Ben Nevis from Banavie. Banavie ( Scottish Gaelic: Bainbhidh or Banbhaidh) is a small settlement near Fort William in the Highland Region of Scotland The summit is beyond and to the left of the apparent highest point.
|Elevation||1,344 metres (4,409 ft)|
|Prominence||1,344 m Ranked 1st in British Isles|
|Parent peak||none - HP Great Britain|
|Topo map||OS Landranger 41, Explorer 392|
|First ascent||17 August 1771, by James Robertson|
|OS grid reference||NN166713|
|Listing||Munro, Marilyn, Council top (Highland), County top (Inverness-shire)|
|Translation||Venomous mountain or mountain with its head in the clouds (Scottish Gaelic language)|
Ben Nevis (Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis) is the highest mountain in Great Britain. In topography a summit is a point on a surface which is higher in Elevation than all points immediately adjacent to District of Lochaber Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. This is a list of peaks in the British Isles, with a Relative height of 600  m or more in descending order of relative height The British Isles (Irish variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór; Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A topographic map is a type of Map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using Contour lines in modern Ordnance Survey (OS is an Executive agency of the United Kingdom government In Climbing, a first ascent (FA is the first modern recorded climb to reach the top of a Mountain, or the first to follow a particular Climbing route Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Year 1771 ( MDCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a A climbing route is a path by which a climber reaches the top of a Mountain, rock or ice wall The word 'hiking' is understood in all English-speaking countries but there are differences in usage The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude There are many notable lists of mountains around the world Typically a list of mountains becomes notable by first being listed or defined by an author or group (e A Munro is a Scottish mountain with a height over 3000 feet (914 A Marilyn is a type of Mountain or Hill in Great Britain, Ireland or surrounding islands with a relative height of at least 150 metres This is a list of the 32 council areas of Scotland by their highest point. The Highland Council area ( Sgìre Comhairle na Gàidhealtachd in Gaelic, s̪g̊ʲiːɾʲə kɔ This is a list of the 33 Counties of Scotland by their highest point. Inverness-shire also known as the county of Inverness or Siorrachd Inbhir Nis in Gaelic, was a general purpose county of Scotland, Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands It is located at the western end of the Grampian Mountains in the Lochaber area of Scotland, close to the coastal town of Fort William. This article is about a mountain range in Scotland for other uses see Grampians. District of Lochaber Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Fort William ( Scottish Gaelic: An Gearasdan, "The Garrison" is the largest town in the highlands of Scotland, now that Inverness
In common with many other Scottish mountains, it is known to locals as simply The Ben. Scotland is the most mountainous country in the United Kingdom. However, if walkers and climbers from outwith Scotland use the term "The Ben" they usually mean Ben Nevis.  It attracts an estimated 100,000 ascents a year, around three-quarters of which are made using the well-constructed Pony Track from Glen Nevis on the south side of the mountain. Glen Nevis (from the Gaelic Gleann Nibheis) is a beautiful and popular Glen in Lochaber, Highland, Scotland, with For climbers and mountaineers the main attraction lies in the 700-metre-high cliffs of the north face: among the highest cliffs in Britain, they harbour some classic scrambles and rock climbs of all difficulties, and are one of the principal locations in the UK for ice climbing. “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of In Geography and Geology, a cliff is a significant vertical or near vertical rock exposure Scrambling (also known as alpine scrambling) is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges Rock climbing is a Sport in which participants climb up or across natural rock formations or man-made rock walls with the goal of reaching the Ice climbing, as the term indicates is the activity of ascending inclined ice formations
The summit, at 1,344 metres (4,406 ft) above sea level, features the ruins of an observatory which was permanently staffed between 1883 and 1904. An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events The meteorological data collected during this period is still important for an understanding of Scottish mountain weather. Meteorology (from Greek grc μετέωρος metéōros, "high in the sky" and grc -λογία -logia) is the Interdisciplinary C. T. R. Wilson was inspired to invent the cloud chamber after a period spent working at the observatory. Charles Thomson Rees Wilson CH ( February 14, 1869 &ndash November 15, 1959) was a Scottish Physicist and The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of Ionizing radiation.
