Boys, a group of settlers convinced that the Pennsylvania government was not doing enough to protect them from American Indian raids, murdered a group of peaceful Susquehannock Indians and then marched on Philadelphia. The Paxton Boys were a group of backcountry Presbyterian Scots-Irish frontiersmen from the area around the central Pennsylvania, near the settlements Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The Susquehannock people were natives of areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its Tributaries from the southern part of what is now New York Franklin helped to organize the local militia in order to defend the capital against the mob, and then met with the Paxton leaders and persuaded them to disperse. Franklin wrote a scathing attack against the racial prejudice of the Paxton Boys. "If an Indian injures me," he asked, "does it follow that I may revenge that Injury on all Indians?"
At this time, many members of the Pennsylvania Assembly were feuding with William Penn's heirs, who controlled the colony as proprietors. Proprietors Three generations of Penns acted as proprietors of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Lower Counties ( Delaware) from the founding of the colony until A proprietary colony is a Colony in which one or more private land owners retain rights that are normally the privilege of the state and in all cases eventually became so Franklin led the "anti-proprietary party" in the struggle against the Penn family, and was elected Speaker of the Pennsylvania House in May 1764. The speaker of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives holds the oldest state-wide Elected office in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. His call for a change from proprietary to royal government was a rare political miscalculation, however: Pennsylvanians worried that such a move would endanger their political and religious freedoms. Because of these fears, and because of political attacks on his character, Franklin lost his seat in the October 1764 Assembly elections. The anti-proprietary party dispatched Franklin to England to continue the struggle against the Penn family proprietorship, but during this visit, events would drastically change the nature of his mission. 
In London, Franklin opposed the 1765 Stamp Act, but when he was unable to prevent its passage, he made another political miscalculation and recommended a friend to the post of stamp distributor for Pennsylvania. The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III c Pennsylvanians were outraged, believing that he had supported the measure all along, and threatened to destroy his home in Philadelphia. Franklin soon learned of the extent of colonial resistance to the Stamp Act, and his testimony before the House of Commons led to its repeal. With this, Franklin suddenly emerged as the leading spokesman for American interests in England. He wrote popular essays on behalf of the colonies, and Georgia, New Jersey, and Massachusetts also appointed him as their agent to the Crown. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. 
In September 1767, Franklin visited Paris with his usual traveling partner, Sir John Pringle. Sir John Pringle 1st Baronet, FRS, ( April 10, 1707 - January 18, 1782) was a Scottish Physician who has been News of his electrical discoveries was widespread in France. His reputation meant that he was introduced to many influential scientists and politicians, and also to King Louis XV. Louis XV (15 February 1710 &ndash 10 May 1774 ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774 
While living in London in 1768, he developed a phonetic alphabet in A Scheme for a new Alphabet and a Reformed Mode of Spelling. Benjamin Franklin's phonetic alphabet was Benjamin Franklin 's proposal for a spelling reform of the English language. This reformed alphabet discarded six letters Franklin regarded as redundant (c, j, q, w, x and y), and substituted six new letters for sounds he felt lacked letters of their own. His new alphabet, however, never caught on and he eventually lost interest. 
In 1771, Franklin traveled extensively around the British Isles staying with, among others, Joseph Priestley and David Hume. Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 ( Old David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy In Dublin, Franklin was invited to sit with the members of the Irish Parliament rather than in the gallery. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. The Parliament of Ireland (Irish Parlaimint na hEireann) was a Legislature that existed from mediæval times until 1800. He was the first American to be given this honor.  While touring Ireland, he was moved by the level of poverty he saw. Ireland's economy was affected by the same trade regulations and laws of England which governed America. Franklin feared that America could suffer the same effects should Britain’s colonial exploitation continue. 
In 1773, Franklin published two of his most celebrated pro-American satirical essays: Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One, and An Edict by the King of Prussia.  He also published an Abridgment of the Book of Common Prayer, anonymously with Francis Dashwood. Francis Dashwood 15th Baron le Despencer (December 1708 &ndash 11 December 1781) was an English rake and Politician, Chancellor Among the unusual features of this work is a funeral service reduced to six minutes in length, "to preserve the health and lives of the living. "
Franklin obtained private letters of Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson and lieutenant governor Andrew Oliver which proved they were encouraging London to crack down on the rights of the Bostonians. Thomas Hutchinson ( September 9 1711 June 3 1780) was the royal governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774 and a prominent Andrew Oliver ( March 28, 1706 - March 3, 1774) was a Massachusetts politician Franklin sent them to America where they escalated the tensions. Franklin now appeared to the British as the fomenter of serious trouble. Hopes for a peaceful solution ended as he was systematically ridiculed and humiliated by the Privy Council. He left London in March 1775. 
