Detail from fresco by Fra Angelico
Patron of Europe
|Born||c. Fra Angelico (c 1395 &ndash February 18 1455) born Guido di Pietro, was an Early Italian Renaissance painter referred to in Vasari 480, Norcia (Umbria, Italy)|
|Died||c. Norcia is a town and Comune in the Province of Perugia ( Italy) in southeastern Umbria, located in a wide plain abutting the Monti Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest 547, Monte Cassino|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
Eastern Orthodox Church
|Major shrine||Monte Cassino Abbey, with his burial|
|Feast||Western Christianity: 11 July (for some, 21 March)|
Byzantine Rite: 14 March
-Broken cup and serpent representing poison
-Man in a Benedictine cowl holding Benedict's rule or a rod of discipline
-People in religious orders
-Servants who have broken their master's belongings
Benedict of Nursia (also called Bennet) (c. For information about the World War II battle see the Battle of Monte Cassino. See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints A shrine, from the Latin scrinium (‘box’ also used as a desk like the French bureau) was originally a container usually made of precious materials used For information about the World War II battle see the Battle of Monte Cassino. Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire is a commune of the Loiret département, in France. This article is about the French city of Orléans for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation. Subiaco is a town in the Province of Rome, in Lazio, Italy, twenty-five miles from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene. The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called the Rite of Constantinople or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used currently (in various languages Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Christianity has used symbols from its very beginnings Each Saint has a story and a reason why he or she led an exemplary life The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by A coppersmith, also known as a redsmith, is a person who uses Copper to form art Heerdt is one of the older parts of the city of Düsseldorf. Heerdt and its neighbouring quarters Oberkassel, Niederkassel and Lörick on the Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Norcia is a town and Comune in the Province of Perugia ( Italy) in southeastern Umbria, located in a wide plain abutting the Monti Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest CHILD syndrome (or congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects) is a genetic disorder 480 - c. Events By Place Europe Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed 547) was an Italian Saint, the founder of Christian monastic communities and a rule giver for monks living in community. Events By Place Europe Ida founds the kingdom of Bernicia at Bamburgh (traditional date Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective His purpose may be gleaned from his Rule, namely that "Christ . Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) . . may bring us all together to life eternal" (RB 72. Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an Infinite length of Time. 12). The Roman Catholic Church canonized him in 1220. Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints
Benedict founded twelve communities for monks, the best known of which is his first monastery at Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective For information about the World War II battle see the Battle of Monte Cassino. There is no evidence that he intended to found also a religious order. Religious orders ('Religious Institutes' cf canons 573-746 are the major form of consecrated life in the Roman Catholic Church. The Order of St Benedict is of modern origin and, moreover, not an "order" as commonly understood but merely a confederation of congregations into which the traditionally independent Benedictine abbeys have affiliated themselves for the purpose of representing their mutual interests, without however ceasing any of their autonomy. This article concerns Roman Catholic Order of Saint Benedict see also Benedictine Confederation and Benedictine. 
Benedict's main achievement is a "Rule" containing precepts for his monks, referred to as the Rule of Saint Benedict. A Precept (from the Latin præcipere, to teach is a commandment instruction or order intended as an authoritative rule of action MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective It is heavily influenced by the writings of St John Cassian (ca. Saint John Cassian (ca 360 – 435 ( Latin: Jo(hannes Eremita Cassianus, Joannus Cassianus, or Joannes Massiliensis) John the 360 – 433, one of the Desert Fathers) and shows strong affinity with the Rule of the Master. Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits, Ascetics and Monks who lived mainly in the Scetes desert of Egypt, beginning around The Rule of the Master is an anonymous Sixth-century collection of monastic Precepts It was used by Benedict of Nursia as source material for But it also has a unique spirit of balance, moderation, reasonableness (επιεικεια, epieikeia), and this persuaded most communities founded throughout the Middle Ages, including communities of nuns, to adopt it. A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life As a result the Rule of St Benedict became one of the most influential religious rules in Western Christendom. For this reason Benedict is often called "the founder of western Christian monasticism". Those living the monastic life are known by the generic terms Monks (men and Nuns (women
The only ancient account of Benedict is found in the second volume of St Gregory's four-book Dialogues, written in 593. A dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog) is a reciprocal Conversation between two or more entities. Book Two consists of a prologue and thirty-eight succinct chapters. 19th-century Roman historian Thomas Hodgkin praised Gregory’s life of St. Benedict as “the biography of the greatest monk, written by the greatest Pope, himself also a monk. ”
Gregory’s account of this saint’s life is not, however, a biography in the modern sense of the word. It provides instead a spiritual portrait of the gentle, disciplined abbot. In a letter to Bishop Maximilian of Syracuse, Gregory states his intention for his Dialogues, saying they are a kind of floretum (an anthology, literally, ‘flowers’) of the most striking miracles of Italian holy men. 
Gregory did not set out to write a chronological, historically-anchored story of St. Benedict, but he did base his anecdotes on direct testimony. To establish his authority, Gregory explains that his information came from what he considered the best sources: a handful of Benedict’s disciples who lived with the saint and witnessed his various miracles. These followers, he says, are Constantinus, who succeeded Benedict as Abbot of Monte Cassino; Valentinianus; Simplicius; and Honoratus, who was abbot of Subiaco when St. Constantinus (died April 9, 715) was Pope from 708 to 715 He was a Syriac by birth and was consecrated pope on March 25, 708 The word abbot, meaning Father, is a title given to the head of a Monastery in various traditions including Christianity. For information about the World War II battle see the Battle of Monte Cassino. Subiaco is a town in the Province of Rome, in Lazio, Italy, twenty-five miles from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene. Gregory wrote his Dialogues.
In Gregory’s day, history was not recognized as an independent field of study; it was a branch of grammar or rhetoric, and historia (defined as ‘story’) summed up the approach of the learned when they wrote what was, at that time, considered ‘history. ’ Gregory’s Dialogues Book Two, then, an authentic medieval hagiography cast as a conversation between the Pope and his deacon Peter, is designed to teach spiritual lessons.
Benedict was the son of a Roman noble of Nursia (modern Norcia, in Umbria), and a tradition, which Bede accepts, makes him a twin with his sister Scholastica. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Norcia is a town and Comune in the Province of Perugia ( Italy) in southeastern Umbria, located in a wide plain abutting the Monti Norcia is a town and Comune in the Province of Perugia ( Italy) in southeastern Umbria, located in a wide plain abutting the Monti Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c Saint Scholastica (c 480 - 547 is a Catholic Saint. Born in Italy, she was the Twin sister of St St Gregory's narrative makes it impossible to suppose him younger than 19 or 20. He was old enough to be in the midst of his literary studies, to understand the real meaning and worth of the dissolute and licentious lives of his companions, and to have been deeply affected himself by the love of a woman (Ibid. II, 2). He was capable of weighing all these things in comparison with the life taught in the Gospels, and chose the latter. This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament He was at the beginning of life, and he had at his disposal the means to a career as a Roman noble; clearly he was not a child. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC If we accept the date 480 for his birth, we may fix the date of his abandonment of his studies and leaving home at about 500 AD. Events By Place Europe Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon
Benedict does not seem to have left Rome for the purpose of becoming a hermit, but only to find some place away from the life of the great city; moreover, he took his old nurse with him as a servant and they settled down to live in Enfide, near a church to St Peter, in some kind of association with "a company of virtuous men" who were in sympathy with his feelings and his views of life. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 A hermit (from the Greek ἔρημος erēmos, signifying " Desert " "uninhabited" hence "desert-dweller" adjective "eremitic" Affile is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Rome in the Italian region Latium, located about 50 km east of Rome Enfide, which the tradition of Subiaco identifies with the modern Affile, is in the Simbruini mountains, about forty miles from Rome and two from Subiaco. Affile is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Rome in the Italian region Latium, located about 50 km east of Rome The Monti Simbruini are a Mountain range in central Italy, part of Apennines, on the border between the Lazio and Abruzzo regions Subiaco is a town in the Province of Rome, in Lazio, Italy, twenty-five miles from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene.
