The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1 – July 3, 1863), fought in, and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Adams County is a County located in the US state of Pennsylvania. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 George Gordon Meade ( December 31, 1815 &ndash November 6, 1872) was a career United States Army officer and civil engineer involved Robert Edward Lee (January 19 1807 &ndash October 12 1870 was a career United States Army officer, an Engineer, and among the most celebrated "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the The Gettysburg Campaign was a series of battles fought in June and July 1863 during the American Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War.  Union Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's invasion of the North. The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries George Gordon Meade ( December 31, 1815 &ndash November 6, 1872) was a career United States Army officer and civil engineer involved The Army of the Potomac was the major Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. The War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an act on February 21, 1861. Robert Edward Lee (January 19 1807 &ndash October 12 1870 was a career United States Army officer, an Engineer, and among the most celebrated The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. The Northern United States is a large geographic region of the United States of America.
Following his success at Chancellorsville in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley for his second invasion of the North, hoping to reach as far as Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, or even Philadelphia, and to influence Northern politicians to give up their prosecution of the war. Forces and plans The Chancellorsville campaign began with the potential of leading to one of the most lopsided clashes in the war The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia and West Virginia is bounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Appalachian Harrisburg is the Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in the United States of America Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln, Maj. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved just three days before the battle and replaced by Meade. Joseph Hooker ( November 13, 1814 &ndash October 31, 1879) was a career United States Army officer fought in the Mexican-American
The two armies began to collide at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division, which was soon reinforced with two corps of Union infantry. This article is about a military unit For alternative meanings see Corps (disambiguation. However, two large Confederate corps assaulted them from the northwest and north, collapsing the hastily developed Union lines, sending the defenders retreating through the streets of town to the hills just to the south.
On the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled. The Union line was laid out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. Lee launched a heavy assault on the Union left flank, and fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devil's Den, and the Peach Orchard. See also Battle of Gettysburg Second Day See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order See also Battle of Gettysburg Second Day Devil's Den is the nickname for a terrain feature south of Gettysburg Pennsylvania, that was the site of fierce See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order On the Union right, demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order Cemetery Hill is a key terrain feature in Gettysburg Pennsylvania, the northernmost extent of Cemetery Ridge. Across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines.
On the third day of battle, July 3, fighting resumed on Culp's Hill, and cavalry battles raged to the east and south, but the main event was a dramatic infantry assault by 12,500 Confederates against the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Cemetery Ridge is a geographic feature in Gettysburg National Military Park south of the town of Gettysburg Pennsylvania, that figured prominently in the Pickett's Charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire at great losses to the Confederate army. See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order Lee led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Between 46,000 and 51,000 Americans were casualties in the three-day battle. That November, President Lincoln used the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery to honor the fallen and redefine the purpose of the war in his historic Gettysburg Address. Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg Pennsylvania. The Gettysburg Address is a speech by US President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history.
Shortly after the Army of Northern Virginia won a decisive victory over the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville (April 30 – May 6, 1863), Robert E. The Gettysburg Campaign was a series of battles fought in June and July 1863 during the American Civil War. The Gettysburg Battlefield was the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, fought July 1 to July 3, 1863, in and around the borough of Gettysburg The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Gettysburg on the Confederate side The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Gettysburg of the American Civil War on the Union side Forces and plans The Chancellorsville campaign began with the potential of leading to one of the most lopsided clashes in the war Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Lee decided upon a second invasion of the North (the first was the unsuccessful Maryland Campaign of September 1862). The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. Such a move would upset Federal plans for the summer campaigning season and possibly relieve the besieged Confederate garrison at Vicksburg. During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three Vicksburg is a city in Warren County, Mississippi, United States. It would allow the Confederates to live off the bounty of the rich Northern farms while giving war-ravaged Virginia a much needed rest. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state In addition, Lee's 72,000-man army could threaten Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, and possibly strengthen the growing peace movement in the North. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D 
Thus, on June 3, Lee's army began to shift northward from Fredericksburg, Virginia. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Fredericksburg is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is located 50 miles south of Washington D In order to attain more efficiency in his commands, Lee had reorganized his two large corps into three new corps. Lt. Gen. James Longstreet retained command of his First Corps. This article is about a United States military rank For other countries that use a similar rank see Lieutenant General. James Longstreet (January 8 1821 &ndash January 2 1904 was one of the foremost Confederate Generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate The old corps of deceased Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson was divided into two, with the Second Corps going to Lt. Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21 1824 &ndash May 10 1863 was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and probably the Gen. Richard S. Ewell and the new Third Corps to Lt. Richard Stoddert Ewell ( February 8, 1817 &ndash January 25, 1872) was a career U Gen. A.P. Hill. Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9 1825 &ndash April 2 1865 was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. The Cavalry Corps was commanded by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart. James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart ( February 6, 1833 &ndash May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a 
The Union Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of seven infantry corps, a cavalry corps, and an Artillery Reserve, for a combined strength of about 94,000 men.  However, President Lincoln replaced Hooker with Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade, a Pennsylvanian, because of Hooker's defeat at Chancellorsville and his timid response to Lee's second invasion north of the Potomac River. George Gordon Meade ( December 31, 1815 &ndash November 6, 1872) was a career United States Army officer and civil engineer involved The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Forces and plans The Chancellorsville campaign began with the potential of leading to one of the most lopsided clashes in the war The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid- Atlantic coast of the United States.
