Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) is the research organization of Alcatel-Lucent and previously the United States Bell System. Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. Alcatel-Lucent is one of the world's biggest industry players in Telecommunications that provides hardware software and services to Service Providers Enterprises and The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Bell System which was named for Alexander Graham Bell, the technologist popularly credited with the invention of the Telephone, was a Trademark and
Bell Laboratories is headquartered at Murray Hill, New Jersey, in the USA, and has research and development facilities throughout the world. Murray Hill is an unincorporated area within portions of both Berkeley Heights and New Providence, located in Union County in north-central The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
In 1925 Western Electric Research Laboratories and part of the engineering department of AT&T were consolidated to form Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. Before proposing a merge request please see Talk and see if the merger you propose has recently been made and as a separate entity. The first president of research was Frank B. Jewett, who stayed until 1940. Frank Baldwin Jewett ( Pasadena, CA 5 September 1879- Summit, NJ 18 November 1949 was a Physicist and the first president of Bell Labs. Ownership of Bell Laboratories was evenly split between AT&T and Western Electric. Western Electric Company (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was an American Electrical engineering company the manufacturing arm Its principal work was to design and support the equipment Western Electric built for Bell System operating companies, including switches. In the field of Telecommunications, a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls Support work included the writing and maintaining of the Bell System Practices (BSP), a comprehensive series of technical manuals. The Labs also carried out consulting work for them, and US government work including Project Nike. Project Nike was a US Army project proposed in May 1945 by Bell Labs, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system A few workers were assigned to basic research, which attracted much attention. Until the 1940s, the principal locations were in New York.
Among the historical Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Crawford Hill, Deal, Freehold, Holmdel, Lincroft, Long Branch, Middletown, Murray Hill, Princeton, Piscataway, Red Bank, and Whippany. Crawford Hill (40 23' 28" N 74 11'07" W is located in Holmdel Township, New Jersey, United States The Deal Test Site (now Joe Palaia Park) in Ocean Township, New Jersey, was originally started as the Foxburst Farm a 63 acre tract which is Freehold New Jersey is made up of two municipalities The downtown area is Freehold Borough. Holmdel Township is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. For the next-generation Intel Atom microprocessor architecture see Intel Atom. Long Branch is a City in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. Middletown Township is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. Murray Hill is an unincorporated area within portions of both Berkeley Heights and New Providence, located in Union County in north-central See also Princeton Township New Jersey, Borough of Princeton New Jersey Princeton Borough New Jersey Princeton Township New Jersey this The Borough of Red Bank is a Borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey incorporated in 1908 Whippany is an unincorporated area located within Hanover Township in Morris County, New Jersey. Of these Crawford Hill, Murray Hill, and Whippany remain. Crawford Hill (40 23' 28" N 74 11'07" W is located in Holmdel Township, New Jersey, United States Murray Hill is an unincorporated area within portions of both Berkeley Heights and New Providence, located in Union County in north-central Whippany is an unincorporated area located within Hanover Township in Morris County, New Jersey. The largest facility in the country was in Illinois, at Naperville-Lisle, which had the single largest concentration of employees (about 11,000) prior to the telecomm downturn of 2001. Naperville ( is an affluent city in the Chicago metropolitan area in Illinois in the United States, voted the second and third best place to live Lisle is a village in DuPage County, Illinois, United States. There also were facilities in Columbus, Ohio, Allentown and Breinigsville in Pennsylvania, and Westminster, Colorado. Columbus is the Capital and the largest city of the US state of Ohio. For the song by Billy Joel, see " Allentown (song." For the neighborhood in Pittsburgh Breinigsville is an unincorporated community located in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The City of Westminster is a Home Rule Municipality located in Adams County and Jefferson County of the State of Colorado Since 2001, many of the former locations have been scaled back or shut down entirely.
At its peak, Bell Laboratories was the premier facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, information theory, the UNIX operating system, and the C programming language. Radio astronomy is a subfield of Astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. In Electronics, a transistor is a Semiconductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission. Information theory is a branch of Applied mathematics and Electrical engineering involving the quantification of Information. Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination tags please moot on the talk page first! --> In Computing, C is a general-purpose cross-platform block structured There have been 6 Nobel Prizes awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature 
During its first year of operation, facsimile (fax) transmission, invented elsewhere, was first demonstrated publicly by the Bell Laboratories. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. Steven Chu ( Chinese: 朱棣文 Pinyin: Zhū Dìwén (b February 28[[ 948]] St Horst Ludwig Störmer (born April 6, 1949 in Frankfurt, Germany) is a German physicist who shared the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics Robert Betts Laughlin (born November 1, 1950) is a professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University who together Daniel Chee Tsui ( born February 28, 1939, Henan Province, China) is a Chinese -born American Physicist whose Fax (short for facsimile, from Latin fac simile, "make similar" i In 1926, the laboratories invented the first synchronous-sound motion picture system , and continued to produce inventions throughout its lifetime. A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image as opposed to a Silent film.
