|Battle of Munda|
|Part of Caesar's civil war|
|Gaius Julius Caesar||Titus Labienus †,|
Publius Attius Varus †,
|8 legions, 8,000 cavalry|
total: circa 40,000 men
|13 legions, cavalry and auxiliaries|
total: circa 70,000 men
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Munda took place on March 17, 45 BC in the plains of Munda, modern southern Spain. The Roman civil war of 49 BC sometimes called Caesar's Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman Republic. Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 45 BC was the year the Julian calendar went into effect According to this calendar it was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar Osuna is a town and Municipality in Sevilla province, Spain, in the autonomous community of Andalusia. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Populares ("favoring the people" singular popularis) were Aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who tended to use the Optimates (singular optimas, The Best of Men, Italian: ottimati; also known as the priests or boni, the Titus Labienus (ca 100 BC– March 17, 45 BC was a professional Roman soldier in the late Roman Republic. Publius Attius Varus (d March 17, 45 BC was the Roman governor of Africa during the Civil War that broke out after Gaius Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon. Gnaeus Popmeius should not be confused with his father Gnaeus Pompeius '''Magnus''', known as "Pompey the Great For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 45 BC was the year the Julian calendar went into effect According to this calendar it was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This was the last battle of Julius Caesar's civil war against the conservative republicans. The Roman civil war of 49 BC sometimes called Caesar's Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman Republic. After this victory, and the death of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey's oldest son), Caesar was free to return to Rome and govern as dictator. Titus Labienus (ca 100 BC– March 17, 45 BC was a professional Roman soldier in the late Roman Republic. Gnaeus Popmeius should not be confused with his father Gnaeus Pompeius '''Magnus''', known as "Pompey the Great Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic His subsequent assassination began the process that eventually would lead to the end of the Roman Republic with the reign of his great-nephew, Augustus (Octavius), as the first Roman Emperor. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC
After the defeats of Pharsalus and Thapsus, the conservative republicans, initially led by Pompey, were confined to the Hispania. The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. The Battle of Thapsus took place on April 6 46 BC near Thapsus (modern Ras Dimas, Tunisia) Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar In fact, during the Spring of 46 BC two legions in Hispania Ulterior, largely formed by former Pompeian veterans enrolled in Caesar’s army, had declared themselves for Gnaeus Pompeius (son of Pompey the Great) and driven out Caesar’s proconsul. During the Roman Republic, Hispania Ulterior (English Further Spain) was a region of Hispania roughly located Soon they were joined by the remains of the Pompeian army, which had been destroyed at the Battle of Thapsus in April 46 BC. These forces were commanded by the brothers Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus (sons of Pompey) and by the talented general Titus Labienus (who had been one of the most trusted of Caesar’s generals during the Gallic wars). Using the resources of the province they were able to raise an army of three legions (the two original veteran legions, one additional legion from Roman citizens living in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) and the remaining enrolled from the local population of non-citizens) and took control of almost all Hispania Ulterior, including the important Roman colonies of Italica and Corduba (the capital of the province). For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. ||-||-||} Córdoba ( Cordova in English is a City in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. Caesar’s generals Quintus Fabius Maximus and Quintus Pedius did not risk a battle and remained encamped at Oculbo, about 35 miles (56 km) east of Corduba, requesting help from Caesar. Quintus Pedius (? - late 43 BC was a Roman that lived during the late Roman Republic.
Thus, Caesar was forced to move from Rome to Hispania to deal with the Pompeius brothers. He brought two trusted veteran legions (X Equestris and V Alaudae) and some newer legions (including III Gallica and VI Ferrata), but in the main was forced to rely on the recruits already present in Hispania. Legio X Equestris ( Latin: "Tenth legion 'mounted'" - Equestris was the legions name not a type of unit was a Roman legion, levied Legio V Alaudae, the Larks ' sometimes known as Gallica, was levied by Julius Caesar in 52 BC from native Gauls Legio III Gallica was a Roman legion levied by Julius Caesar around 49 BC, for his civil war against the conservative republicans Legio VI Ferrata ( Ironclad) was a Roman legion. Ferrata was not the only name that Legion VI was called it was also known as Fidelas Constans Caesar covered the 1,500 miles (2,400 km) from Rome to Obulco in less than one month, arriving in early December (he immediately wrote a short poem, Iter, describing this journey). Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Caesar had called for his great-nephew Octavian to join him, but due to his health Octavian was only able to reach him after the conclusion of the campaign. Capitalizing on his surprise arrival Caesar was able to relieve the stronghold of Ulipia (a town which had remained loyal to him and had been unsuccessfully besieged by Gnaeus Pompeius) but was unable to take Corduba, which was defended by Sextus Pompeius. Under Labienus’ advice, Gnaeus Pompeius decided to avoid an open battle, and Caesar was forced to wage a winter campaign, while procuring food and shelter for his army. After a short siege, Caesar took the fortified city of Ategua; this was an important blow to the Pompeian confidence and morale, and some of the native allies started to desert to Caesar. Another skirmish near Soricaria on March 7 went in Caesar's favor; many Romans in the Pompeian camp began planning to defect and Gnaeus Pompeius was forced to abandon his delaying tactics and offer battle.
