The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn, fought on August 27, 1776, was the first major battle in the American Revolutionary War following the United States Declaration of Independence, the largest battle of the entire conflict, and the first battle an army of the United States ever engaged in. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
The battle and its immediate aftermath were marked by the British capture of New York City (becoming the British military and political center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war), the execution of the American Nathan Hale, and the loss of nearly a quarter of the city's buildings in the Great Fire of New York. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 The City of New York Nathan Hale ( June 6, 1755 &ndash September 22, 1776) was an officer for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary The Great Fire was a devastating fire that burned through the night of September 21 – September 22, 1776 on the west end of what then constituted In the following weeks British forces occupied Long Island. Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches However, General George Washington and his Continental Army escaped capture. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the The American Continental Army was an Army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America
On March 17, 1776, the British fleet retreated to Halifax, Nova Scotia to refit after the end of the year-long Siege of Boston. Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Halifax Nova Scotia may refer to any of the following Municipalities Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM a Regional municipality and Background Prior to 1775 the British had imposed taxes onto the Americans which they did not take kindly to Washington, who had successfully taken Boston, expected a new attack on New York. He moved his troops to Long Island and New York City, arrived himself on April 13, and reinforced fortifications there. Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches General Charles Lee succinctly assessed the untenable situation of defending New York City without control of the sea, Washington's essential strategic error: "What to do with this city, I own, puzzles me," he wrote to Washington. Charles Lee may refer to Charles Lee (general (1732&ndash1782 American Revolutionary War Charles Lee (basketball "It is so encircled with deep navigable water that whoever commands the sea must command the town. " Washington's inexperience led him astray: "Till of late," he wrote after the disaster, "I had no doubt in my own mind of defending this place. " On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was ratified in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə In the same month, Lieutenant General Sir William Howe established his headquarters for their operation on Staten Island in New Dorp at the Rose and Crown tavern near the junction of present New Dorp Lane and Amboy Road which awaited reinforcement from his brother, Admiral Lord Howe. William Howe 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC ( 10 August 1729 &ndash 12 July 1814) was a British General who New Dorp ( Anglicization of Nieuwe Dorp, Early New Dutch for New Village) is a neighborhood in the area of Staten Island New York Richard Howe 1st Earl Howe KG ( 8 March, 1726 &ndash 5 August, 1799) was a British Admiral, notable in particular
On August 22, 1776, Colonel Edward Hand sent word to Lieutenant General George Washington that the British were preparing to cross The Narrows to Brooklyn from Staten Island. Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Edward Hand ( December 31, 1744 &ndash September 3, 1802) was a physician farmer congressman and a general officer in the Continental See also Geography and environment of New York City The Narrows is the tidal Strait separating the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. Staten Island (ˌstætənˈaɪlənd is a borough of New York City situated primarily on the island of the same name
Under the overall command of Howe, and the operational command of Major Generals Charles Cornwallis and Sir Henry Clinton, the British force numbered over 30,000. Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis ( 31 December 1738 &ndash 5 October 1805) was a British military commander and colonial The British commenced their landing in Gravesend Bay, where, after having strengthened his forces for over seven weeks on Staten Island, Admiral Richard Howe moved 88 frigates. Gravesend (pronounced "GRAVES end" not "grave SEND" is a neighborhood in the south-central section of the New York City borough of Brooklyn Richard Howe 1st Earl Howe KG ( 8 March, 1726 &ndash 5 August, 1799) was a British Admiral, notable in particular For the bird see Frigatebird. A frigate /ˈfrɪgɪt/ is a warship The British landed a total of 34,000 men south of Brooklyn.
About half of Washington's army, led by Major General Israel Putnam, was deployed to defend the village of Flatbush near Brooklyn while the rest held Manhattan. Israel Putnam ( January 7, 1718 &ndash May 29, 1790) was an American army General who fought with distinction at the Battle Flatbush is a community of the Borough of Brooklyn, a part of New York City, consisting of several neighborhoods In a night march suggested and led by Clinton, the British forces used the lightly defended Jamaica Pass to turn Putnam's left flank. The following morning, American troops were attacked and fell back. Men under General William Alexander numbering about 400 fought a delaying action at the Old Stone House near the Gowanus Creek, attacking and counter-attacking a British artillery position there and sustaining over 50% casualties. William Alexander may refer to William Alexander 1st Earl of Stirling (c The Gowanus Canal, also known as the Gowanus Creek Canal, is a Canal in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, geographically This significantly aided the withdrawal of most of Washington's army to fortifications on Brooklyn Heights.
Later in the day, the British paused. This was not unusual in combat of the time, as horrendous casualties could result from point-blank musket fire and hand-to-hand combat; even the winner of such a battle could find himself unable to proceed. Early Modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of Gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive A musket is a muzzle -loaded Smoothbore Long gun, which is intended to be fired from the shoulder Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H is a generic term for Close quarters fighting, particularly when the outcome is potentially fatal as in Melee It was not uncommon for a commander, certain of the numerical and tactical superiority of his force, to offer a cornered enemy the option to surrender and thus avoid further bloodshed with the ultimate outcome of the battle certain. If formal surrender terms were not offered, the commander in a hopeless situation could at least be afforded an opportunity to consider his situation and, presumably, decide to surrender. Surrender is when Soldiers, nations or other combatants stop fighting and become Prisoners of war, either as It appears that this happened here; the British commanders surely remembered the Battle of Bunker Hill and the casualties they suffered in that pyrrhic victory. The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775 on Breed's Hill, as part of the Siege of Boston during the American Revolutionary A Pyrrhic victory (ˈpɪrɪk is a victory with devastating cost to the victor
During the night of August 29-August 30, 1776, having lost the battle, the Americans evacuated Long Island for Manhattan. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Not wanting to have anymore casualties, the Americans devised a plan. This evacuation of more than 9,000 troops required stealth and luck and the skill of Colonel John Glover and his 14th Continental Regiment from Marblehead, Massachusetts. John Glover ( November 5, 1732 &ndash January 30, 1797) was an American fisherman merchant and military leader from Marblehead Marblehead is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. It was not completed by sunrise as scheduled, and had a heavy fog not beset Long Island in the morning, the army may have been trapped between the British and the East River. The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end However, the maneuver took the British by complete surprise. Even having lost the battle, Washington's withdrawal earned him praise from both the Americans and the British. For other meanings see Withdrawal (disambiguation. A withdrawal is a type of Military operation, generally meaning retreating
On September 11, 1776, the British received a delegation of Americans consisting of Benjamin Franklin, Edward Rutledge, and John Adams at the Conference House on the southwestern tip of Staten Island (known today as Tottenville) on the former estate of loyalist Christopher Billop. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. Edward Rutledge (November 23 1749 January 23 1800 South Carolina statesman was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and later governor of South Carolina John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. The Conference House (also known as the Bentley Manor and the Captain Christopher Billop House was built before 1680 and located near the southernmost tip of New York State Tottenville, area approx 17 square miles (44 km² is the southernmost neighborhood of Staten Island, New York City and New York State. Christopher Billop (ca 1738 &ndash March 29 1827 was a political figure in New Brunswick. The peace conference failed as the Americans refused to revoke the Declaration of Independence. The terms were formally rejected on September 15. Events 668 - Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Syracuse Italy.
On September 15, after heavily bombarding green militia forces, the British crossed to Manhattan, landed at Kip's Bay, and routed the Americans there as well. Events 668 - Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Syracuse Italy. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service Background After losing the Battle of Long Island, General George Washington and his army of 9000 troops had escaped in the night of August 29&ndash30 to The following day, the two armies fought the Battle of Harlem Heights, resulting in a tactical draw. Positions The British On the evening of the 15th the British were encamped in what is today Central Park, around 96th street The Continental Army effectively abandoned Manhattan after devastating defeat at the Battle of Fort Washington. Background Fort Washington was a fort located at the northernmost tip and highest elevation of what is now the borough of Manhattan in New York City After a further battle at White Plains, Washington retreated across the Hudson to New Jersey. The City of White Plains is the County seat of Westchester County New York. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami The British occupied New York City until 1783, when they evacuated the city as agreed in the Treaty of Paris,. Following the American Revolution, Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when the last vestige of British authority in the The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally 
On September 21, a fire broke out on Whitehall Street (widely believed to be at the Fighting Cocks Tavern) near the Battery in New York City. The Great Fire was a devastating fire that burned through the night of September 21 – September 22, 1776 on the west end of what then constituted Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. High winds carried it to nearly a quarter of the city's buildings, consuming 460-500 buildings. The British accused the rebels of setting the fire, although native New Yorkers instead blamed the British.