In 1924, Bells Labs physicist Dr. Walter A. Shewhart proposed the control chart as a method to determine when a process was in a state of statistical control. Walter Andrew Shewhart (pronounced like "Shoe-heart" March 18, 1891 In Statistical process control, the control chart, also known as the ' Shewhart chart' or ' process-behaviour chart' is a tool used to determine whether a Shewart's methods were the basis for statistical process control (SPC) - the use of statistically-based tools and techniques for the management and improvement of processes. Statistical Process Control (SPC is an effective method of monitoring a process through the use of Control charts Control charts enable the use of objective criteria for distinguishing This was the origin of the modern quality movement, including Six Sigma. Six Sigma is a Business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, that today enjoys wide-spread application in many sectors of industry
In 1927, a long-distance television transmission of images of Herbert Hoover from Washington to New York was successful, and in 1928 the thermal noise in a resistor was first measured by John B. Johnson with Harry Nyquist, who provided a theoretical analysis. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10 1874 &ndash October 20 1964 was the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933 Johnson–Nyquist noise ( thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation John Bertrand "Bert" Johnson (1887–1970 ( né Johan Erik Bertrand was a Swedish -born American electrical engineer and physicist Harry Nyquist ( né Harry Theodor Nyqvist pron, not as often pronounced ( February 7, 1889 – April 4, 1976) was an important During the 1920s, the one-time pad cipher was invented by Gilbert Vernam and Joseph Mauborgne at the laboratories; Bell's Claude Shannon later proved that it was unbreakable. In Cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP is an Encryption Algorithm where the Plaintext is combined with a random key or "pad" In Cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an Algorithm for performing Encryption and Decryption &mdash a series of well-defined steps Gilbert Sandford Vernam (1890 &ndash 7 February 1960) was a AT&T Bell Labs engineer who in 1917 invented the Stream cipher and In the History of cryptography, Joseph Oswald Mauborgne (1881&ndash1971 co-invented the One-time pad with Gilbert Vernam of Bell Labs. Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30 1916 – February 24 2001 an American Electronic engineer and Mathematician, is "the father of Information
In 1931, a foundation for radio astronomy was laid by Karl Jansky during his work investigating the origins of static on long-distance shortwave communications. Radio astronomy is a subfield of Astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. Karl Guthe Jansky ( October 22, 1905 &ndash February 14, 1950) was an American Physicist and Radio Engineer He discovered that radio waves were being emitted from the center of the galaxy. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. A galaxy is a massive gravitationally bound system consisting of Stars an Interstellar medium of gas and dust, and Dark matter In 1933, stereo signals were transmitted live from Philadelphia to Washington, DC. Stereophonic sound, commonly called stereo, is the reproduction of Sound, using two or more independent audio channels through a Symmetrical Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D In 1937, the vocoder, the first electronic speech synthesizer was invented and demonstrated by Homer Dudley. A vocoder, ˈvoʊkoʊdər (a Portmanteau of vox/voc ( voice) and encoder) is an analysis / synthesis system mostly used for speech in which the input is Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. Homer W Dudley (1896-1987 was a pioneering electronic and acoustic engineer who created the first electronic voice synthesizer for Bell Labs in the 1930s and led the development Bell researcher Clinton Davisson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with George Paget Thomson for the discovery of electron diffraction, which helped lay the foundation for solid-state electronics. Clinton Joseph Davisson ( 22 October 1881 &ndash 1 February 1958) was an American physicist who won the 1937 Sir George Paget Thomson, FRS ( May 3, 1892 &ndash September 10, 1975) was an English Physicist and Electron diffraction is a technique used to study matter by firing Electrons at a sample and observing the resulting Interference pattern Solid-state Electronic components devices and systems are based entirely on the Semiconductor, such as Transistors Microprocessor chips and
In the early 1940s, the photovoltaic cell was developed by Russell Ohl. In Electronics, a transistor is a Semiconductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts Solar energy into Electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Russell Ohl (1898 - 1987 was an American engineer who is generally recognized for Patenting the modern Solar cell (US Patent 2402662 "Light sensitive device" In 1943, Bell developed SIGSALY, the first digital scrambled speech transmission system, used by the Allies in World War II. In Cryptography, SIGSALY (also known as the X System, Project X, Ciphony I, and the Green Hornet) was a secure speech In 1947, the transistor, probably the most important invention developed by Bell Laboratories, was invented by John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and William Bradford Shockley (all of whom subsequently won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956). In Electronics, a transistor is a Semiconductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals John Bardeen ( May 23 1908 – January 30 1991) was an American Physicist and Electrical engineer, who won Walter Houser Brattain ( February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was an American physicist at Bell Labs who along with William Bradford Shockley ( February 13, 1910 &ndash August 12, 1989) was a British -born American Physicist The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature In 1948, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", one of the founding works in information theory, was published by Claude Shannon in the Bell System Technical Journal; it built in part on earlier work in the field by Bell researchers Harry Nyquist and Ralph Hartley. "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" is an influential 1948 article by Mathematician Claude E Information theory is a branch of Applied mathematics and Electrical engineering involving the quantification of Information. Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30 1916 – February 24 2001 an American Electronic engineer and Mathematician, is "the father of Information Bell Labs Technical Journal is the in-house journal for scientists of Bell Labs / Alcatel-Lucent. Harry Nyquist ( né Harry Theodor Nyqvist pron, not as often pronounced ( February 7, 1889 – April 4, 1976) was an important Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley ( November 30, 1888 – May 1, 1970) was an Electronics researcher It also introduced a series of increasingly complex calculators through the decade. Shannon was also the founder of modern cryptography with his 1949 paper Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. The history of Cryptography begins thousands of years ago Until recent decades it has been the story of what might be called classic cryptography — that is of
The 1950s saw fewer developments and less activity on the scientific side. Complex plane In Mathematics, the complex numbers are an extension of the Real numbers obtained by adjoining an Imaginary unit, denoted George Robert Stibitz ( April 20, 1904 &ndash January 31, 1995) is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer Efforts concentrated more precisely on the Laboratories' prime mission of supporting the Bell System with engineering advances including N-carrier, TD Microwave radio relay, Direct Distance Dialing, E-repeaters, Wire spring relays, and improved switching systems. Microwave radio relay is a technology for transmitting digital and analog signals, such as long-distance Telephone calls and the relay of Direct Distance Dialing ( DDD) or Direct dial is a Telecommunications term for a network -provided Service feature in which a Call A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and Retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power or onto the other side of an obstruction A wire spring relay is a type of Relay, primarily manufactured by the Western Electric Company for use by the Bell System in electromechanical The Number Five Crossbar Switching System or 5XB switch, designed by Bell Labs and made by Western Electric, was in use in Bell System Telephone Maurice Karnaugh, in 1953, developed the Karnaugh map as tool to facilitate management of Boolean algebraic expressions. The Karnaugh map, also known as a Veitch diagram ( KV-map or K-map for short is a tool to facilitate the simplification of Boolean algebra Boolean algebra (or Boolean logic) is a logical calculus of truth values, developed by George Boole in the late 1830s In 1954, The first photo voltaic was examined at Bell Laboratories. As for the spectacular side of the business, in 1956 TAT-1, the first transatlantic telephone cable was laid between Scotland and Newfoundland, in a joint effort by AT&T, Bell Laboratories, and British and Canadian telephone companies. TAT-1 (Transatlantic No 1 was the first submarine Transatlantic telephone cable system A transatlantic telephone cable is a Submarine communications cable that carries telephone traffic under the Atlantic Ocean. Before proposing a merge request please see Talk and see if the merger you propose has recently been made and A year later, in 1957, MUSIC, one of the first computer programs to play electronic music, was created by Max Mathews. MUSIC-N refers to a family of Computer music programs and Programming languages descended from or influenced by MUSIC I a program written by Max Mathews Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production Max Vernon Mathews (* November 13, 1926, in Columbus, Nebraska) is a pioneer in the world of Computer music. New greedy algorithms developed by Robert C. Prim and Joseph Kruskal, revolutionized computer network design. A greedy algorithm is any Algorithm that follows the Problem solving Metaheuristic of making the locally optimum choice at each stagewith the hope Robert Clay Prim (born 1921 in Sweetwater, Texas) is an American Mathematician and Computer scientist. Joseph Bernard Kruskal Jr (born January 29 1928) is an American Mathematician, Statistician, and Psychometrician. A computer network is a group of interconnected Computers. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics In 1958, the laser was first described, in a technical paper by Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes. A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission. Arthur Leonard Schawlow ( May 5, 1921 – April 28, 1999) was an American physicist. Charles Hard Townes (born July 28, 1915) is an American Nobel Prize-winning Physicist and educator
