A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife-, dagger-, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle barrel or similar weapon, effectively turning the gun into a spear. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A knife is a handheld sharp-edged instrument consisting of handle attached to a Blade used for cutting A dagger (from Vulgar Latin: 'daca' - a Dacian Knife) is a typically double-edged blade used for Stabbing or thrusting A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons The muzzle of a Firearm is the end of the barrel from which the Projectile will exit A rifle is a Firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling" cut into the barrel walls A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons This is an article about a particle accelerator For uses of spear, see Spear or Spear (disambiguation. It is a close-combat or last-resort weapon.
The evolution of the bayonet can be traced to a certain extent to an accident. In the mid-17th century irregular military conflicts of rural France, the peasants of the Southern French town of Bayonne, who were Basques, having run out of powder and shot, rammed their long-bladed hunting knives into the muzzles of their primitive muskets to fashion impromptu spears and, by necessity, created an ancillary weapon that was to influence Western European infantry tactics well into the early 20th century. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Irregular military refers to any non-standard military Being defined by exclusion there is a lot of variance in what comes under the term This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Bayonne ( French: Bayonne bajɔn Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest The Basques (Euskaldunak are a people who inhabit a region spanning over parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. A musket is a muzzle -loaded Smoothbore Long gun, which is intended to be fired from the shoulder This is an article about a particle accelerator For uses of spear, see Spear or Spear (disambiguation. An ancillary weapon is a weapon used for secondary or auxiliary purpose such as a Bayonet. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The weapon was introduced into the French army by General Jean Martinet. Jean Martinet (d 1672 was a French lieutenant-colonel and Inspector General and one of the first great drill masters of modern times
There is evidence though that the first bayonet appeared in 13th century China. When the developer of the musket found they could not damage an enemy at close proximity, they introduced two types of firearm, one with an attached knife and the other a spear. A musket is a muzzle -loaded Smoothbore Long gun, which is intended to be fired from the shoulder One is called (chinese:梨花枪), and the other is (chinese:飞火枪)
The benefit of such a dual-purpose arm contained in one was soon apparent. The early muskets fired at a slow rate (about a round per minute when loading with loose powder and ball, and no more than 3–4 rounds per minute using paper cartridges), and were both inaccurate and unreliable. A musket is a muzzle -loaded Smoothbore Long gun, which is intended to be fired from the shoulder Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Bayonets provided a useful addition to the weapons system when an enemy charging to contact could cross the musket's killing ground (a range of approximately 100 yards/metres at the most optimistic) at the expense of perhaps only one or two volleys from their waiting opponents. A foot-long bayonet, extending to a regulation 17 inches (approx. 43 centimetres) during the Napoleonic period, on a 5-foot (around 1. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. 5 metre) tall musket achieved a reach similar to the infantry spear, and later halberd, of earlier times. This is an article about a particle accelerator For uses of spear, see Spear or Spear (disambiguation.
Early bayonets were of the "plug" type. The bayonet had a round handle that slid directly into the musket barrel. This naturally prevented the gun from being fired. In 1671, plug bayonets were issued to the French regiment of fusiliers then raised. Fusilier was originally the name of a soldier armed with a light flintlock Musket called the fusil. They were issued to part of an English dragoon regiment raised in 1672 and disbanded in 1674, and to the Royal Fusiliers when raised in 1685. A dragoon is a soldier intended primarily to fight on foot but trained also in Horse riding and cavalry combat especially The danger incurred by the use of this bayonet (which put a stop to all fire) was felt so early that the younger Puysgur saw a ring-bayonet in 1678 which could be fixed without stopping the fire. The defeat of forces loyal to William of Orange by Jacobite Highlanders at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689 was due (among other things) to the use of the plug-bayonet; and shortly afterwards the defeated leader, Hugh Mackay, is believed to have introduced a ring-bayonet of his own invention. The Battle of Killiecrankie ( Scottish Gaelic -) was fought between highland Scottish clans supporting James II and VII and government troops (mostly lowland There is also Hugh Mackay an Australian social researcher Hugh Mackay (c Soon "socket" bayonets offset the blade from the musket barrel's muzzle. The bayonet attached over the outside of the barrel with a ring-shaped socket, secured on later models by a spring-loaded catch on the muzzle of the musket barrel.