Ben Nevis forms a massif with its neighbour to the north-east, Carn Mòr Dearg, to which it is linked by the Carn Mòr Dearg Arête. In Geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or Flexures In the movement of the crust, a massif Càrn Mòr Dearg (1221 m is the eighth highest mountain in Scotland. This article is about a glacial landform See Arete for other meanings  Both mountains are among the eight in Great Britain over 4,000 feet (1,219 metres), as are Aonach Mòr and Aonach Beag immediately to the east; the other four are all in the Cairngorms. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The Cairngorms are a mountain range in the eastern Highlands of Scotland closely associated with the mountain of the same name - Cairn Gorm.
The western and southern flanks of Ben Nevis rise 1,200 metres in around 2 km from the floor of Glen Nevis—the longest and steepest hill slope in Britain—with the result that the mountain presents an aspect of massive bulk on this side. To the north, in contrast, cliffs drop some 600 metres (2,000 ft) to Coire Leis. In Geography and Geology, a cliff is a significant vertical or near vertical rock exposure This corrie contains the Charles Inglis Clark Memorial Hut (known as the CIC Hut), a private mountain hut located at 680 metres above sea level, owned by the Scottish Mountaineering Club and used as a base for the many climbing routes on the mountain's north face. A cirque ( French for " Circus " is an Amphitheatre -like Valley, or valley head formed at the head of a Glacier by A mountain hut (also known as alpine hut, mountain shelter, and mountain hostel) is a building located in the mountains intended to provide food and The Scottish Mountaineering Club (SMC is Scotland's second oldest Mountaineering club UserStan Shebs for a timetable --> Climbing is the activity of using one's hands and feet (or
In addition to the main 1,344-metre summit, Ben Nevis has two subsidiary "tops" listed in Munro's Tables, both of which are called Carn Dearg ("red hill"). A Munro is a Scottish mountain with a height over 3000 feet (914  The higher of these, at 1,221 metres, is situated to the north-west, and is often mistaken for Ben Nevis itself in views from the Fort William area. Fort William ( Scottish Gaelic: An Gearasdan, "The Garrison" is the largest town in the highlands of Scotland, now that Inverness The other Carn Dearg (1,020 m) juts out into Glen Nevis on the mountain's south-western side. A lower hill, Meall an t-Suidhe (711 m), is located further west, forming a saddle with Ben Nevis which contains a small loch, Lochan an t-Suidhe. A loch (usually Lough as a name element outside Scotland) is a body of Water which is either a Lake or The popular tourist path from Glen Nevis skirts the side of this hill before ascending Ben Nevis's broad western flank.
Ben Nevis consists mainly of igneous rock from the Devonian period (around 400 million years ago), intruded into the surrounding metamorphic schists; the intrusions take the form of a series of concentric ring dikes. Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire are rocks formed by solidification of cooled Magma (molten rock The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic era spanning from to  million years ago. In Geology, an intrusion is a body of Igneous rock that has Crystallized from molten Magma below the surface of the Earth. The schists form a group of medium-grade Metamorphic rocks chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar Minerals such as Micas chlorite A ring dike or ring dyke in Geology refers to an intrusive Igneous body The innermost of these, known as the Inner Granite, constitutes the southern bulk of the mountain above Lochan Meall an t-Suidhe, and also the neighbouring ridge of Carn Mòr Dearg; Meall an t-Suidhe forms part of the Outer Granite, which is redder in colour. The summit dome itself, together with the steep northern cliffs, are composed of andesite and basaltic lavas. For the extinct cephalopod genus see Andesites. Andesite (ˈændəsaɪt is an igneous, Volcanic rock, of intermediate Basalt (bəˈsɔːlt ˈbeisɔːlt ˈbæsɔːlt is a common Extrusive Volcanic rock. The mountain has been extensively shaped by glaciation. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. 