In 1960, Dawon Kahng and Martin Atalla invented the metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET); the MOSFET has achieved electronic hegemony and sustains the large-scale integrated circuits (LSIs) underlying today's information society. The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor ( MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a device used to amplify or switch electronic signals Microchipsjpg|right|thumb|200px|Microchips ( EPROM memory with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside In 1962, the electret microphone was invented by Gerhard M. Sessler and James Edward Maceo West. An electret microphone is a type of Condenser microphone, which eliminates the need for a power supply by using a permanently-charged material Gerhard M Sessler (Rosenfeld Baden-Württemberg, Germany, February 15, 1931) is a German inventor and scientist James Edward Maceo West ( February 10, 1931 &ndash is an American inventor and Acoustician. In 1964, the Carbon dioxide laser was invented by Kumar Patel. The carbon dioxide laser ( CO2 laser) was one of the earliest Gas lasers to be developed (invented by Kumar Patel of Bell Labs in 1964 C Kumar N Patel ( 1938-07-02 -) developed the Carbon dioxide laser in 1963 it is now widely used in industry for cutting and welding, as a Laser In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered the Cosmic Microwave Background, and won the Nobel Prize in 1978. In 1966, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), a key technology in wireless services, was developed and patented by R. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing ( OFDM) — essentially identical to Coded OFDM ( COFDM) and Discrete multi-tone modulation ( W. Chang. In 1968, Molecular beam epitaxy was developed by J. Molecular beam Epitaxy (MBE, is one of several methods of depositing Single crystals It was invented in the late 1960s at Bell Telephone Laboratories R. Arthur and A. Y. Cho; molecular beam epitaxy allows semiconductor chips and laser matrices to be manufactured one atomic layer at a time. In 1969, the UNIX operating system was created by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson. Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (born September 9, 1941) is an American computer scientist notable for his influence on C and other Programming Kenneth Lane Thompson (born February 4 1943) commonly referred to as Ken Thompson (or simply The Charge-coupled device (CCD) was invented in 1969 by Willard Boyle and George E. Smith. A charge-coupled device ( CCD) is an analog Shift register, that enables the transportation of analog signals (electric charges through successive stages (capacitors Willard S Boyle (born August 19 1924) is a Canadian physicist and co-inventor of the Charge-coupled device. George E Smith (born May 10, 1930) is an American scientist and co-inventor of the Charge-coupled device.
The 1970s and 1980s saw more and more computer-related inventions at the Bell Laboratories as part of the personal computing revolution. A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated In 1970 Dennis Ritchie developed the C programming language as a replacement for the interpretive B for use in writing the UNIX operating system (also developed at Bell Laboratories). Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (born September 9, 1941) is an American computer scientist notable for his influence on C and other Programming tags please moot on the talk page first! --> In Computing, C is a general-purpose cross-platform block structured Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer In 1971, an improved task priority system for computerized switching systems for telephone traffic was invented by Erna Schneider Hoover, who received one of the first software patents for it. In the field of Telecommunications, a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls Dr Erna Schneider Hoover (born 1926 invented a method for prioritizing processes within stored program control switching Software patent does not have a universally accepted definition In 1976, Fiber optics systems were first tested in Georgia and in 1980, the first single-chip 32-bit microprocessor, the BELLMAC-32A was demonstrated; it went into production in 1982. An optical fiber (or fibre) is a Glass or Plastic fiber that carries Light along its length The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule The range of Integer values that can be stored in 32 bits is 0 through 4294967295 or −2147483648 through 2147483647 using Two's complement encoding A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a Central processing unit (CPU on a single Integrated
In 1980, the TDMA and CDMA digital cellular telephone technology was patented. This article is about the medium access technology The name "TDMA" is also commonly used in the United States to refer to D-AMPS, which is a mobile telephone Code division multiple access ( CDMA) is a Channel access method utilized by various radio communication technologies In 1982, Fractional quantum Hall effect was discovered by Horst Störmer and former Bell Laboratories researchers Robert B. Laughlin and Daniel C. Tsui; they consequently won a Nobel Prize in 1998 for the discovery. The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE is a physical phenomenon in which a certain system behaves as if it were composed of particles with charge smaller than the Elementary charge Horst Ludwig Störmer (born April 6, 1949 in Frankfurt, Germany) is a German physicist who shared the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics Robert Betts Laughlin (born November 1, 1950) is a professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University who together Daniel Chee Tsui ( born February 28, 1939, Henan Province, China) is a Chinese -born American Physicist whose In 1983, the C++ programming language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension to the original C programming language also developed at Bell Laboratories. C++ (" C Plus Plus " ˌsiːˌplʌsˈplʌs is a general-purpose Programming language. Bjarne Stroustrup (/'bjɑːnə 'sdʁʌʊ̯ˀsdʁɔb/ born December 30, 1950 in Aarhus