By the time Franklin arrived in Philadelphia on May 5, the American Revolution had begun with fighting at Lexington and Concord. Events 553 - The Second Council of Constantinople begins 1215 - Rebel Barons renounce their allegiance to King John In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The New England militia had trapped the main British army in Boston. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service The Pennsylvania Assembly unanimously chose Franklin as their delegate to the Second Continental Congress. The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that met beginning in May 10 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania In June 1776, he was appointed a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. The Committee of Five was the group delegated by the Second Continental Congress on June 11, 1776, to draft the United States The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then Although he was temporarily disabled by gout and unable to attend most meetings of the Committee, Franklin made a several small changes to the draft sent to him by Thomas Jefferson. Gout (also called metabolic arthritis) is a disease created by a buildup of Uric acid. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence 
At the signing, he is quoted as having replied to a comment by Hancock that they must all hang together: "Yes, we must, indeed, all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately,"
In December 1776, Franklin was dispatched to France as commissioner for the United States. Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions especially referring to a high-ranked public (administrative or Police) official or an analogous He lived in a home in the Parisian suburb of Passy, donated by Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont who supported the United States. Passy is an exclusive area of Paris, France, located in the XVIe arrondissement, on the Right Bank. Jacques-Donatien Le Ray (1726 &ndash 1803 was a French "Father of the American Revolution " but later an opponent of the French Revolution. Franklin remained in France until 1785, and was such a favorite of French society that it became fashionable for wealthy French families to decorate their parlors with a painting of him. He was highly flirtatious in the French manner (but did not have any actual affairs). He conducted the affairs of his country towards the French nation with great success, which included securing a critical military alliance in 1778 and negotiating the Treaty of Paris (1783). The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally During his stay in France, Benjamin Franklin as a freemason was Grand Master of the Lodge Les Neuf Sœurs from 1779 until 1781. Les Neuf Sœurs (The Nine Sisters established in Paris in 1776 was a prominent French Masonic Lodge of the Grand Orient de France that was influential His number was 24 in the Lodge. He was also a Past Grand Master of Pennsylvania. In 1784, when Franz Mesmer began to publicize his theory of "animal magnetism", which was considered offensive by many, Louis XVI appointed a commission to investigate it. Franz Anton Mesmer (born Friedrich Anton Mesmer; May 23, 1734 &ndash March 5, 1815) was a German physician and astrologist who These included the chemist Antoine Lavoisier, the physician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, the astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly and Benjamin Franklin. Dr Joseph-Ignace Guillotin (ɡijɔtɛ̃ May 28, 1738 &ndash March 26, 1814) was a French Physician who proposed on October Jean-Sylvain Bailly ( September 15, 1736 &ndash November 12, 1793) was a French astronomer and Orator, one of
When he finally returned home in 1785, Franklin occupied a position only second to that of George Washington as the champion of American independence. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Le Ray honored him with a commissioned portrait painted by Joseph Duplessis that now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. After his return, Franklin became an abolitionist, freeing both of his slaves. Joseph-Siffred Duplessis ( Carpentras, near Avignon, 22 September 1725 &ndash Versailles, 1 April 1802) was The Smithsonian Institution (smɪθsoʊnɪən is an educational and research institute and associated Museum complex administered and funded by the Government of Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D He eventually became president of Pennsylvania Abolition Society. The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage was the first American Abolition society formed April 14, 1775, in 
In 1787, Franklin served as a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention. The Philadelphia Convention (now also known as the Constitutional Convention, the Federal Convention, or the " Grand Convention at Philadelphia He held an honorific position and seldom engaged in debate. He is the only Founding Father who is a signatory of all four of the major documents of the founding of the United States: the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Paris, the Treaty of Alliance with France, and the United States Constitution. The Franco-American Alliance (also called the Treaty of Alliance) was a pact between France and the Second Continental Congress, representing
In 1787, a group of prominent ministers in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, proposed the foundation of a new college to be named in Franklin's honor. Lancaster is a city in the South Central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and is the County seat of Lancaster County. Franklin donated £200 towards the development of Franklin College, which is now called Franklin & Marshall College.
Between 1771 and 1788, he finished his autobiography. While it was at first addressed to his son, it was later completed for the benefit of mankind at the request of a friend.
In his later years, as Congress was forced to deal with the issue of slavery, Franklin wrote several essays that attempted to convince his readers of the importance of the abolition of slavery and of the integration of Africans into American society. Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth These writings included:
In 1790, Quakers from New York and Pennsylvania presented their petition for abolition. Their argument against slavery was backed by the Pennsylvania Abolitionist Society and its president, Benjamin Franklin.