The first major action of the campaign took place on June 9 between the opposing cavalry forces at Brandy Station, near Culpeper, Virginia. Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits The Battle of Brandy Station, also called the Battle of Fleetwood Hill, was the largest predominantly Cavalry engagement of the American Civil War, Culpeper is an Incorporated town in Culpeper County, Virginia, United States. The Confederate cavalry under Stuart was surprised and nearly routed by the Union I Corps, but Stuart eventually prevailed. The battle, the largest cavalry engagement of the war, proved that for the first time, the Union horse soldier was equal to his Southern counterpart. 
By mid-June, the Army of Northern Virginia was poised to cross the Potomac River and enter Maryland. After defeating the Federal garrisons at Winchester and Martinsburg, Ewell's Second Corps began crossing the river on June 15. The Second Battle of Winchester was fought between June 13 and June 15, 1863 in Frederick County and Winchester Virginia as Martinsburg is a city in Berkeley County, West Virginia, United States. Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history Hill's and Longstreet's corps followed on June 24 and June 25. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Hooker's army pursued, keeping between the U. S. capital and Lee's army. The Federals crossed the Potomac from June 25 to June 27. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden 
Lee gave strict orders to his army to minimize any negative impacts on the civilian population.  Food, horses, and other supplies were generally not seized outright, although quartermasters reimbursing northern farmers and merchants using Confederate money were not well received. Various towns, most notably York, Pennsylvania, were required to pay indemnities in lieu of supplies, under threat of destruction. York, known as the White Rose City (after the Wars of the Roses) is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania. The most controversial of the Confederate actions during the invasion was the seizure of some forty northern African Americans, a few of whom were escaped slaves but most freemen. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth They were sent south into slavery under guard. 
On June 26, elements of Maj. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Gen. Jubal Early's division of Ewell's Corps occupied the town of Gettysburg after chasing off newly raised Pennsylvania militia in a series of minor skirmishes. Jubal Anderson Early ( November 3 1816 &ndash March 2 1894) was a Lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service Early laid the borough under tribute but did not collect any significant supplies. Soldiers burned several railroad cars and a covered bridge, and they destroyed nearby rails and telegraph lines. A covered bridge is a Bridge, often single-lane with enclosed sides and a roof The following morning, Early departed for adjacent York County. York County is a County located in the US state of Pennsylvania. 
Meanwhile, in a controversial move, Lee allowed J. E. B. Stuart to take a portion of the army's cavalry and ride around the east flank of the Union army. Lee's orders gave Stuart much latitude, and both generals share the blame for the long absence of Stuart's cavalry, as well as for the failure to assign a more active role to the cavalry left with the army. Stuart and his three best brigades were absent from the army during the crucial phase of the approach to Gettysburg and the first two days of battle. By June 29, Lee's army was strung out in an arc from Chambersburg (28 miles (45 km) northwest of Gettysburg) to Carlisle (30 miles (48 km) north of Gettysburg) to near Harrisburg and Wrightsville on the Susquehanna River. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Chambersburg is a borough in Pennsylvania, United States It is miles north of Maryland and the Mason-Dixon line and southwest of Harrisburg Carlisle is a borough in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, 18 miles (29 km west by southwest of Harrisburg, the State capital Harrisburg is the Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in the United States of America Wrightsville is a borough in York County, Pennsylvania, United States. The Susquehanna River (originally "Sasquesahanough" per the 1612 John Smith map is a River located in the northeastern United States. 
In a dispute over the use of the forces defending the Harpers Ferry garrison, Hooker offered his resignation, and Abraham Lincoln and General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck, who were looking for an excuse to get rid of him, immediately accepted. Harpers Ferry redirects here For other uses see Harpers Ferry (disambiguation. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal Henry Wager Halleck ( January 16, 1815 &ndash January 9, 1872) was a United States Army officer scholar and lawyer They replaced him early on the morning of June 28 with Maj. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Gen. George Gordon Meade, at the time commander of the V Corps. The V Corps ( Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. 