A trial with badly fitting socket or zigzag bayonets was made after the battle of Fleurus, 1690, in the presence of Louis XIV, who refused to adopt them. The Battle of Fleurus, fought on 1 July, 1690, was a major engagement of the Nine Years' War. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Shortly after the Peace of Ryswick (1697), the English and Germans abolished the pike and introduced these bayonets, and plates of them are given in Surirey de St. The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (now known as Rijswijk) in the Dutch Republic. A pike is a Pole weapon, a very long thrusting Spear used two-handed and used extensively by Infantry both for attacks on enemy foot soldiers and as Remy's Mémoires d'Artillerie, published in Paris in that year; but owing to a military cabal they were not issued to the French infantry until 1703. Henceforward, the bayonet became, with the musket or other firearm, the typical weapon of infantry.
Many socket bayonets were triangular in cross-section in order to provide flexing strength in the blade without much increase in weight. Flexing strength was needed in case a bayonet struck a hard object: better to have it bend and be repairable, than have it be stiff and shatter on impact. This design of bayonet did not usually include a grip for using the bayonet apart from the gun, although a socket bayonet was deemed a sidearm anyway, especially in the British army of 1775.
The triangular bayonet, unlike an old urban legend, was not designed to create stab wounds "that were difficult to stitch when attended to by a medic, as it is more difficult to stitch a three-sided wound than a two-sided one, thus making the wound more likely to become infected" (sic). This quote ignores the reality of surgery, in that surgeons have sewn up jagged wounds using more stitches when needed, since time immemorial. Instead, three sided bayonets were designed to be an economical compromise between flexing strength and the amount of wrought iron need to make the bayonet (compare to a structural steel Tee-beam). Structural steel is Steel construction Material, a profile, formed with a specific Shape or cross section and certain standards of
Similarly, in the Soviet Union, later bayonet blades, now made of steel, were stiffened with a small cross-section in the form of a cross, in order to make them more compact in form and fold better onto the sides of their rifles (see Mosin Nagant model of 1944). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Mosin-Nagant (Винтовка Мосина ISO 9:) is a Bolt-action, internal magazine fed military Rifle that was used by the armed forces It is said that self-inflicted wounds made by soldiers to get themselves out of the line of battle would be recognized as such and bring them greater disciplinary punishment. In All Quiet on the Western Front, Erich Maria Remarque, the book's author, reported that in World War I French soldiers killed German prisoners who had serrated blade bayonets, as they assumed they were for cutting off the limbs of Allied soldiers. All Quiet on the Western Front (Im Westen nichts Neues is an Anti-war Novel written by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran Erich Maria Remarque (Erich Paul Remark 22 June 1898 &ndash 25 September 1970) was a German author. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. These were carried by combat engineers as tools and by NCOs as signs of rank.