In 1984, the first photoconductive antennas for picosecond electromagnetic radiation were demonstrated by Auston et al. This type of antenna now becomes an important component in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In Physics, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS is a spectroscopic technique where a special generation and detection scheme is used to probe material In 1984, the Karmarkar Linear Programming Algorithm was developed by mathematician Narendra Karmarkar. Karmarkar's algorithm is an algorithm introduced by Narendra Karmarkar in 1984 for solving Linear programming problems Narendra K Karmarkar (born 1957 is an Indian mathematician renowned for developing Karmarkar's algorithm. Also in 1984, a divestiture agreement with the American Federal government forced the break-up of AT&T: Bellcore (now Telcordia Technologies) was split off from Bell Laboratories to provide the same R&D functions for the newly created local exchange carriers. In United States Telecommunication law Modification of Final Judgment ( MFJ) is the 1982 antitrust suit settlement agreement ( Consent decree Telcordia Technologies, formerly Bell Communications Research Inc Telcordia Technologies, formerly Bell Communications Research Inc Local Exchange Carrier (LEC is a Regulatory term in Telecommunications for the local telephone company AT&T also was limited to using the Bell trademark only in association with Bell Laboratories. Before proposing a merge request please see Talk and see if the merger you propose has recently been made and Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. , was then renamed AT&T Bell Laboratories, Inc. , and became a wholly owned company of the new AT&T Technologies unit, the former Western Electric. AT&T Technologies Inc, was created in 1983 in preparation for the Bell System Divestiture, which became effective as of January 1, 1984. Western Electric Company (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was an American Electrical engineering company the manufacturing arm The 5ESS Switch was developed during this transition. The 5ESS Switch is the Class 5 telephone Electronic switching system sold by Alcatel-Lucent. In 1985, laser cooling was used to slow and manipulate atoms by Steven Chu and team. Laser cooling is a technique that uses Light to cool atoms to a very low temperature Steven Chu ( Chinese: 朱棣文 Pinyin: Zhū Dìwén (b February 28[[ 948]] St Also in 1985, Bell Laboratories was awarded the National Medal of Technology "For contribution over decades to modern communication systems". The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly known as the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American During the 1980s, the Plan 9 operating system was developed as a replacement for Unix which was also developed at Bell Laboratories in 1969. Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a Distributed operating system, primarily used for research Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer Development of the Radiodrum, a three dimensional electronic instrument. The Radiodrum is a Musical instrument played in three dimensional space using two drumsticks In 1988, TAT-8 became the first fiber optic transatlantic cable. TAT-8 was the 8th Transatlantic telephone cable,initially carrying 40000 telephone circuits (simultaneous calls between USA, England and France
In 1990, WaveLAN, the first wireless local area network (LAN) was developed at Bell Laboratories. WaveLAN is a Trade name that describes two completely different families of wireless network solutions Pre- IEEE 802 Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or " Wires quot Wireless network technology would not become popular until the late 1990s and was first demonstrated in 1995. In 1991, the 56K modem technology was patented by Nuri Dağdeviren and his team. Modem (from mo dulator- dem odulator is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode Digital information In 1994, the Quantum cascade laser was invented by the Federico Capasso, Alfred Cho, and their collaborators and was later greatly improved by the innovations of Claire Gmachl. Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs are Semiconductor lasers that emit in the mid- to far- Infrared portion of the Electromagnetic spectrum and were first demonstrated Federico Capasso ( Rome, 1949- a Physicist, was one of the inventors of the Quantum cascade laser during his work at Bell Laboratories. Alfred Yi Cho (Chinese 卓以和 born in 1937 is the Adjunct Vice President of Semiconductor Research at Alcatel-Lucent's Bell Labs. Dr Claire F Gmachl is Professor of Electrical Engineering at Princeton University. Also in 1994, Peter Shor devised his quantum factorization algorithm. Peter Williston Shor (born August 14, 1959) is an American theoretical computer scientist most famous for his work on Quantum computation In 1996, SCALPEL electron lithography, which prints features atoms wide on microchips, was invented by Lloyd Harriott and his team. Lithography is a method for Printing using a plate or stone with a completely smooth surface The Inferno operating system, an update of Plan 9, was created by Dennis Ritchie with others, using the new concurrent Limbo programming language. Inferno is an Operating system for creating and supporting distributed services Parallel computing is a form of computation in which many instructions are carried out simultaneously operating on the principle that large problems can often Limbo is a Programming language for writing distributed systems and is the language used to write applications for the Inferno Operating system A high performance database engine (Dali) was developed which became DataBlitz in its product form.