Ben Nevis's altitude, maritime location and topography frequently lead to unusually poor weather conditions, which can pose a danger to ill-equipped walkers. Loch Linnhe (known in Gaelic as An Linne Dhubh upstream of Corran and as An Linne Sheileach downstream of Corran is a Sea loch An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the Climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes According to the observations carried out at the summit observatory from 1883–1904, fog was present on the summit for almost 80% of the time between November and January, and 55% of the time in May and June. Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground  The average winter temperature was around -5 °C, and the mean monthly temperature for the year was -0. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 5 °C.  In an average year the summit sees 261 gales, and receives 4,350 millimetres (171 inches) of rainfall, compared to only 2,050 mm in nearby Fort William and about 600 mm in Inverness and London. Inverness (Inbhir Nis iɲɪɾʲˈniʃ is a city in northern Scotland. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Rainfall on Ben Nevis is about twice as high in the winter as it is in the spring and summer. Snow can be found on the mountain almost all year round, particularly in the gullies of the north face - with the higher reaches of Observatory Gully holding snow until September most years and sometimes until the new snows of the following season. "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation.
The first recorded ascent of Ben Nevis was made on 17 August 1771 by James Robertson, an Edinburgh botanist, who was in the region to collect botanical specimens. Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Year 1771 ( MDCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life Another early ascent was in 1774 by John Williams, who provided the first account of the mountain's geological structure.  John Keats climbed the mountain in 1818, comparing the ascent to "mounting ten St. Pauls without the convenience of a staircase". St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London.  It was not until 1847 that Ben Nevis was confirmed by the Ordnance Survey as the highest mountain in Britain, ahead of its rival Ben Macdui. Ordnance Survey (OS is an Executive agency of the United Kingdom government Ben Macdui, also spelled Ben Macdhui and Ben MacDui ( Gaelic: Beinn Mac Duibh) is the highest Mountain in the Cairngorms
The summit observatory was built in the summer of 1883, and would remain in operation for 21 years. The first path to the summit was built at the same time as the observatory and was designed to allow ponies to carry up supplies, with a maximum gradient of one in five. A trail is a Path or Road used for Walking, Cycling, Cross-country skiing, or other activities A pony is a small Horse with a specific conformation and temperament  The opening of the path and the observatory made the ascent of the Ben increasingly popular, all the more so after the arrival of the West Highland Railway in Fort William in 1894. The West Highland Railway was one of the last Main Lines to be built in Scotland.  Around this time the first of several proposals was made for a rack railway to the summit, none of which came to fruition. A cog railway, rack-and-pinion railway or rack railway is a Railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails. 
In 2000 the Ben Nevis Estate, comprising all of the south side of the mountain including the summit, was bought by the Scottish conservation charity the John Muir Trust. John Muir Trust (JMT is a Scottish charity, established in 1983 to conserve and protect wild places with their indigenous animals plants and
The 1883 Pony Track to the summit (also known as the Ben Path, the Mountain Path, or the Tourist Route) remains the simplest and most popular route of ascent. It begins at Achintee on the east side of Glen Nevis about 2 km (1. 5 miles) from Fort William town centre, at around 20 metres above sea level. Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface Bridges from the Visitor Centre and the youth hostel now allow access from the west side of Glen Nevis. Hostels provide budget-oriented accommodation where guests can rent a bed, sometimes a Bunk bed in a Dormitory and share a bathroom  The path climbs steeply to the saddle by Lochan Meall an t-Suidhe at 570 m, then ascends the remaining 700 metres up the stony west flank of Ben Nevis in a series of zig-zags. It is well made and maintained throughout its length, and, thanks to the zig-zags, not unusually steep apart from in the initial stages.
A route popular with experienced hillwalkers starts at Torlundy, a few miles north-east of Fort William on the A82 road, and follows the path alongside the Allt a' Mhuilinn. In Britain, the term hillwalking or fellwalking is normally used to describe the recreational practice of walking in hilly or Mountainous terrain generally Route The A82 begins in the St Georges Cross area of central Glasgow at junctions with the M8 and the A804 ( before threading through the city's West It can also be reached from Glen Nevis by following the Pony Track as far as Lochan Meall an t-Suidhe, then descending slightly to the CIC Hut. The route then ascends Carn Mòr Dearg and continues along the Carn Mòr Dearg Arête ("CMD Arête") before climbing steeply to the summit of Ben Nevis. Càrn Mòr Dearg (1221 m is the eighth highest mountain in Scotland. This route involves a total of 1,500 metres of ascent and requires modest scrambling ability and a head for heights. Scrambling (also known as alpine scrambling) is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges  In common with other approaches on this side of the mountain, it has the advantage of giving an extensive view of the cliffs of the north face, which are hidden from the Pony Track. 
It is also possible to climb Ben Nevis from the Nevis Gorge car park at the head of the road up Glen Nevis, either by the south-east ridge or via the summit of Carn Dearg (south-west). These routes do not require scrambling, but are shorter and steeper, and tend to be used by experienced hill walkers.
The summit of Ben Nevis comprises a large stony plateau of around 40 hectares (100 acres). In Geology and Earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting  The highest point is marked with a large, solidly built cairn atop which sits an Ordnance Survey trig point. A cairn ( carn in Irish is an artificial pile of stones often in a conical form Ordnance Survey (OS is an Executive agency of the United Kingdom government A trigonometrical station, triangulation pillar or trig point is a fixed Surveying station for the Geodetic
The ruined walls of the observatory are a prominent feature on the summit. An emergency shelter has been built on top of the observatory tower for the benefit of those caught out by bad weather; although the base of the tower is slightly lower than the true summit of the mountain, the roof of the shelter overtops the trig point by several feet, making it the highest man-made structure in Britain. A war memorial to the dead of World War II is located next to the observatory. A war memorial is a building monument statue or other edifice to celebrate a War or victory or (predominating in modern times to commemorate those who died or were injured World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
On 17 May 2006, a piano that had been buried under one of the cairns on the peak was uncovered by the John Muir Trust, which owns much of the mountain. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers John Muir Trust (JMT is a Scottish charity, established in 1983 to conserve and protect wild places with their indigenous animals plants and  The piano was believed to have been carried up for charity by removal men from Dundee over 20 years earlier. Dundee (Dùn Dèagh is the fourth-largest city in Scotland and fully named as Dundee City, one of Scotland's 32 local government council 
The view from Britain's highest point is extensive. In ideal conditions it can extend up to 190 km (120 miles), including such mountains as the Torridon Hills, Morven in Caithness, Lochnagar, Ben Lomond, Barra Head, and 123 miles (198 km) to Knocklayd in County Antrim, Ireland. The Torridon Hills surround Torridon village in the Northwest Highlands of Scotland. Morven ( Scottish Gaelic: A' Mhòr Bheinn) is a Mountain in Caithness, in the Highland Region of Scotland. Geography Caithness extends about 40 Miles (64 Kilometres) north-south and about 30 miles (50 km east-west Lochnagar or Beinn Chìochan is a Mountain in the Grampians of Scotland, located about five miles south of the River Dee near Ben Lomond ( Scottish Gaelic: Beinn Laomainn, 'Beacon Peak' 974  m (3196  feet) is a mountain in the Scottish Highlands Barra Head, also known as Berneray, is the southernmost of the Outer Hebrides in Scotland. County Antrim ( Contae Aontroma or simply Aontroim in Irish) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, and one of nine counties Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world 
A meteorological observatory on the summit was first proposed by the Scottish Meteorological Society (SMS) in the late 1870s, at a time when similar observatories were being built around the world to study the weather at high altitude. Meteorology (from Greek grc μετέωρος metéōros, "high in the sky" and grc -λογία -logia) is the Interdisciplinary An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events  In the summer of 1881 Clement Lindley Wragge climbed the mountain daily to make observations (earning the nickname "Inclement Rag"), leading to the opening on 17 October 1883 of a permanent observatory run by the SMS. Clement Lindley Wragge ( 19 September 1852 - 10 December 1922) was a Meteorologist born in Stourbridge, Worcestershire Events 539 BC - King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost Year 1883 ( MDCCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The building was permanently manned until 1904, when it was closed due to inadequacy of government funding. The twenty years' worth of readings still provide the most comprehensive set of data on mountain weather in Great Britain. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands 
In September 1894, C. T. R. Wilson was employed at the observatory for a couple of weeks as temporary relief for one of the permanent staff. Charles Thomson Rees Wilson CH ( February 14, 1869 &ndash November 15, 1959) was a Scottish Physicist and During this period he witnessed a Brocken spectre and glory, caused by the sun casting a shadow on cloud below the observer. A Brocken spectre ( German Brockengespenst) also called Brocken bow or mountain spectre is the apparently enormously magnified Shadow A glory is an optical phenomenon appearing much like an iconic Saint 's halo about the head of the observer which is produced by light Backscattered (a combination He subsequently tried to reproduce these phenomena in the laboratory, resulting in his invention of the cloud chamber used to detect ionising radiation. The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of Ionizing radiation. Image talkNew_radiation_symbol_ISO_21482svg for details --> Ionizing radiation 
Ben Nevis's popularity, climate and complex topography contribute to a high number of mountain rescue incidents. Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets Mountain rescue refers to Search and rescue activities that occur in a mountainous environment although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in In 1999, for example, there were 41 rescues and four fatalities on the mountain.  Some accidents arise over difficulties in navigating to or from the summit, especially in poor visibility. Navigation is the process of reading and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another The problem stems from the fact that the summit plateau is roughly kidney-shaped, and surrounded by cliffs on three sides; the danger is particularly accentuated when the main path is obscured by snow. The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles Two precise compass bearings taken in succession are necessary to navigate from the summit cairn to the west flank, from where a descent can be made on the Pony Track in relative safety. A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth's Magnetic poles It consists In Navigation, a bearing is the direction one object is from another object 
In the late 1990s Lochaber Mountain Rescue Team erected two posts on the summit plateau, in order to assist walkers attempting the descent in foggy conditions. Mountain rescue refers to Search and rescue activities that occur in a mountainous environment although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground These posts were subsequently cut down by climbers, sparking controversy in mountaineering circles on the ethics of such additions.  Supporters of navigational aids point to the high number of accidents that occur on the mountain (between 1990 and 1995 alone there were 13 fatalities, although eight of these were due to falls while rock climbing rather than navigational error), the long tradition of placing such aids on the summit, and the potentially life-saving role they could play. However, critics argue that cairns and posts are an unnecessary man-made intrusion into the natural landscape, which create a false sense of security and could lessen mountaineers' sense of responsibility for their own safety. 
The north face of Ben Nevis is riven with buttresses, ridges, towers and pinnacles, and contains many classic scrambles and rock climbs. Scrambling (also known as alpine scrambling) is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges Rock climbing is a Sport in which participants climb up or across natural rock formations or man-made rock walls with the goal of reaching the It is of major importance for British winter climbing, with many of its routes holding snow often until late April. It was one of the first places in Scotland to receive the attention of serious mountaineers, with a descent of Tower Ridge in 1892 the earliest documented climbing expedition on the Ben. “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of Tower Ridge is one of several Ridges protruding north west from the summit Plateau of Ben Nevis, the highest Mountain in the United Kingdom  (It was not climbed from bottom to top for another two years. ) The Scottish Mountaineering Club's Charles Inglis Clark hut was built below the north face in Coire Leis in 1929. The Scottish Mountaineering Club (SMC is Scotland's second oldest Mountaineering club Because of its remote location, it is said to be the only genuine alpine hut in Britain. A mountain hut (also known as alpine hut, mountain shelter, and mountain hostel) is a building located in the mountains intended to provide food and  It remains popular with climbers, especially in winter.
Tower Ridge is the longest of the north face's four main ridges, with around 600 metres of ascent. A ridge is a geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance It is not technically demanding (its grade is Difficult), and most pitches can be tackled unroped by competent climbers, but it is committing and very exposed. In Rock climbing, Mountaineering and other Climbing disciplines climbers give a climbing grade to a route that concisely describes the difficulty  Castle Ridge, the first of the main ridges, is an easier scramble, while Observatory Ridge is graded Very Difficult; the latter is the closest ridge to the summit. Between the Tower and Observatory Ridges is Gardyloo Gully, which takes its name from the cry of "garde à l'eau" (French for "watch out for the water"), formerly used in Scottish cities used as a warning when householders threw their slops out of a tenement window into the street. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The gully's top wall was the refuse tip for the now-disused summit observatory.  The North-east Buttress is the last and bulkiest of these four ridges, and is regarded as the hardest for its combination of technical difficulty and seriousness. 
The north face contains dozens of graded rock climbs along its entire length, with particular concentrations on the Carn Dearg Buttress (below the Munro top of Carn Dearg NW) and around the North-east Buttress and Observatory Ridge. A Munro is a Scottish mountain with a height over 3000 feet (914 Classic rock routes include Rubicon Wall on Observatory Buttress (Severe) – whose second ascent in 1937, when it was considered the hardest route on the mountain, is described by W. H. Murray in Mountaineering in Scotland – and, on Carn Dearg, Centurion (HVS) and Agrippa (E5). William Hutchi(nson Murray ( 18 March 1913 – 19 March 1996) was one of a group of active Scottish 
Other classic routes were put up by Dr J. H. B. Bell and others between the Wars; these include Bell's 'Long Climb', at 1,400 ft (430 m) reputedly the longest on the mainland. James Horst Brunnerman Bell (Dr J H B Bell (1896-1975 was regarded by many as the leading Scots Mountaineer in the period prior to World War II.
The north face is also of Scotland's foremost venues for winter mountaineering and ice climbing, and holds snow until quite late in the year; in a good year routes may remain in winter condition until mid-spring. Ice climbing, as the term indicates is the activity of ascending inclined ice formations Most of the possible rock routes are also suitable as winter climbs, including the four main ridges; Tower Ridge, for example, is grade III on the Scottish winter grading system.  Probably the most popular ice climb on Ben Nevis is The Curtain (IV,5) on the left side of the Carn Dearg Buttress. At the top end of the scale, Centurion in winter is a grade VIII,8 face climb.
The history of hill running on Ben Nevis dates back to 1895. Fell running, also known as mountain running and hill running, is the sport of Running and racing off road over upland country where the gradient climbed William Swan, a hairdresser from Fort William, made the first recorded timed ascent up the mountain on or around 27 September of that year, when he ran from the old post office in Fort William to the summit and back in 2 hours 41 minutes. Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again  The following years saw several improvements on Swan's record, but the first competitive race was held on 3 June 1898 under Scottish Amateur Athletic Association rules. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Ten competitors ran the course, which started at the Lochiel Arms Hotel in Banavie and was thus longer than the route from Fort William; the winner was 21-year-old Hugh Kennedy, a gamekeeper at Tor Castle, who finished (coincidentally with Swan's original run) in 2 hours 41 minutes. Banavie ( Scottish Gaelic: Bainbhidh or Banbhaidh) is a small settlement near Fort William in the Highland Region of Scotland 
Regular races were organised until 1903, when two events were held; these were the last for 24 years, perhaps due to the closure of the summit observatory the following year.  The first was from Achintee, at the foot of the Pony Track, and finished at the summit; It was won in just over an hour by Ewen MacKenzie, the observatory roadman.  The second race ran from new Fort William post office, and MacKenzie lowered the record to 2 hours 10 minutes, a record he held for 34 years. 
The Ben Nevis Race has been run in its current form since 1937. It now takes place on the first Saturday in September every year, with a maximum of 500 competitors taking part.  It starts and finishes at the Claggan Park football ground on the outskirts of Fort William, and is 16 km long with 1,340 m of ascent. Claggan Park is a playing field in the town of Fort William, Lochaber, Scotland.  Due to the seriousness of the mountain environment, entry is restricted to those who have completed three hill races, and runners must carry waterproofs, a hat, gloves and a whistle; anyone who has not reached the summit after two hours is turned back.  As of 2006 the records have stood unbroken since 1984, when Kenny Stuart and Pauline Howarth of Keswick Athletics Club won the men's and the women's races with times of 1:25:34 and 1:43:25 respectively. Keswick (pronounced "kez-ick" /ˈkɛzɪk/ is a Market town within the district of Allerdale, Cumbria, England. 
Ben Nevis's popularity and high profile have led to concerns in recent decades over the impact of humans on the fragile mountain environment. These concerns contributed to the purchase of the Ben Nevis Estate in 2000 by the John Muir Trust, a Scottish charity dedicated to the conservation of wild places. John Muir Trust (JMT is a Scottish charity, established in 1983 to conserve and protect wild places with their indigenous animals plants and The Estate covers 1,700 hectares of land on the south side of Ben Nevis and the neighbouring mountains of Carn Mòr Dearg and Aonach Beag, including the summit of Ben Nevis. 
The John Muir Trust is one of nine bodies represented on the main board of the Nevis Partnership. Founded in 2003, the Partnership, which also includes representatives from local government, Glen Nevis residents and mountaineering interests, works to "guide future policies and actions to safeguard, manage and where appropriate enhance the environmental qualities and opportunities for visitor enjoyment and appreciation of the Nevis area".  Its projects include path repairs and improvement and the development of strategies for visitor management.
One of the Nevis Partnership's more controversial actions has concerned the large number of memorial plaques placed by individuals, especially around the summit war memorial. A memorial is an object which serves as a memory of something usually a person (who has died or an event A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, is a plate of metal ceramic stone wood or other material typically attached to a wall stone or other vertical surface and bearing Many people believe that the proliferation of such plaques is inappropriate, and in August 2006 the Nevis Partnership declared an intention to eventually remove these plaques (after making efforts to return them to their owners) as part of a wider campaign to clean up the mountain. 
In 2005 the amount of litter on the Pony Track was highlighted by national media, including BBC Radio 5 Live. Robin Kevan, a retired social worker from mid-Wales who is known as "Rob the Rubbish" for his efforts to clean up the countryside, then drove to Ben Nevis and cleaned the mountain himself, resulting in much media coverage and a concerted clean-up effort. Robin Kevan (born Sedbergh, then in Yorkshire, 8 April, 1945) a retired social worker is affectionately known as Rob the Rubbish 
The Ben Nevis Distillery is a single malt whisky distillery at the foot of the mountain, located by Victoria Bridge to the north of Fort William. Single Malt Scotch is a type of Single malt whisky, distilled by a single distillery in a Pot still, using Malted Barley as the only Founded in 1825 by John McDonald (known as "Long John"), it is one of the oldest licensed distilleries in Scotland, and is a popular visitor attraction in Fort William. The water used to make the whisky comes from the Allt a' Mhuilinn, the stream that flows from Ben Nevis's northern corrie. A cirque ( French for " Circus " is an Amphitheatre -like Valley, or valley head formed at the head of a Glacier by  "Ben Nevis" 80/- organic ale is by contrast brewed in Bridge of Allan near Stirling. Ale is a type of Beer brewed from Malted Barley using a top-fermenting Brewers' yeast. Bridge of Allan is a town in Stirling Council area in Scotland, just north of the city of Stirling. Stirling ( Gaelic: Sruighlea, Scots: Stirlin) is a city and former ancient Burgh in Scotland, and is at 
"Ben Nevis" is an anglicisation of the Gaelic name Beinn Nibheis. Anglicisation or anglicization (see -ise vs -ize) is a process of conversion of verbal or written elements of any other language into a more comprehensible English Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. While beinn is the most common Gaelic word for "mountain", Nibheis is variously understood, though the name is commonly translated as "malicious" or "venomous mountain".  An alternative interpretation is that Beinn Nibheis derives from beinn-neamh-bhathais, from Neamh "heavens, clouds" and bathais "top of a man's head". A literal translation would therefore be "the mountain with its head in the clouds", though "mountain of Heaven" is also frequently given.