18th and 19th century military tactics included various massed bayonet charges and defenses. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The Russian Army used the bayonet the most frequently in any Napoleonic conflict. Their motto was "The Bullet is foolish, the Bayonet wise". This implies that the bullet of a smoothbore musket was wildly inaccurate at ranges past 50 yards (which was true in most cases), but with the close quarters of bayonet fighting, it was hard to miss. It should be noted, however, that in the thick of a close-quarter combat, many soldiers revert to using bayonet-mounted rifles as clubs, this apparently being a more "natural" way of fighting (as described by military historians like John Keegan). Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan OBE (born 15 May, 1934) is a British Military historian, lecturer and journalist
Bayonets were experimented with through much of the 18th and 19th centuries. In the United States Navy before the American Civil War, bayonet blades were even affixed to single-shot pistols, although they soon proved useless for anything but cooking. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Cutlasses remained the favoured weapon for the navies of the time, though Queen Victoria's Royal Navy gave up the pikes once used to repel attacks by boarders in favor of the cutlass bayonet. A cutlass is a short thick Sabre or slashing Sword, with a straight or slightly curved Blade sharpened on the cutting edge and a Hilt often The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) A pike is a Pole weapon, a very long thrusting Spear used two-handed and used extensively by Infantry both for attacks on enemy foot soldiers and as
The 19th century finally saw the popularity of the sword bayonet. A sword bayonet is any long knife-bladed Bayonet designed for mounting on a Musket or Rifle. It was a long-bladed weapon with a single- or double-edged blade that could also be used as a shortsword. Its initial purpose was to ensure that riflemen, when in ranks with musketmen, whose weapons were longer, could form square properly to fend off cavalry attacks, when sword bayonets were fitted. A prime early example of a sword bayonet-fitted rifle would be the British Infantry Rifle of 1800-1840, later known as the "Baker Rifle". (However, one usually removed the sword bayonet on the Infantry Rifle before firing; the weight at the end of the barrel affected balance and stability, hence accuracy)
The hilt usually had quillons modified to accommodate the gun barrel, and a hilt mechanism that enabled the bayonet to be attached to a bayonet lug. The hilt (sometimes called the haft) of a Sword is its handle consisting of a guard, grip and pommel. For the fictional characters see Gunbarrel (Transformers. A gun barrel is the tube usually Metal, through which a controlled Explosion The hilt (sometimes called the haft) of a Sword is its handle consisting of a guard, grip and pommel. A bayonet lug is a standard feature on most military Muskets Rifles and Shotguns and on some civilian longarms. When dismounted, a sword bayonet could be used in combat as a side arm. A side arm is a Firearm, usually a Pistol, which is worn on the body in a Holster to permit immediate access and use When attached to the musket or rifle, it effectively turned almost any long gun into a spear or glaive, suitable not only for thrusting but also for slashing. The term long gun is used to describe classes of Firearm and Cannon with longer barrels than other classes A glaive is a Polearm consisting of a single-edged Blade on the end of a pole. World War I saw the shortening of sword bayonets into knife-sized weapons, usable as fighting knives or trench knives, so that the vast majority of modern bayonets are knife bayonets. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A combat knife is a large Knife designed for military or paramilitary use Trench knives are either purpose-made weapons or are made from cut-down (shortened Bayonets or Swords and intended for close-quarter fighting the design originating A knife bayonet is a knife or short sword which can be used both as a Bayonet or fighting or utility Knife.
Modern bayonets are often knife-shaped with either a handle and a socket, or are permanently attached to the rifle as with the SKS. The SKS is a Russian 762x39mm caliber semi-automatic carbine, designed in 1945 by Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov. Depending on where and when a specific SKS was manufactured, it may have a permanently attached bayonet with a knife-shaped blade (Russian, Romanian, Yugoslavian, early Chinese), or a cruciform (late Chinese) or triangular (Albanian) spike bayonet, or no bayonet at all. The SKS is a Russian 762x39mm caliber semi-automatic carbine, designed in 1945 by Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Spravkajpg|thumb|Featured in Winter war era propaganda]]A spike Bayonet is a blade attachment for a firearm taking the form of a pointed Spike rather than
Most modern bayonets have a fuller (visible on the top half of the blade shown above), which is a concave depression in the blade designed to reduce the weight while keeping the blade's stiffness. fuller is a rounded or beveled groove on the flat side of a blade such as a Sword, Knife, or Bayonet (shown Some speculate that this design feature makes a bayonet easier to withdraw after a stabbing attack by allowing air into the wound it produces, or to allow blood to drain from it, but in fact fullers have not been experimentally shown to have such an effect. Rather, the fuller increases the bending strength of the blade in the same way the "I" cross-section of an I-Beam is more efficient in resisting bending than an equivant rectangular cross-section. I-beams (also known as W-beams or double-T esp in Polish and German) are beams with an I- or H-shaped 
The advent of modern warfare in the 1800s decreased the bayonet's usefulness, and as early as the U. S. Civil War (1861–65) the bayonet was ultimately responsible for less than one percent of battlefield casualties.  Modern warfare still sees the use of the bayonet for close-quarter fighting. Modern warfare, although present in every Historical period of Military history, is generally used to refer to the concepts, methods and Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H is a generic term for Close quarters fighting, particularly when the outcome is potentially fatal as in Melee British forces, for example, performed bayonet charges during the Falklands War and the 2003 Iraq War. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia  During the Korean War, Lewis L. Millett led soldiers of the US 27th Infantry Regiment (United States) in taking out a Chinese machine gun position with bayonets. Lewis L Millett (born 1920 was awarded the Medal of Honor during the Korean War for leading the last major American Bayonet charge The 27th Infantry, nicknamed the " Wolfhounds," served as part of the 25th Infantry (Lightning Division during the Korean War and later the Millett was awarded the Medal of Honor for this action. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government.