The two armies met in the plains of Munda, near Osuna, in southern Hispania. The Pompeian army was situated on a gentle hill, less than one mile (1. 6 km) from the walls of Munda, in a defensible position. Caesar led a total of eight legions (80 cohorts), with 8,000 horsemen, while Pompeius commanded thirteen legions, 6,000 light-infantrymen and about 6,000 horsemen. Many of the Republican soldiers had already surrendered to Caesar in previous campaigns and had then deserted his army to rejoin Pompeius: they would fight with desperation, fearing that they would not be pardoned a second time (indeed Caesar had hitherto executed prisoners). After an unsuccessful ploy designed to lure the Pompeians down the hill, Caesar ordered a frontal attack (with the watchword "Venus", the goddess reputed to be his ancestor). Venus was a major Roman Goddess principally associated with Love, Beauty and fertility, the equivalent of the Greek goddess
The fighting lasted for some time without a clear advantage for either side, causing the generals to leave their commanding positions and join the ranks. As Caesar himself later said he had fought many times for victory, but at Munda he had to fight for his life. Caesar took command of his right wing, where his favorite X Equestris was involved in heavy fighting. With Caesar’s inspiration the tenth legion began to push back Pompeius' forces. Aware of the danger, Gnaeus Pompeius removed a legion from his own right wing to reinforce the threatened left wing. However, as soon as the Pompeian right wing was thus weakened, Caesar's cavalry launched a decisive attack which turned the course of the battle. King Bogud of Mauritania and his cavalry, Caesar's allies, attacked the rear of the Pompeian camp. Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country Titus Labienus, commander of the Pompeian cavalry, saw this maneuver and moved to intercept them. Unfortunately for Pompeius, his legionaries misinterpreted the situation. Already under heavy pressure on both the left (from Legio X) and right wings (the cavalry charge), they thought Labienus was retreating. The Pompeian legions broke their lines and fled in disorder. Although some were able to find refuge within the walls of Munda, many more were killed in the rout. At the end of the battle there were about 30,000 Pompeians dead on the field; losses on Caesar’s side were 1,000 dead and 500 wounded. All thirteen standards of the Pompeian legions were captured, a sign of complete disbandment. Titus Labienus died on the field and was granted a burial by Caesar, while Gnaeus and Sextus Pompeius managed to escape from the battlefield.
Caesar left his legate Quintus Fabius Maximus to besiege Munda and moved to pacify the province. Corduba surrendered: men in arms present in the town (mostly armed slaves) were executed and the city was forced to pay a heavy indemnity. The city of Munda held out for some time, but, after an unsuccessful attempt to break the siege, surrendered, with 14,000 prisoners taken. Gaius Didius, a naval commander loyal to Caesar, hunted down most of the Pompeian ships. Gnaeus Pompeius looked for refuge on land, but was soon taken and executed. Gnaeus Popmeius should not be confused with his father Gnaeus Pompeius '''Magnus''', known as "Pompey the Great
Although Sextus Pompeius remained at large, after Munda there were no more conservative armies challenging Caesar’s dominion. Upon his return to Rome he became dictator for life, though his triumph was short-lived; Caesar was murdered on March 15 of the following year (44 BC) by the next generation of conservative republicans, led by Brutus and Cassius. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. For the Roman consul see Gaius Cassius Longinus (consul 171 BC. By then, the Roman Republic system proved impossible to sustain. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the