On June 29, when Lee learned that the Army of the Potomac had crossed its namesake river, he ordered a concentration of his forces around Cashtown, located at the eastern base of South Mountain and eight miles (13 km) west of Gettysburg. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Cashtown redirects here for other uses see Cashtown (disambiguation Cashtown-McKnightstown is an unincorporated Census-designated place in Adams South Mountain is a long Mountain Ridge in Maryland and Pennsylvania which comprises a northern extension of the Blue Ridge Mountains  On June 30, while part of Hill's Corps was in Cashtown, one of Hill's brigades, North Carolinians under Brig. Gen. J. Johnston Pettigrew, ventured toward Gettysburg. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Brigadier General is the lowest ranking General Officer in some countries usually sitting between the ranks of Colonel and Major General. James Johnston Pettigrew ( July 4, 1828 &ndash July 17, 1863) was an author lawyer linguist diplomat and a Confederate The memoirs of Maj. Gen. Henry Heth, Pettigrew's division commander, claimed that Pettigrew was in search of a large supply of shoes in town, but this explanation may have been devised in retrospect to justify an overly heavy reconnaissance force. Henry "Harry" Heth (ˈhiːθ not /ˈhɛθ/ December 16, 1825 &ndash September 27, 1899) was a career U 
When Pettigrew's troops approached Gettysburg on June 30, they noticed Union cavalry under Brig. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Gen. John Buford arriving south of town, and Pettigrew returned to Cashtown without engaging them. John Buford Jr ( March 4, 1826 &ndash December 16, 1863) was a Union Cavalry officer during the American Civil War When Pettigrew told Hill and Heth about what he had seen, neither general believed that there was a substantial Federal force in or near the town, suspecting that it had been only Pennsylvania militia. Despite General Lee's order to avoid a general engagement until his entire army was concentrated, Hill decided to mount a significant reconnaissance in force the following morning to determine the size and strength of the enemy force in his front. Reconnaissance (also scouting) is a military and medical term denoting exploration conducted to gain information Around 5 a. m. on Wednesday, July 1, two brigades of Heth's division advanced to Gettysburg. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. 
General Buford realized the importance of the high ground directly to the south of Gettysburg, knowing that if the Confederates could gain control of the heights, Meade's army would have difficulty dislodging them. He decided to utilize three ridges west of Gettysburg: Herr Ridge, McPherson Ridge, and Seminary Ridge (proceeding west to east toward the town). These were appropriate terrain for a delaying action by his small division against superior Confederate infantry forces, meant to buy time awaiting the arrival of Union infantrymen who could occupy the strong defensive positions south of town at Cemetery Hill, Cemetery Ridge, and Culp's Hill. Cemetery Hill is a key terrain feature in Gettysburg Pennsylvania, the northernmost extent of Cemetery Ridge. Cemetery Ridge is a geographic feature in Gettysburg National Military Park south of the town of Gettysburg Pennsylvania, that figured prominently in the See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order 
Heth's division advanced with two brigades forward, commanded by Brig. Gens. James J. Archer and Joseph R. Davis. James Jay Archer ( December 19, 1817 &ndash October 24, 1864) was a lawyer and an officer in the United States Army during the Joseph Robert Davis ( January 12, 1825 &ndash September 15, 1896) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War They proceeded easterly in columns along the Chambersburg Pike. Three miles (5 km) west of town, about 7:30 a. m. on July 1, Heth's two brigades met light resistance from vedettes of Union cavalry, and deployed into line. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. The French military term vedette (formed from Latin videre, to see migrated into English and other languages to refer to a mounted Sentry or outpost According to the lore, the first Union soldier to fire was Lt. Marcellus Jones. Marcellus Ephraim Jones (June 5 1830 - October 9 1900 is widely regarded as the soldier who fired the first shot at the Battle of Gettysburg (1863  In 1886 Lt. Jones returned to Gettysburg to mark the spot where he fired the first shot with a monument.  Eventually, Heth's men reached dismounted troopers from Col. William Gamble's cavalry brigade, who raised determined resistance and delaying tactics from behind fence posts with fire from their breechloading carbines. William Gamble ( January 1, 1818 &ndash December 20, 1866) was a civil engineer and a Union Cavalry officer in the A carbine is a Firearm similar to a Rifle or Musket, but generally shorter and of lesser power  By 10:20 a. m. , the Confederates had pushed the Union cavalrymen east to McPherson Ridge, when the vanguard of the I Corps (Maj. I Corps (First Corps was the designation of three different Corps -sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Gen. John F. Reynolds) finally arrived. John Fulton Reynolds ( September 20, 1820 &ndash July 1, 1863) was a career United States Army officer and a General in 
North of the pike, Davis gained a temporary success against Brig. Gen. Lysander Cutler's brigade but was repulsed with heavy losses in an action around an unfinished railroad bed cut in the ridge. Lysander Cutler ( February 16 1807 &ndash July 30 1866) was an American businessman educator politician and a Union Army South of the pike, Archer's brigade assaulted through Herbst (also know as McPherson's) Woods. The Federal Iron Brigade under Brig. The Iron Brigade, also known as the Iron Brigade of the West or the Black Hat Brigade, was an Infantry Brigade in the Union Gen. Solomon Meredith enjoyed initial success against Archer, capturing several hundred men, including Archer himself. Solomon Meredith ( May 29, 1810 &ndash October 2, 1875) was a prominent Indiana farmer politician and lawman who was a controversial 