Special balloting conducted 18 November 1785 unanimously elected Franklin the sixth President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, replacing John Dickinson. Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Year 1785 ( MDCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (also known as The Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania and where state affiliation was understood The The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (also known as The Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania and where state affiliation was understood The The office of President of Pennsylvania was analogous to the modern position of Governor. Governors Pennsylvania was one of the original Thirteen colonies, and was admitted as a state on December 12 1787 It is not clear why Dickinson needed to be replaced with less than two weeks remaining before the regular election. Franklin held that office for slightly over three years, longer than any other, and served the Constitutional limit of three full terms. Shortly after his initial election he was re-elected to a full term on 29 October 1785, and again in the fall of 1786 and on 31 October 1787. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II Year 1785 ( MDCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Year 1787 ( MDCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Officially, his term concluded on 5 November 1788, but there is some question regarding the de facto end of his term, suggesting that the aging Franklin may not have been actively involved in the day-to-day operation of the Council toward the end of his time in office. Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap
Like the other advocates of republicanism, Franklin emphasized that the new republic could survive only if the people were virtuous in the sense of attention to civic duty and rejection of corruption. Republicanism is the Value system of Governance that has been a major part of American civic thought since the American Revolution All his life he had been exploring the role of civic and personal virtue, as expressed in Poor Richard's aphorisms.
Although Franklin's parents had intended for him to have a career in the church, Franklin became disillusioned with organized religion after discovering Deism. Deism is the belief that a supreme God exists and created the physical universe and that religious truths can be arrived at by the application of reason alone without dependence on revelation "I soon became a thorough Deist. " He went on to attack Christian principles of free will and morality in a 1725 pamphlet, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain. A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity Pleasure and Pain is a philosophical pamphlet by Benjamin Franklin, published in London in 1725  He consistently attacked religious dogma, arguing that morality was more dependent upon virtue and benevolent actions than on strict obedience to religious orthodoxy: "I think opinions should be judged by their influences and effects; and if a man holds none that tend to make him less virtuous or more vicious, it may be concluded that he holds none that are dangerous, which I hope is the case with me. "
In 1790, just about a month before he died, Franklin wrote the following in a letter to Ezra Stiles, president of Yale, who had asked him his views on religion:
|“||As to Jesus of Nazareth, my Opinion of whom you particularly desire, I think the System of Morals and his Religion, as he left them to us, the best the world ever saw or is likely to see; but I apprehend it has received various corrupt changes, and I have, with most of the present Dissenters in England, some Doubts as to his divinity; tho' it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and I think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an Opportunity of knowing the Truth with less Trouble. The Rev Ezra Stiles ( November 29, 1727 - May 12, 1795) was a Congregational clergyman Theologian and president of Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Nazareth (ˈnæzərəθ (נָצְרַת Hebrew Natz'rat or Natzeret, الناصرة an-Nāṣira or an-Naseriyye) is the capital and largest . . . ||”|
Like most Enlightenment intellectuals, Franklin separated virtue, morality, and faith from organized religion, although he felt that if religion in general grew weaker, morality, virtue, and society in general would also decline. The American Enlightenment is a term sometimes employed to describe the intellectual culture of the British North American colonies and the early United States (as they became Thus he wrote Thomas Paine, "If men are so wicked with religion, what would they be if without it. Thomas Paine (January 29 1737 &ndash June 8 1809 was an English Pamphleteer, Revolutionary, radical, Inventor, and Intellectual " According to David Morgan, Franklin was a proponent of all religions. He prayed to "Powerful Goodness" and referred to God as the "INFINITE. " John Adams noted that Franklin was a mirror in which people saw their own religion: "The Catholics thought him almost a Catholic. John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described The Church of England claimed him as one of them. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The Presbyterians thought him half a Presbyterian, and the Friends believed him a wet Quaker. " Whatever else Benjamin Franklin was, concludes Morgan, "he was a true champion of generic religion. " Ben Franklin was noted to be "the spirit of the Enlightenment. "
Walter Isaacson argues that Franklin became uncomfortable with an unenhanced version of deism and came up with his own conception of the Creator. Walter Isaacson (born May 20 1952, in New Orleans Louisiana) is the President and CEO of the Aspen Institute. Franklin outlined his concept of deity in 1728, in his Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion.  From this, Isaacson compares Franklin's conception of deity to that of strict deists and orthodox Christians. He concludes that unlike most pure deists, Franklin believed that a faith in God should inform our daily actions, but that, like other deists, his faith was devoid of sectarian dogma. Isaacson also discusses Franklin's conception that God had created beings who do interfere in wordly matters, a point that has led some commentators, most notably A. Owen Aldridge, to read Franklin as embracing some sort of polytheism, with a bevy of lesser gods overseeing various realms and planets.