In the wake of the fire, Nathan Hale, a captain in the Connecticut Rangers, volunteered to enter New York in civilian clothes. Nathan Hale ( June 6, 1755 &ndash September 22, 1776) was an officer for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary Posing as a Dutch schoolteacher, Hale successfully gathered intelligence but was captured before he could return to the rebel lines. Hale was captured on September 21, 1776, and hanged the next day on the orders of Howe. Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a According to legend, Hale uttered before being hanged, "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country". 
While most of the battle was concentrated in western Long Island, within about 10 miles (16 km) of Manhattan, British troops were also deployed to the east to capture the entire 110 mile (180 km) length of Long Island to Montauk. The British met little or no opposition in this operation.
Henry B. Livingston was dispatched with 200 Continental troops to draw a line at what is now Shinnecock Canal at Hampton Bays to prevent the port of Sag Harbor from falling. For the US Representative see Henry W Livingston Henry Brockholst Livingston ( November 25, 1757 - March 18, The Shinnecock Canal (also known as the Shinnecock and Peconic Canal) is a Canal that cuts across the South Fork of Long Island at Hampton Bays Hampton Bays is a hamlet (and Census-designated place) in Suffolk County, New York, United States. Sag Harbor is a Village in Suffolk County, New York, United States, shared by the towns of East Hampton and Southampton Livingston, faced with insufficient manpower, abandoned Long Island to the British in September.
Residents of eastern Long Island were told to take a loyalty oath to the British government. In Sag Harbor, families met on September 14, 1776, to discuss the matter at the Sag Harbor Meeting House; 14 of the 35 families decided to evacuate to Connecticut. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America.
The British planned to use Long Island as a staging ground for a new invasion of New England. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the They attempted to regulate ships going into Long Island Sound and blockaded Connecticut. Long Island Sound is an Estuary of the Atlantic Ocean and various Rivers in the United States that lies between the coast of Connecticut
The exact number of American soldiers who fought in the battle is unknown, but estimates are that there were at least 10,000, mostly New York militia reinforced from Connecticut, Delaware, and Maryland. Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Perhaps 1,407 Americans were wounded, captured, or missing, while 312 were killed. A British report claimed the capture of 89 American officers, including Colonel Samuel Miles, and 1,097 others. Samuel Miles ( March 11 1740 &ndash December 29, 1805) was an American military officer and Politician, active
Out of 32,000 British and Germans (including 9,000 Hessians) on Long Island, they sustained a total loss of 377. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as Five British officers and 58 men were killed, while 13 officers and 275 men were wounded or went missing. Of the Hessian forces under Carl von Donop, two were killed, and three officers and 23 men were wounded. Count Carl Emilius von Donop (died October 25, 1777) was a Hessian Colonel who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
Commemorations of the battle include:
'Historic Marker of Battle Pass. At this point the Old Porte Road or Valley Grove Road intersected the line of hills separating Flatbush from Brooklyn and Gowanus. In the Battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776, this pass was barricaded in front by Dongan Oak and other obstructions. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a It was protected by artillery on Redout [sic] Hill just to the east. Here the American forces stood their ground against the Hessians coming from the south till flanked from the river by a body of British troops. General Sullivan was captured, but most of his troops retreated across what is now the Long Meadow, joining the Maryland and other troops for the final resistance near the old stone house of Gowanus. '