Early in the fighting, while General Reynolds was directing troop and artillery placements just to the east of the woods, he fell from his horse, killed by a bullet, which struck him behind the right ear.  Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday assumed command. Abner Doubleday (June 26 1819 &ndash January 26 1893 was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. Fighting in the Chambersburg Pike area lasted until about 12:30 p. m. It resumed around 2:30 p. m. , when Heth's entire division engaged, adding the brigades of Pettigrew and Col. John M. Brockenbrough. John Mercer Brockenbrough ( August 1 1830 &ndash August 24 1892) was a farmer and a Confederate Colonel in the American 
As Pettigrew's North Carolina Brigade came on line, they flanked the 19th Indiana and drove the Iron Brigade back. In Military tactics, a flanking maneuver, also called a flank attack, is an attack on the sides of an opposing force The 26th North Carolina (the largest regiment in the army with 839 men) lost heavily, leaving the first day's fight with around 212 men. By the end of the three-day battle, they had about 152 men standing, the highest casualty percentage for one battle of any regiment, North or South.  Slowly the Iron Brigade was pushed out of the woods toward Seminary Ridge. Hill added Maj. Gen. William Dorsey Pender's division to the assault, and the I Corps was driven back through the grounds of the Lutheran Seminary and Gettysburg streets. William Dorsey Pender ( February 6, 1834 &ndash July 18, 1863) was one of the youngest and most promising Generals fighting The Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg Pennsylvania, is affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and is America's oldest Lutheran Seminary 
As the fighting to the west proceeded, two divisions of Ewell's Second Corps, marching west toward Cashtown in accordance with Lee's order for the army to concentrate in that vicinity, turned south on the Carlisle and Harrisburg Roads toward Gettysburg, while the Union XI Corps (Maj. The XI Corps ( Eleventh Army Corps) was a Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at Gen. Oliver O. Howard) raced north on the Baltimore Pike and Taneytown Road. Oliver Otis Howard ( November 8, 1830 &ndash October 26, 1909) was a career United States Army officer and a Union By early afternoon, the Federal line ran in a semi-circle west, north, and northeast of Gettysburg. 
However, the Federals did not have enough troops; Cutler, who was deployed north of the Chambersburg Pike, had his right flank in the air. The leftmost division of the XI Corps was unable to deploy in time to strengthen the line, so Doubleday was forced to throw in reserve brigades to salvage his line. 
Around 2:00 p. m. , the Second Corps divisions of Maj. Gens. Robert E. Rodes and Jubal Early assaulted and out-flanked the Union I and XI Corps positions north and northwest of town. Robert Emmett Rodes ( March 29, 1829 &ndash September 19, 1864) was a railroad Civil engineer and a promising young Confederate The brigades of Col. Edward A. O'Neal and Brig. Edward Asbury O'Neal (September 20 1818 November 20 1890 was a Confederate Brigadier General during the American Civil War. Gen. Alfred Iverson suffered severe losses assaulting the I Corps division of Brig. Wikipedia has several articles about people named Alfred Iverson: Alfred Iverson Sr Gen. John C. Robinson south of Oak Hill. John Cleveland Robinson (April 10 1817 &ndash February 18 1897 had a long and distinguished career in the United States Army, fighting in numerous wars and culminating his Early's division profited from a blunder made by Brig. Gen. Francis C. Barlow, when he advanced his XI Corps division to Blocher's Knoll (directly north of town and now known as Barlow's Knoll); this represented a salient in the corps line, susceptible to attack from multiple sides, and Early's troops overran his division, which constituted the right flank of the Union Army's position. Francis Channing Barlow ( October 19, 1834 &ndash January 11, 1896) was a Lawyer, Politician, and Union Barlow was wounded and captured in the attack. 
As Federal positions collapsed both north and west of town, Gen. Howard ordered a retreat to the high ground south of town at Cemetery Hill, where he had left the division of Brig. Gen. Adolph von Steinwehr as a reserve. Baron Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich von Steinwehr (September 25 1822 &ndash February 25 1877 was a German-Brunswick army officer who emigrated to the United States  Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock assumed command of the battlefield, sent by Meade when he heard that Reynolds had been killed. Winfield Scott Hancock ( February 14 1824 &ndash February 9 1886) was a career U Hancock, commander of the II Corps and his most trusted subordinate, was ordered to take command of the field and to determine whether Gettysburg was an appropriate place for a major battle. There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps ( Second Army Corps) during the American Civil War.  Hancock told Howard, who was technically superior in rank, "I think this the strongest position by nature upon which to fight a battle that I ever saw. " When Howard agreed, Hancock concluded the discussion: "Very well, sir, I select this as the battle-field. " Hancock's determination had a morale-boosting effect on the retreating Union soldiers, but he played no direct tactical role on the first day. 
Gen. Lee understood the defensive potential to the Union if they held this high ground. He sent orders to Ewell that Cemetery Hill be taken "if practicable. " Ewell chose not to attempt the assault; this decision is considered by historians to be a great missed opportunity. 