On July 4, 1776, Congress appointed a committee that included Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams to design the Great Seal of the United States. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States federal government.  Each member of the committee proposed a unique design: Franklin's proposal featured a design with the motto: "Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God. " This design was to portray a scene from the Book of Exodus, complete with Moses, the Israelites, the pillar of fire, and George III depicted as Pharaoh. Exodus ( Greek: έξοδος eksodos = "departure" is the second book of the Jewish Torah and of the Christian Old Testament. Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods 
Franklin may have financially supported one particular Presbyterian group in Philadelphia.  According to the epitaph Franklin wrote for himself at the age of twenty, it is clear that he believed in a physical resurrection of the body some time after death. Franklin's actual grave, however, as he specified in his final will, simply reads "Benjamin and Deborah Franklin. "
Franklin sought to cultivate his character by a plan of thirteen virtues, which he developed at age 20 (in 1726) and continued to practice in some form for the rest of his life. His autobiography (see references below) lists his thirteen virtues as:
Franklin died on April 17, 1790, at age 84. Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year His funeral was attended by approximately 20,000 people. He was interred in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is an important early-American cemetery In 1728, as a young man, Franklin wrote what he hoped would be his own epitaph:
The Body of B. Franklin Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms. But the Work shall not be wholly lost: For it will, as he believ'd, appear once more, In a new & more perfect Edition, Corrected and Amended By the Author. 
Franklin's actual grave, however, as he specified in his final will, simply reads "Benjamin and Deborah Franklin. "
In 1773, when Franklin's work had moved from printing to science and politics, he corresponded with a French scientist on the subject of preserving the dead for later revival by more advanced scientific methods, writing:
I should prefer to an ordinary death, being immersed with a few friends in a cask of Madeira, until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country! But in all probability, we live in a century too little advanced, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection.  (Extended excerpt also online. )
His death is described in the book The Life of Benjamin Franklin, quoting from the account of Dr. John Jones:
. . . when the pain and difficulty of breathing entirely left him, and his family were flattering themselves with the hopes of his recovery, when an imposthume, which had formed itself in his lungs, suddenly burst, and discharged a quantity of matter, which he continued to throw up while he had power; but, as that failed, the organs of respiration became gradually oppressed; a calm, lethargic state succeeded; and on the 17th instant (April, 1790), about eleven o'clock at night, he quietly expired, closing a long and useful life of eighty-four years and three months. 
Franklin bequeathed £1,000 (about $4,400 at the time) each to the cities of Boston and Philadelphia, in trust to gather interest for 200 years. A bequest is the act of receiving Property by will. Strictly "bequest" is used of Personal property, and "devise" of Real property The trust began in 1785 when a French mathematician named Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour wrote a parody of Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanack" called "Fortunate Richard. A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of Mathematics. A parody (ˈpɛɹədiː US, [ˈpaɹədiː] UK) in contemporary usage is a work created to mock comment on or poke fun at an original work its subject " Mocking the unbearable spirit of American optimism represented by Franklin, the Frenchman wrote that Fortunate Richard left a small sum of money in his will to be used only after it had collected interest for 500 years. Franklin, who was 79 years old at the time, wrote to the Frenchman, thanking him for a great idea and telling him that he had decided to leave a bequest of 1,000 pounds each to his native Boston and his adopted Philadelphia. As of 1990, more than $2,000,000 had accumulated in Franklin's Philadelphia trust, which had loaned the money to local residents. From 1940 to 1990, the money was used mostly for mortgage loans. When the trust came due, Philadelphia decided to spend it on scholarships for local high school students. Franklin's Boston trust fund accumulated almost $5,000,000 during that same time, and was used to establish a trade school that became the Franklin Institute of Boston. The Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology (BFIT in Boston, Massachusetts is one of New England 's oldest colleges of engineering and technologies 
Franklin's likeness is ubiquitous. Since 1928, it has adorned American $100 bills, which are sometimes referred to in slang as "Benjamins" or "Franklins. The United States one hundred-dollar bill ($100 is a denomination of United States currency. " From 1948 to 1964, Franklin's portrait was on the half dollar. The "Franklin Half" is a coin of the United States, minted from 1948 to 1963 He has appeared on a $50 bill and on several varieties of the $100 bill from 1914 and 1918. Franklin appears on the $1,000 Series EE Savings bond. Treasury securities are Government bonds issued by the United States Department of the Treasury through the Bureau of the Public Debt. The city of Philadelphia contains around 5,000 likenesses of Benjamin Franklin, about half of which are located on the University of Pennsylvania campus. Philadelphia's Benjamin Franklin Parkway (a major thoroughfare) and Benjamin Franklin Bridge (the first major bridge to connect Philadelphia with New Jersey) are named in his honor. Benjamin Franklin Parkway is a scenic avenue that runs through the cultural heart of the U The Benjamin Franklin Bridge (also known as the Ben Franklin Bridge) originally named the Delaware River Bridge, is a Suspension bridge across the
In 1976, as part of a bicentennial celebration, Congress dedicated a 20-foot (6 m) marble statue in Philadelphia's Franklin Institute as the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial. This article is about the Franklin High School in Louisiana For others of a similar name see Franklin High School (disambiguation Benjamin New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana The United States Bicentennial was celebrated on Sunday July 4, 1976, the 200th Anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Benjamin Franklin National Memorial, located in the rotunda of the Franklin Institute Many of Franklin's personal possessions are also on display at the Institute, one of the few national memorials located on private property. Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual
In London, his house at 36 Craven Street was first marked with a blue plaque and has since been opened to the public as the Benjamin Franklin House. In the United Kingdom, a blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person or event  In 1998, workmen restoring the building dug up the remains of six children and four adults hidden below the home. The Times reported on February 11, 1998:
Initial estimates are that the bones are about 200 years old and were buried at the time Franklin was living in the house, which was his home from 1757 to 1762 and from 1764 to 1775. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Most of the bones show signs of having been dissected, sawn or cut. One skull has been drilled with several holes. Paul Knapman, the Westminster Coroner, said yesterday: "I cannot totally discount the possibility of a crime. There is still a possibility that I may have to hold an inquest.
The Friends of Benjamin Franklin House (the organization responsible for the restoration) note that the bones were likely placed there by William Hewson, who lived in the house for two years and who had built a small anatomy school at the back of the house. William Hewson ( November 14, 1739 – May 1, 1774) was an 18th Century surgeon, anatomist and physiologist who They note that while Franklin likely knew what Hewson was doing, he probably did not participate in any dissections because he was much more of a physicist than a medical man. 
"The Princess and the Patriot: Ekaterina Dashkova, Benjamin Franklin and the Age of Enlightenment" exhibition opened in Philadelphia in February 2006 and ran through December 2006. Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Екатери́на Рома́новна Воронцо́ва-Да́шкова ( March 17, 1743 – January Benjamin Franklin and Dashkova met only once, in Paris in 1781. Franklin was 75 and Dashkova was 37. Franklin invited Dashkova to become the first woman to join the American Philosophical Society and the only woman to be so honored for another 80 years. Later, Dashkova reciprocated by making him the first American member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Russian Academy of Sciences (Российская Академия Наук Rossi'iskaya Akade'miya Nau'k, shortened to PAH RAN) consists of the National
Franklin, in his "Poor Richard" persona, helped create popular culture in America. In turn he has been included in many different popular culture media, of which this list is a small, recent sample.
For Young Readers
U. ABC Radio National is an Australia-wide Radio network broadcast by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation with many various programs involving News and S. Independence
|Postmaster General of the United States|
1775 – 1776
|Member, Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania,|
representing the City of Philadelphia
October 17, 1785 – October 20, 1788
|President of Pennsylvania|
October 18, 1785 – November 5, 1788
U. The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. Richard Bache (1737–1811 born in Yorkshire England, married the only daughter of Benjamin Franklin in 1767 having immigrated to New York City in 1765 The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (also known as The Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania and where state affiliation was understood The Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Samuel Miles ( March 11 1740 &ndash December 29, 1805) was an American military officer and Politician, active John Dickinson ( November 8 1732 – February 14 1808) was an American Lawyer and Politician from Philadelphia Governors Pennsylvania was one of the original Thirteen colonies, and was admitted as a state on December 12 1787 Thomas Mifflin (January 10 1744 &ndash January 20 1800 was an American Merchant and Politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania S. Independence
|United States Minister to France|
1778 – 1785
|United States Minister to Sweden|
1782 – 1783 (?)
|New institution||Provost of the Academy of Pennsylvania|
1749 – 1754
as Provost of the College of Pennsylvania
|Recipient of the Copley Medal|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American printer, writer, politician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 17, 1706|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Boston, Massachusetts|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 17, 1790|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|