The pilot heads his Beechcraft AT-11, out over the west Texas prairies to its target as the bombardier student and instructor ready the bomb sight in the nose of the plane.
|Type||Utility aircraft modified for many applications|
|Manufacturer||Beech Aircraft Corporation|
|Maiden flight||15 January 1937|
|Retired||Last Model 18 delivered in November, 1969|
|Status||Many Airworthy examples still in use. A utility aircraft is a general-purpose light plane or helicopter usually used for transporting people or freight but also for other duties when a more specialised aircraft is not required An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing building testing selling and maintaining Aircraft, Aircraft parts Hawker Beechcraft The Beech Aircraft Corporation, previously the Beechcraft Division of Raytheon and now a unit of Hawker Beechcraft, is a United The maiden flight of an Aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. |
|Number built||More than 9,000 of 32 variants built|
|Unit cost||1939 C-45H $57,838. 00 (USD)|Beechcraft 18
on floats in Manitoba
Beechcraft 18 on floats. Manitoba (English ˌmænɨˈtoʊbə French /manitoba/ is a province of Canada, spanning 647797 square kilometres (250116  sq mi of North America
Instructor and pilot in a Beechcraft AT-7
doing navigation training at Kelly Field
, TX. The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official National Museum of the United States Air Kelly Field Annex (Formerly Kelly Air Force Base is a United States Air Force facility located in San Antonio Texas.
The Beechcraft Model 18, or "Twin Beech", as it was better known, is a 6-11 place, twin-engine, low-wing, conventional-gear aircraft that was manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. This model saw service during and after World War II in a number of versions including the United States Army Air Forces C-45 Expeditor, AT-7 Navigator, AT-11 Kansan, and for the United States Navy, UC-45J Navigator and the SNB-1 Kansan. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The United States Army Air Forces ( USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II. An estimated aggregate total time in service for the aircraft time is in excess of 20,000,000 hours of flight time.
The Beech 18 is the most modified US-certified aircraft design, with over 200 FAA approved Supplemental Type Certificates on record for the aircraft. The Supplemental Type Certificate ( STC) is the Federal Aviation Administration term for the approval that extends a Type certificate for modifications made
The aircraft uses have included aerial spraying, sterile bug release, fish seeding, dry ice cloud seeding, aerial fire fighting, airborne mail pick up and drop, ambulance service, numerous movie productions, skydiving, freight, gun and drug smuggling, engine test bed, skywriting and banner tow. Parachuting, also known as skydiving is where a person jumps from enough height so that he can deploy a fabric Parachute and land safely A number of Model 18s were operated as passenger aircraft, The Model 18 was also the first aircraft flown by Philippine Airlines, Asia's first and oldest airline. Philippine Airlines Inc (abbreviated PAL) also known historically as Philippine Air Lines, is the national airline of the Philippines Many are now in private hands as highly prized collectibles.
Design and development
By the late 1930s, the winds of war had blown across Europe. Beechcraft management knew the company would be called upon to help the allied cause and they bet the future on increased production facilities and a new design dubbed the Model 18. The design was mainly conventional for the time, including twin radial engines, all-metal semi-monocoque construction with fabric covered control surfaces and "taildragger" undercarriage, while less common were the twin tail fins. Monocoque, from the French for single ( mono) and shell ( coque) is a construction technique that supports structural load by using an object's external Early production aircraft were either powered by two 300 hp (225 kW) Jacobs L6s or 260kW (350hp) Wright R-760Es. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The 450 hp (295 kW) Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior became the definitive engine from the prewar C18S onwards. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Beech 18 prototype first flew on 15 January 1937.
The aircraft has used a variety of engines and has had a number of airframe modifications to increase gross weight and speed. At least one aircraft was modified to a 450kW (600hp) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 powerplant configuration. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout With the added weight of approximately 200 pounds per engine, the concept of a Model 18 fitted with R-1340 engines was deemed unsatisfactory due to the weakest structural area of the aircraft being the engine mounts. With the exception of the center truss, the central component around which the entire aircraft is built, nearly every airframe component has been modified at one time or another.
Construction of the Beechcraft Model 18 ended in 1970 with the last Model 18 built going to Japan Airlines. Beechcraft set a record that still stands today for longest continuous production of a piston engine aircraft. Through the years, 32 variations of the basic design had flown, over 200 improvement modification kits were developed, and almost 8,000 aircraft had been built. Some aircraft were almost unrecognizable as having originated as a Beech 18. In one case the aircraft was modified to a triple tail, tri-gear, hump backed configuration and appeared similar to a miniature Lockheed Constellation. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
China sent the company 750k USD in return for light bombers based on the Model 18 design, but by the beginning of the war, only 39 Model 18s had been sold. Work began in earnest on a variant specifically for training fledgling military pilots, bombardiers and navigators. The effort resulted in the Army AT-7 and Navy SNB. Further development led to the AT-11 and SNB-2 navigation trainers and the C-45 military transport. The USAF Strategic Air Command had Beechcraft Model 18 (AT-11 Kansans, C-45 Expeditors, F-2 Expeditors, the "F" standing for "Fotorecon", and UC-45 Expeditors) from 1946 through 1951. The Strategic Air Command (SAC was both a major command and a "specified command" in the U The C-45 flew in US Air Force service until 1963, the US Navy retired their last SNB in 1972 while the US Army flew their C-45s through 1976.