The first day at Gettysburg, more significant than simply a prelude to the bloody second and third days, ranks as the 23rd biggest battle of the war by number of troops engaged. About one quarter of Meade's army (22,000 men) and one third of Lee's army (27,000) were engaged. 
Throughout the evening of July 1 and morning of July 2, most of the remaining infantry of both armies arrived on the field, including the Union II, III, V, VI, and XII Corps. See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order See also Battle of Gettysburg Second Day See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order Cemetery Hill is a key terrain feature in Gettysburg Pennsylvania, the northernmost extent of Cemetery Ridge. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps ( Second Army Corps) during the American Civil War. There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Army Corps) during the American Civil War. The V Corps ( Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. The VI Corps ( Sixth Army Corps) was a Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. The XII Corps ( Twelfth Army Corps) was a Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. Longstreet's third division, commanded by George Pickett, had begun the march from Chambersburg early in the morning; it did not arrive until late on July 2. George Edward Pickett ( January 16, January 25 or January 28, 1825 &ndash July 30, 1875) was a career U Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival 
The Union line ran from Culp's Hill southeast of the town, northwest to Cemetery Hill just south of town, then south for nearly two miles (3 km) along Cemetery Ridge, terminating just north of Little Round Top. Most of the XII Corps was on Culp's Hill; the remnants of I and XI Corps defended Cemetery Hill; II Corps covered most of the northern half of Cemetery Ridge; and III Corps was ordered to take up a position to its flank. The shape of the Union line is popularly described as a "fishhook" formation. The Confederate line paralleled the Union line about a mile (1,600 m) to the west on Seminary Ridge, ran east through the town, then curved southeast to a point opposite Culp's Hill. Thus, the Federal army had interior lines, while the Confederate line was nearly five miles (8 km) in length. 
Lee's battle plan for July 2 called for Longstreet's First Corps to position itself stealthily to attack the Union left flank, facing northeast astraddle the Emmitsburg Road, and to roll up the Federal line. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival The attack sequence was to begin with Maj. Gens. John Bell Hood's and Lafayette McLaws's divisions, followed by Maj. John Bell Hood ( June 1 or June 29, 1831 &ndash August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War Lafayette McLaws ( January 15, 1821 &ndash July 24, 1897) was a U Gen. Richard H. Anderson's division of Hill's Third Corps. Richard Heron Anderson (October 7 1821 &ndash June 26 1879 was a career U The progressive en echelon sequence of this attack would prevent Meade from shifting troops from his center to bolster his left. echelon formation is a military formation in which members are arranged diagonally At the same time, Maj. Gen. Edward "Allegheny" Johnson's and Jubal Early's Second Corps divisions were to make a "demonstration" against Culp's and Cemetery Hills (again, to prevent the shifting of Federal troops), and to turn the demonstration into a full-scale attack if a favorable opportunity presented itself. Edward Johnson (April 16 1816 &ndash March 2 1873 also known as Allegheny Johnson (sometimes spelled Alleghany) was a United States Army officer and 
Lee's plan, however, was based on faulty intelligence, exacerbated by Stuart's continued absence from the battlefield. Instead of moving beyond the Federals' left and attacking their flank, Longstreet's left division, under McLaws, would face Maj. Gen. Daniel Sickles's III Corps directly in their path. Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20 1819 &ndash May 3 1914 was a colorful and controversial American politician Union General in the American Civil War Sickles was dissatisfied with the position assigned him on the southern end of Cemetery Ridge. Seeing higher ground more favorable to artillery positions a half mile (800 m) to the west, he advanced his corps—without orders—to the slightly higher ground along the Emmitsburg Road. The new line ran from Devil's Den, northwest to the Sherfy farm's Peach Orchard, then northeast along the Emmitsburg Road to south of the Codori farm. This created an untenable salient at the Peach Orchard; Brig. Gen. Andrew A. Humphreys's division (in position along the Emmitsburg Road) and Maj. Andrew Atkinson Humphreys (November 2 1810 &ndash December 27 1883 was a career United States Army officer civil engineer and a Union General in Gen. David B. Birney's division (to the south) were subject to attacks from two sides and were spread out over a longer front than their small corps could defend effectively. David Bell Birney (May 29 1825 &ndash October 18 1864 was a businessman lawyer and a Union General in the American Civil War. 
Longstreet's attack was to be made as early as practicable; however, Longstreet got permission from Lee to await the arrival of one of his brigades, and while marching to the assigned position, his men came within sight of a Union signal station on Little Round Top. Countermarching to avoid detection wasted much time, and Hood's and McLaws's divisions did not launch their attacks until just after 4 p. m. and 5 p. m. , respectively. 