A short distance from Enfide is the entrance to a narrow, gloomy valley, penetrating the mountains and leading directly to Subiaco. Affile is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Rome in the Italian region Latium, located about 50 km east of Rome Crossing the Aniene and turning to the right, the path rises along the left face off the ravine and soon reaches the site of Nero's villa and of the huge mole which formed the lower end of the middle lake; across the valley were ruins of the Roman baths, of which a few great arches and detached masses of wall still stand. The Aniene River (formerly called the Teverone; in Latin Anio) is a 98 km River in Lazio, Italy. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called A villa was originally an Upper-class Country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably This page is on buildings used for Roman bathing For the activity in general see Ancient Roman bathing. Rising from the mole upon 25 low arches, the foundations of which can even yet be traced, was the bridge from the villa to the baths, under which the waters of the middle lake poured in a wide fall into the lake below. The ruins of these vast buildings and the wide sheet of falling water closed up the entrance of the valley to St Benedict as he came from Enfide; to-day the narrow valley lies open before us, closed only by the far-off mountains. The path continues to ascend, and the side of the ravine, on which it runs, becomes steeper, until we reach a cave above which the mountain now rises almost perpendicularly; while on the right, it strikes in a rapid descent down to where, in St Benedict's day, 500 feet below, lay the blue waters of the lake. The cave has a large triangular-shaped opening and is about ten feet deep.
On his way from Enfide, Benedict met a monk, Romanus, whose monastery was on the mountain above the cliff overhanging the cave. Saint Romanus of Subiaco (d ca 550 AD was a Hermit in the area around Subiaco Italy. Romanus had discussed with Benedict the purpose which had brought him to Subiaco, and had given him the monk's habit. By his advice Benedict became a hermit and for three years, unknown to men, lived in this cave above the lake.
St. Gregory tells us little of these years. He now speaks of Benedict no longer as a youth (puer), but as a man (vir) of God. Romanus, he twice tells us, served the saint in every way he could. The monk apparently visited him frequently, and on fixed days brought him food.
During these three years of solitude, broken only by occasional communications with the outer world and by the visits of Romanus, Benedict matured both in mind and character, in knowledge of himself and of his fellow-man, and at the same time he became not merely known to, but secured the respect of, those about him; so much so that on the death of the abbot of a monastery in the neighbourhood (identified by some with Vicovaro), the community came to him and begged him to become its abbot. Vicovaro is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Rome in the Italian region Lazio, located about 35 km northeast of Rome Benedict was acquainted with the life and discipline of the monastery, and knew that "their manners were diverse from his and therefore that they would never agree together: yet, at length, overcome with their entreaty, he gave his consent" (ibid. , 3). The experiment failed; the monks tried to poison him, and he returned to his cave. The legend goes that they first tried to poison his drink. He prayed a blessing over the cup and the cup shattered. Then they tried to poison him with poisoned bread. When he prayed a blessing over the bread, a raven swept in and took the loaf away. From this time his miracles seem to have become frequent, and many people, attracted by his sanctity and character, came to Subiaco to be under his guidance. For them he built in the valley twelve monasteries, in each of which he placed a superior with twelve monks. In a thirteenth he lived with a few, such as he thought would more profit and be better instructed by his own presence (ibid. , 3). He remained, however, the father, or abbot, of all. With the establishment of these monasteries began the schools for children; and among the first to be brought were Maurus and Placid. Saint Maurus was the first disciple of St Benedict of Nursia. Saint Placidus (also known as Saint Placid) was a disciple of Saint Benedict.
St Benedict spent the rest of his life realizing the ideal of monasticism which he had drawn out in his rule. He died at Monte Cassino, Italy, according to tradition, on 21 March 547 and was named patron protector of Europe by Pope Paul VI in 1964. For information about the World War II battle see the Battle of Monte Cassino. Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. Events By Place Europe Ida founds the kingdom of Bernicia at Bamburgh (traditional date His feast day, previously 21 March, was moved in 1969 to 11 July, a date on which, in many areas, he was traditionally celebrated since the eighth century. Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. 