In the US Marine Corps, trainees at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego for instance get their first instruction in using the bayonet as a lethal weapon on their 10th day. The essence of bayonet fighting as taught in the Corps is to spring forward from a modified crouch and thrust the blade into the enemy. Recruits are taught to slash an enemy diagonally from shoulder to hipbone and how to use a bayonet to push aside an enemy's weapon.
In a modern context, bayonets are used for controlling prisoners and as a "last resort" weapon for close quarters combat, in cases where a soldier is out of ammo or if a weapon has jammed. However, they are not normally fitted to weapons except when such situations are at hand, because the bayonet impairs long-range accuracy, as its weight alters the rifle's balance.
A bayonet also remains useful as a utility knife, and as an aid to combat morale. In Economics, utility is a measure of the relative satisfaction from or desirability of Consumption of various Goods and services. Morale, also known as esprit de corps when discussing the morale of a group is an intangible term used for the capacity of people to maintain Belief in Training in the use of the bayonet has been given precedence long after the combat role of the bayonet declined as it is thought to increase desired aggressiveness in troops. Despite the limitations of the bayonet, many modern assault rifles retain a bayonet lug and the weapon is still issued in many armies. Examples are the M16, AK-47, and the Sig 550. M16 (more formally United States Rifle II Caliber 556 mm M16) is the U The AK-47 (contraction of Russian Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1947 goda; "Kalashnikov's The SG 550 is an Assault rifle manufactured by Swiss Arms AG (formerly Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft) of Neuhausen, Switzerland
Bayonets were used as a direct attack weapon by Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders troops from the British Army in the second conflict in Iraq. The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders was an Infantry Regiment of the British Army, part of the Scottish Division. When two landrovers of Highlander troops were ambushed by soldiers loyal to cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, the Highlander troops fixed bayonets to their rifles and charged the militiamen. 30 Iraqi gunman were killed and 12 were captured. 
In armies of the Commonwealth of Nations, in close-order drill the command to fix bayonets is a two-part command. Jungle Carbine was an informal term used for the Rifle No 5 Mk I, which was a derivative of the British Lee Enfield No It consists of the preparatory order "Fix" and the execution order "BAYONETS". It is issued only from the Order Arms position. The commands to "Fix" and "Unfix" bayonets are among the only drill commands not executed in a specified cadence.
In the Rifle Regiments of the British Army, using a practice harkening back to the days when their flintlock rifles carried sword bayonets, the command is "Fix. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. . . . SWORDS!". Bayonets are also fixed on the command, "Prepare to Assault", which is given towards the end of a section or fire team attack. The bayonet in the Canadian Forces is fitted on the front of the Tactical Vest for easy access.