As Longstreet's divisions slammed into the Union III Corps, Meade was forced to send 20,000 reinforcements in the form of the entire V Corps, Brig. Gen. John C. Caldwell's division of the II Corps, most of the XII Corps, and small portions of the newly arrived VI Corps. John Curtis Caldwell ( April 17, 1833 &ndash August 31, 1912) was a teacher a Union general in the American Civil War, The Confederate assault deviated from Lee's plan since Hood's division moved more easterly than intended, losing its alignment with the Emmitsburg Road, attacking Devil's Den and Little Round Top. McLaws, coming in on Hood's left, drove multiple attacks into the thinly stretched III Corps in the Wheatfield and overwhelmed them in Sherfy's Peach Orchard. See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order McLaws's attack eventually reached Plum Run Valley (the "Valley of Death") before being beaten back by the Pennsylvania Reserves division of the V Corps, moving down from Little Round Top. The Pennsylvania Reserves was an Infantry division in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The III Corps was virtually destroyed as a combat unit in this battle, and Sickles's leg was amputated after it was shattered by a cannonball. Caldwell's division was destroyed piecemeal in the Wheatfield. Anderson's division assault on McLaws's left, starting around 6 p. m. , reached the crest of Cemetery Ridge, but they could not hold the position in the face of counterattacks from the II Corps, including an almost suicidal counterattack by the 1st Minnesota against a Confederate brigade, ordered in desperation by Hancock. The 1st Regiment Minnesota Volunteer Infantry was a volunteer Infantry Regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War 
As fighting raged in the Wheatfield and Devil's Den, Col. Strong Vincent of V Corps had a precarious hold on Little Round Top, an important hill at the extreme left of the Union line. Strong Vincent (June 17 1837 &ndash July 7 1863 was a lawyer who became famous as a U His brigade of four relatively small regiments was able to resist repeated assaults by Brig. Gen. Evander Law's brigade of Hood's division. Evander McIvor Law ( August 7, 1836 &ndash October 31, 1920) was an author teacher and a Confederate general in the American Meade's chief engineer, Brig. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, had realized the importance of this position, and dispatched Vincent's brigade, an artillery battery, and the 140th New York to occupy Little Round Top mere minutes before Hood's troops arrived. Gouverneur Kemble Warren ( January 8, 1830 &ndash August 8, 1882) was a Civil engineer and prominent general in the The defense of Little Round Top with a bayonet charge by the 20th Maine was one of the most fabled episodes in the Civil War and propelled Col. The 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment was a combat unit of the United States Army during the American Civil War, most famous for its defense of Joshua L. Chamberlain into prominence after the war. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain ( September 8, 1828 February 24, 1914) was an American college Professor from the State of 
About 7:00 p. m. , the Second Corps' attack by Johnson's division on Culp's Hill got off to a late start. Most of the hill's defenders, the Union XII Corps, had been sent to the left to defend against Longstreet's attacks, and the only portion of the corps remaining on the hill was a brigade of New Yorkers under Brig. Gen. George S. Greene. George Sears Greene ( May 6, 1801 &ndash January 28, 1899) was a civil engineer and a Union General during the American Because of Greene's insistence on constructing strong defensive works, and with reinforcements from the I and XI Corps, Greene's men held off the Confederate attackers, although the Southerners did capture a portion of the abandoned Federal works on the lower part of Culp's Hill. 
Just at dark, two of Jubal Early's brigades attacked the Union XI Corps positions on East Cemetery Hill where Col. Andrew L. Harris of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, came under a withering attack, losing half his men; however, Early failed to support his brigades in their attack, and Ewell's remaining division, that of Maj. Andrew Lintner Harris (also known as The Farmer-Statesman) (November 17 1835 September 13 1915 was one of the heroes of the Battle of Gettysburg and the last Gen. Robert E. Rodes, failed to aid Early's attack by moving against Cemetery Hill from the west. Robert Emmett Rodes ( March 29, 1829 &ndash September 19, 1864) was a railroad Civil engineer and a promising young Confederate The Union army's interior lines enabled its commanders to shift troops quickly to critical areas, and with reinforcements from II Corps, the Federal troops retained possession of East Cemetery Hill, and Early's brigades were forced to withdraw. 
Jeb Stuart and his three cavalry brigades arrived in Gettysburg around noon but had no role in the second day's battle. Brig. Gen. Wade Hampton's brigade fought a minor engagement with George Armstrong Custer's Michigan cavalry near Hunterstown to the northeast of Gettysburg. Wade Hampton III ( March 28, 1818 April 11, 1902) was a Confederate Cavalry leader during the American Civil War Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. The Battle of Hunterstown was a minor Cavalry engagement in Adams County Pennsylvania, on July 2, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign 
General Lee wished to renew the attack on Friday, July 3, using the same basic plan as the previous day: Longstreet would attack the Federal left, while Ewell attacked Culp's Hill. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium.  However, before Longstreet was ready, Union XII Corps troops started a dawn artillery bombardment against the Confederates on Culp's Hill in an effort to regain a portion of their lost works. The Confederates attacked, and the second fight for Culp's Hill ended around 11 a. m. , after some seven hours of bitter combat. 
Lee was forced to change his plans. Longstreet would command Pickett's Virginia division of his own First Corps, plus six brigades from Hill's Corps, in an attack on the Federal II Corps position at the right center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge. Prior to the attack, all the artillery the Confederacy could bring to bear on the Federal positions would bombard and weaken the enemy's line. 
Around 1 p. m. , from 150 to 170 Confederate guns began an artillery bombardment that was probably the largest of the war. In order to save valuable ammunition for the infantry attack that they knew would follow, the Army of the Potomac's artillery at first did not return the enemy's fire. After waiting about 15 minutes, about 80 Federal cannons added to the din. The Army of Northern Virginia was critically low on artillery ammunition, and the cannonade did not significantly affect the Union position. Around 3 p. m. , the cannon fire subsided, and 12,500 Southern soldiers stepped from the ridgeline and advanced the three-quarters of a mile (1,200 m) to Cemetery Ridge in what is known to history as "Pickett's Charge". See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order As the Confederates approached, there was fierce flanking artillery fire from Union positions on Cemetery Hill and north of Little Round Top, and musket and canister fire from Hancock's II Corps. Nearly one half of the attackers did not return to their own lines. Although the Federal line wavered and broke temporarily at a jog called the "Angle" in a low stone fence, just north of a patch of vegetation called the Copse of Trees, reinforcements rushed into the breach, and the Confederate attack was repulsed. 
There were two significant cavalry engagements on July 3. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Stuart was sent to guard the Confederate left flank and was to be prepared to exploit any success the infantry might achieve on Cemetery Hill by flanking the Federal right and hitting their trains and lines of communications. Three miles (5 km) east of Gettysburg, in what is now called "East Cavalry Field" (not shown on the accompanying map, but between the York and Hanover Roads), Stuart's forces collided with Federal cavalry: Brig. Gen. David McM. Gregg's division and George A. Custer's brigade. David McMurtrie Gregg (April 10 1833&ndashAugust 7 1916 was a farmer diplomat and a Union Cavalry General in the American Civil War. A lengthy mounted battle, including hand-to-hand sabre combat, ensued. Custer's charge, leading the 1st Michigan Cavalry, blunted the attack by Wade Hampton's brigade, blocking Stuart from achieving his objectives in the Federal rear. Wade Hampton III ( March 28, 1818 April 11, 1902) was a Confederate Cavalry leader during the American Civil War Meanwhile, after hearing news of the day's victory, Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick launched a cavalry attack against the infantry positions of Longstreet's Corps southwest of Big Round Top. Hugh Judson Kilpatrick ( January 14, 1836 &ndash December 4, 1881) was an officer in the Union Army during the American Big Round Top (also called Round Top or Sugar Loaf) is the dominating terrain feature on the southern part of the Gettysburg Battlefield in Adams County Brig. Gen. Elon J. Farnsworth protested against the futility of such a move but obeyed orders. Elon John Farnsworth ( July 30, 1837 &ndash July 3, 1863) was a Union Army cavalry general in the American Civil War, killed Farnsworth was killed in the attack, and his brigade suffered significant losses. 
The armies stared at one another across the bloody fields on July 4, the same day that the Vicksburg garrison surrendered to Maj. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Background See also [[Vicksburg Campaign]] After crossing the Mississippi south of Vicksburg at Bruinsburg and driving northeast Grant had won battles at Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Ulysses S Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27 1822 &ndash July 23 1885 was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States Lee reformed his lines into a defensive position, hoping that Meade would attack. The cautious Union commander, however, decided against the risk, a decision for which he would later be criticized. He did order a series of small probing actions, including sending the U. S. Regulars over a mile towards the right of the Confederate lines, but they withdrew under artillery fire and Meade decided not to press an attack. A series of sharp exchanges between the opposing skirmish lines merely added more names to the casualty lists. By mid-afternoon, the firing at Gettysburg had essentially stopped, and both armies began to collect their remaining wounded and bury some of the dead. A proposal by Lee for a prisoner exchange was rejected by Meade. 
On July 5, in a driving rain, the bulk of the Army of Northern Virginia left Gettysburg on the Hagerstown Road; the Battle of Gettysburg was over, and the Confederates headed back to Virginia. Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England. Meade's army followed, although the pursuit was half-spirited. The recently rain-swollen Potomac trapped Lee's army on the north bank of the river for a time, but when the Federals finally caught up, the Confederates had forded the river. The rear-guard action at Falling Waters on July 14 ended the Gettysburg Campaign and added some more names to the long casualty lists, including General Pettigrew, who was mortally wounded. Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. 
In a brief letter to Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck written on July 7, Lincoln remarked on the two major Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death He continued:
Now, if Gen. Meade can complete his work so gloriously prosecuted thus far, by the literal or substantial destruction of Lee's army, the rebellion will be over. 
Halleck then relayed the contents of Lincoln's letter to Meade in a telegram. However, despite repeated pleas from Lincoln and Halleck, which continued over the next week, Meade did not pursue Lee's army aggressively enough to destroy it before it crossed back over the Potomac River to safety in the South. 
The results of this victory are priceless. The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily Newspaper that serves the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, metropolitan area of the United In the Battle of Waterloo (Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo Belgium . . . The charm of Robert E. Lee's invincibility is broken. The Army of the Potomac has at last found a general that can handle it, and has stood nobly up to its terrible work in spite of its long disheartening list of hard-fought failures. . . . Copperheads are palsied and dumb for the moment at least. The Copperheads were a vocal group of Democrats in the Northern United States (see also Union (American Civil War) who opposed the American Civil . . . Government is strengthened four-fold at home and abroad.
– George Templeton Strong, Diary, p. 330.
The Confederates had lost politically as well as militarily. During the final hours of the battle, Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens was approaching the Union lines at Norfolk, Virginia, under a flag of truce. This is an article about the Confederate Vice President For the shipbuilding company see Alexander Stephen and Sons Alexander Hamilton Stephens ( Norfolk is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States White flags have had different meanings throughout history and depending on the locale Although his formal instructions from Confederate President Jefferson Davis had limited his powers to negotiations on prisoner exchanges and other procedural matters, historian James M. McPherson speculates that he had informal goals of presenting peace overtures. The President of the Confederate States of America was the Head of State and Head of Government of the Confederate States of America, which was formed from Jefferson Finis Davis ( June 3, 1808 &ndash December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as President of the For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B McPherson James M Davis had hoped that Stephens would reach Washington from the south while Lee's victorious army was marching toward it from the north. President Lincoln, upon hearing of the Gettysburg results, refused Stephens's request to pass through the lines. Furthermore, when the news reached London, any lingering hopes of European recognition of the Confederacy were finally abandoned. Henry Adams wrote, "The disasters of the rebels are unredeemed by even any hope of success. Henry Brooks Adams ( February 16 1838 &ndash March 27 1918) was an American Novelist, Journalist, Historian It is now conceded that all idea of intervention is at an end. "
Some economic historians have pointed to the fact that after the loss at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, the market for Confederate war bonds dropped precipitously. War bonds are a type of Savings bond used by combatant nations to help fund a war effort and as a Monetary policy for controlling Inflation from an "European investors gave Johnny Reb about a 42 percent chance of winning the war in early 1863 prior to the battle of Gettysburg. Johnny Rebel or Johnny Reb was the Slang term for any Confederate soldier or the Confederate Army as a whole during the American Civil War. . . . However, news of the severity of costly Confederate defeats at Gettysburg/Vicksburg led to a sell-off in rebel bonds and the probability of a Southern victory fell to about 15 percent by the end of 1863. "
The two armies had suffered between 46,000 and 51,000 casualties. Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg Pennsylvania. Union casualties were 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured or missing).  Confederate casualties are more difficult to estimate. Many authors cite about 28,000 overall casualties, but Busey and Martin's definitive 2005 work, Regimental Strengths and Losses, documents 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured or missing).  The casualties for both sides during the entire campaign were 57,225.  There was one documented civilian death during the battle: Ginnie Wade, 20 years old, was shot by a stray bullet that passed through her kitchen in town while she was making bread. For the Actress, see Jenny Wade (actress. Mary Virginia "Ginnie" Wade ( May 21, 1843 &ndash 
Nearly 8,000 had been killed outright; these bodies, lying in the hot summer sun, needed to be buried quickly. Over 3,000 horse carcasses were burned in a series of piles south of town; townsfolk became violently ill from the stench. The ravages of war would still be evident in Gettysburg more than four months later when, on November 19, the Soldiers' National Cemetery was dedicated. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg Pennsylvania. During this ceremony, President Abraham Lincoln with his Gettysburg Address re-dedicated the Union to the war effort. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal The Gettysburg Address is a speech by US President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history.
Today, the Gettysburg National Cemetery and Gettysburg National Military Park are maintained by the U.S. National Park Service as two of the nation's most revered historical landmarks. Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg Pennsylvania. The Gettysburg Battlefield was the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, fought July 1 to July 3, 1863, in and around the borough of Gettysburg The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation
Throughout the campaign, General Lee seemed to have entertained the belief that his men were invincible; most of Lee's experiences with the army had convinced him of this, including the great victory at Chancellorsville in early May and the rout of the Union troops at Gettysburg on July 1. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song.  Although high morale plays an important role in military victory when other factors are equal, Lee could not refuse his army's desire to fight. To the detrimental effects of their collective blind faith was added the fact that the Army of Northern Virginia had many new and inexperienced commanders (Neither Hill nor Ewell, for instance, though capable division commanders, had commanded a corps before). It had recently lost Stonewall Jackson, one of its most competent offensive generals. Also, Lee's method of giving generalized orders and leaving it up to his lieutenants to work out the details contributed to his defeat. Although this method may have worked with Jackson, it proved inadequate when dealing with corps commanders unused to Lee's style of command. Lee faced dramatic differences in going from defender to invader—long supply lines, a hostile local population, and an imperative to force the enemy from its position. Lastly, after July 1, the Confederates were simply not able to coordinate their attacks. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Lee faced a new and very dangerous opponent in George Meade, and the Army of the Potomac stood to the task and fought well on its home territory. 
A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system.