AT&T spun off Bell Laboratories, along with most of its equipment-manufacturing business, into a new company named Lucent Technologies. Alcatel-Lucent is one of the world's biggest industry players in Telecommunications that provides hardware software and services to Service Providers Enterprises and AT&T retained a smaller number of researchers, who made up the staff of the newly-created AT&T Laboratories. For the currently-existing research and development division of AT&T Inc In 1997, 50 years after inventing the original transistor, the smallest practical transistor (60 nanometers or a mere 182 atoms wide) was built. A nanometre ( American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) ( Greek: νάνος nanos dwarf; μετρώ metrό count) is a In 1998, the first optical router was invented and the first combination of voice and data traffic on an Internet Protocol (IP) network was developed at the Laboratories. The Internet Protocol ( IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a Packet-switched Internetwork using the Internet Protocol
2000 was an active year for the Laboratories, in which DNA machine prototypes were developed; progressive geometry compression algorithm made widespread 3-D communication practical; the first electrically powered organic laser invented; a large-scale map of cosmic dark matter was compiled, and F-15, an organic material that makes plastic transistors possible, was invented. A DNA machine is a Molecular machine constructed from DNA. Research into DNA machines was pioneered in the late 1980s by Nadrian Seeman and co-workers A dye laser is a Laser which uses an organic Dye as the Lasing medium, usually as a Liquid Solution. In Physics and cosmology, dark matter is hypothetical Matter that does not interact with the electromagnetic force but whose presence can be inferred from In 2002, Jan Hendrik Schön, a German physicist, was fired after his work was found to contain fraudulent data. Jan Hendrik Schön (born 1970 is a German Physicist who briefly rose to prominence after a series of apparent breakthroughs that were later discovered to be fraudulent Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A physicist is a Scientist who studies or practices Physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning Over a dozen of Schön's papers were found to contain completely fictional or considerably altered data, including a paper on molecular-scale transistors that had been received as a breakthrough. Also in 2002, the world's first semiconductor laser that emits light continuously and reliably over a broad spectrum of infrared wavelengths was invented. Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of In 2003, the New Jersey Nanotechnology Laboratory was created at Murray Hill, New Jersey. Murray Hill is an unincorporated area within portions of both Berkeley Heights and New Providence, located in Union County in north-central
In 2005, Dr. Jeong Kim, former President of Lucent's Optical Network Group, returned from academia to become President of Bell Laboratories. Dr Jeong H Kim (김종훈 is a Korean-American electrical engineer and administrator who since 2005 has served as president of Bell Labs.
In April 2006, Bell Laboratories's parent company, Lucent Technologies, signed a merger agreement with Alcatel. Alcatel-Lucent is one of the world's biggest industry players in Telecommunications that provides hardware software and services to Service Providers Enterprises and On December 1, 2006 the merged company, Alcatel-Lucent, began operations. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Alcatel-Lucent is one of the world's biggest industry players in Telecommunications that provides hardware software and services to Service Providers Enterprises and This deal raised concerns in the United States, where Bell Laboratories works on defense contracts. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A separate company with a US board was set up to manage Bell Laboratories' and Lucent's sensitive US government contracts.
In December 2007, it was announced the former Lucent Bell Laboratories and the former Alcatel Research and Innovation would be merged into one organization under the name of Bell Laboratories, continuing the commitment to research at Alcatel-Lucent. This is the first period of growth following many years during which Bell Laboratories progressively lost manpower due to layoffs and spin-offs.