“A lamb can bathe in it without drowning, while an elephant can swim in it”; this ancient saying refers to a work of only 73 short chapters. Its wisdom is of two kinds: spiritual (how to live a Christocentric life on earth) and administrative (how to run a monastery efficiently). More than half the chapters describe how to be obedient and humble, and what to do when a member of the community is not. About one-fourth regulate the worship of God (the Opus Dei). One-tenth outline how, and by whom, the monastery should be managed. And another tenth specifically describe the abbot’s pastoral duties.
This medal originally came from a cross in honor of St Benedict. History The exact time and date of the making of the first St On one side, the St Benedict medal has an image of Benedict, holding the Holy Rule in his left hand and a cross in his right. There is a raven on one side of him, with a cup on the other side of him. Around the medal's outer margin is "Eius in obitu nostro praesentia muniamur" ("May we, at our death, be fortified by His presence"). The other side of the medal has a cross with the initials for the words "Crux Sacra Sit Mihi Lux" ("May the Holy Cross be my light") on the vertical beam and the initials for "Non Draco Sit Mihi Dux" ("Let not the dragon be my guide") on the horizontal beam. The initial letters for "Crux Sancti Patris Benedicti" ("The Cross of Our Holy Father Benedict") are on the interior angles of the cross. Around the medal's margin on this side are the initials for "Vade Retro Satana, Nunquam Suade Mihi Vana—Sunt Mala Quae Libas, Ipse Venena Bibas" ("Begone, Satan, do not suggest to me thy vanities—evil are the things thou profferest, drink thou thy own poison"). Either the inscription "Pax" (Peace) or "IHS" ("Jesus") is located at the top of the cross in most cases.
This medal was first struck in 1880 to commemorate the fourteenth centenary of St Benedict's birth and is also called the Jubilee Medal; its exact origin, however, is unknown. Euro gold and silver commemorative coins are special Euro coins minted and issued by member states of the Eurozone. In 1647, during a witchcraft trial at Natternberg near Metten Abbey in Bavaria, the accused women testified they had no power over Metten, which was under the protection of the cross. Metten Abbey, or the Abbey of St Michael at Metten (in German Abtei Metten or Kloster Metten) is a house of the Benedictine Order in Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 An investigation found a number of painted crosses on the walls of the abbey with the letters now found on St Benedict medals, but their meaning had been forgotten. A manuscript written in 1415 was eventually found that had a picture of Saint Benedict holding a scroll in one hand and a staff which ended in a cross in the other. On the scroll and staff were written the full words of the initials contained on the crosses. Medals then began to be struck in Germany, which then spread throughout Europe. This medal was first approved by Pope Benedict XIV in his briefs of December 23, 1741, and March 12, 1742. Pope Benedict XIV ( March 31, 1675 &ndash May 3, 1758) born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, was Pope from August 17 Events 962 - Byzantine-Arab Wars: Under the future Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, Byzantine troops stormed the city Year 1741 ( MDCCXLI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Year 1742 ( MDCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
Saint Benedict has been also the motive of many collector's coins around the world. One of the most prestigious and recent ones is the Austria 50 euro 'The Christian Religious Orders', issued in March 13, 2002. Euro gold and silver commemorative coins are special Euro coins minted and issued by member states of the Eurozone. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
In April 2008, Pope Benedict XVI discussed the influence St. Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger Benedict had on Western Europe. The pope said that “with his life and work St. Benedict exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture” and helped Europe to emerge from the "dark night of history" that followed the fall of the Roman empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
The influence of St. Benedict produced "a true spiritual ferment" in Europe, and over the coming decades his followers spread across the continent to establish a new cultural unity based on Christian faith.
St. Benedict and the cup of poison (Melk Abbey, Austria)
Small gold-colored St Benedict Crucifix
St Benedict Medal Rosary Center
Portrait (1926) by Herman Nieg (1849-1928); Heiligenkreuz Abbey, Austria
This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913. The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language Encyclopedia published by The Encyclopedia