Some of the modifications created by independent engineering entrepreneurs were adopted in concept by the factory in later production versions in similar fashion to the current practice Harley Davidson copying of custom motorcycles built in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the most notable cooling air and exhaust modifications were those engineered by Benjamin Israel while employed by Conrad Conversions. His modifications were based largely on creating a more efficient use of cooling air to reduce cooling drag, a major detriment to aircraft cruise performance. The difference in cruise performance was a significant 10% or better at the same power settings as before the modifications. These modifications were largely copied on the factory produced G and H models.
A factory option at one point was the addition of JATO bottles on each engine nacelle which added the equivalent of 200 horsepower per engine for about 12 seconds. The most successful powerplant upgrade was that of the Pratt & Whitney PT-6 turbine engine and Hartzell propellor. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout This type of conversion was carried out by Hamilton Aircraft in the 1960s and 70s as the Hamilton Westwind, successfully extending the commercial life of the aging aircraft. The Westwind II added a fuselage stretch to provide seating for 17 passengers, the Westwind III seated eight and used the rest of the extra room for cargo, and the Westwind IV added an extra stretch and a large cargo door.
Below is a list of museums or sites which have a Beechcraft Model 18 on display:
Military Model 18 operators
Beechcraft C-45 Expeditor
Air Transport Command markings
Specifications (UC-45 Expeditor)
Beechcraft UC-45F in flight. The Alberta Aviation Museum is a museum in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The Canadian Museum of Flight (formally the Canadian Museum of Flight Association since 1998 is an aviation museum at the Langley Regional Airport in Langley Castle Air Museum is located in Atwater, California, United States at the site of the former Castle Air Force Base. The Museum of Transport and Technology ( MOTAT) is a Museum located in Western Springs, Auckland, New Zealand. The Reynolds-Alberta Museum, in Wetaskiwin, Alberta, Canada, one of 18 provincially owned and operated Historic sites and Museums WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Weston Airport, or Aerphort Weston in Irish, is a private executive airport located on the R403 Regional road at Leixlip County Kildare Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The Lone Star Flight Museum, located in Galveston Texas, displays more than 40 historically significant aircraft and many hundreds of artifacts related to the history of The Swiss Air Force ( Schweizer Luftwaffe, Forces aériennes suisses, Forze Aeree Svizzere) is the air component Aerial photography is the taking of Photographs of the ground from an elevated position For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Niger ( or /ˈnaɪdʒɚ/) officially the Republic of Niger, is a Landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC was the predecessor of the U The United States Army Air Forces ( USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II. Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the The Republic of Zaire (pronunciation; République du Zaïre was the name of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo between October 27, 1971
Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II
- Crew: 2 pilots
- Capacity: 6 passengers
- Length: 34 ft 2 in (10. The Commemorative Air Force (CAF, formerly known as the Confederate Air Force, is a Texas -based Non-profit organization dedicated to preserving and Platte Valley Airpark is a public-use Airport located three miles (5 km northwest of the Central business district of Hudson, a town in Weld County A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. 41 m)
- Wingspan: 47 ft 8 in (14. The wingspan (or just span) of an airplane or a Bird, is the distance from the left wingtip to the right wingtip 53 m)
- Height: 9 ft 8 in (2. 95 m)
- Wing area: 349 ft² (32. 4 m²)
- Empty weight: 6,175 lb (2,800 kg)
- Loaded weight: 7,500 lb (3,400 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 8,727 lb (3,959 kg)
- Powerplant: 2× Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-1 "Wasp Junior" radial engines, 450 hp (336 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 225 mph (195 knots, 360 km/h)
- Range: 1,200 mi (1,000 NM, 1,900 km) at 160 mph (260 km/h)
- Service ceiling 26,000 ft (7,930 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,850 ft/min (9. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass The Maximum Takeoff Weight or Maximum Takeoff Mass of an Aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot of the aircraft is allowed to attempt to take off WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion Engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central In Aviation, V-speeds or Velocity-speeds are standard terms used to define Airspeeds important or useful to the operation of Aircraft, such The maximal total range is the distance an Aircraft can fly between Takeoff and Landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft or cross-country A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. In Aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum Density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditions In Aerodynamics, the rate of climb RoC is the speed at which an Aircraft increases its Altitude. 4 m/s)
- ^ Bridgeman, Leonard. “The Beechcraft Expeditor. ” Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. p. 205. ISBN 1 85170 493 0.
- Mondey, David. American Aircraft of World War II (Hamlyn Concise Guide). London: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7537-1461-4.
- Airspeed Oxford
- Avro Anson
- Barkley-Grow T8P
- Bennett BTC Executive
- Bristol Blenheim
- Cessna T-50 Bobcat
- De Havilland Dove
- Edwards XMBM-1
- Fairchild AT-21 Gunner
- Langley Twin 2-4-90
- Lockheed Electra
- Siebel Si 204
- Skandinavisk Aero Industri KZ-IV
- SNCASO SO. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Siebel Si 204 was a small twin-engined transport and trainer aircraft developed during World War II. Skandinavisk Aero Industri A/S (abbreviated SAI) was a Danish manufacturer of aeroplanes that existed between 1937 and 1954 90 Corse
Related lists This list of military aircraft of the United States includes prototype pre-production and operational types
© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
network: | |