The modern sawback US M9 bayonet, officially adopted in 1984, is issued with a special sheath designed to double as a wire cutter, developed by Phrobis III. The OKC-3S is a Bayonet developed by the US Marine Corps to replace the M7 bayonet as its service bayonet for the M16 rifle. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The M9 Bayonet is a multi-purpose Knife and Bayonet officially adopted in 1984 by the United States. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) Some production runs of the M9 have a fuller and some do not, depending upon which contractor manufactured that batch and what the military specs were at the time. fuller is a rounded or beveled groove on the flat side of a blade such as a Sword, Knife, or Bayonet (shown The M9 bayonet partially replaced, but is used in addition to, the older M6 and M7 bayonets, introduced in 1957 and 1964 respectively. The M6 Bayonet is a Bayonet used by the US military for the M14 rifle. The M7 Bayonet is a Bayonet used by the US military for the M16 rifle. Many troops have retained the M7, since the M9 has a reputation for breakage due to a combination of its thin blade and varying quality among the various contractors used.
As of 2002, the US Marine Corps is also issuing small quantities of new bayonets of a different design from the M9, with an 8-inch Bowie knife-style blade and no fuller, manufactured by the Ontario Knife Company of New York. Bowie knife specifically refers to a style of knife popularized by Colonel James "Jim" Bowie and first made by James Black, although its common use refers Ontario Knife Company, also known as 'OKC' is an American manufacturer of knives and other edged tools This new bayonet, the OKC-3S, is cosmetically similar to the Marines' famed Ka-bar fighting knife. The OKC-3S is a Bayonet developed by the US Marine Corps to replace the M7 bayonet as its service bayonet for the M16 rifle. The KA-BAR is a 12-inch fighting and utility Bowie knife used by the United States Marine Corps and United States Navy in World War II. The weapon upgrade is part of a push begun four years ago by then-Commandant Gen. James L. Jones to expand and toughen hand-to-hand combat training for Marines, including more training in the martial arts and knife fighting. The Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP is a combat system developed by the United States Marine Corps to combine existing and new hand-to-hand and Close The new bayonet — with a steel blade is 8" long, 1-3/8" wide, . 2" thick blade, and weighing 1¼ pounds with its sheath — is slightly longer, thicker, and heavier than the current M9. A sharper point and serrations near the handle help penetrate body armor that many modern adversaries wear. In one demonstration, a prototype was able to pierce a punching bag covered with aircraft aluminum and a bulletproof flak jacket. Also, the handle is more oval than round to prevent repetitive-stress injuries during training.
"We spent a lot of time making sure the handle was ergonomically correct… There are no blister points on the handle. The Marines are the best and they deserve the best. "
In United States Marine Corps drill and ceremonies, the command "FIX. A military parade is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted . . BAYONETS!" is executed in four movements from the order arms position. In the United States Army, the movement is also executed from order arms; there are no specified movements, but the bayonet is to be attached quickly and quietly. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities.
The push-twist motion of fastening the older type of bayonet has given name to:
The bayonet has become a symbol of military power. The term "at the point of a bayonet" refers to using military force or action to accomplish, maintain, or defend something.
The Australian Army 'Rising Sun' badge features a semi-circle of bayonets. The Australian Army is Australia's military land force It is part of the Australian Defence Force (ADF along with the Royal Australian Navy and the The Rising Sun badge, also known as the General Service Badge or the Australian Army Badge is the official badge of the Australian Army.
The U. S. Army Combat Action Badge, awarded to personnel who have come under fire since 2001 and who are not eligible for the Combat Infantryman Badge, has a bayonet as its central motif. The Combat Action Badge (or CAB) is a military badge worn in the U The Combat Infantryman Badge (CIB is an award of the United States Army which is presented to those officers warrant officers and enlisted soldiers in the grade
Undertaking a task 'with fixed bayonets' has this connotation of no room for compromise and is a phrase used particularly in politics.
The shoulder sleeve insignia for the 10th Mountain Division in the U.S. Army features crossed bayonets. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone